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Luepolan
Lupolece
Type
Agglutinative
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Head-Initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
None
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

The Luepolan language is a constructed language that serves as the official language of Luepola, a country located in Eastern Europe. The language was constructed by various scholars, appointed and paid by the new government to create a new language to unite the various people-groups of the country. Construction of the language began in the late 16th century. The language is primarily inspired by and based on English, but also takes mild cues from Spanish, German, and Russian.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p b t d k g
Fricative f v θ s z ʃ x h
Affricate tʃ dʒ
Approximant ɹ j
Lateral app. l

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i u
Near-close ɪ
Close-mid e
Mid ə
Open-mid ɛ ɒ
Near-open æ ɑ
Open a

ScriptsEdit

Luepolan can be written in both the Latin and Cyrillic scripts. There are numerous differences in each alphabet from the various other alphabets within the scripts used. In the vast majority of this article, the Latin script will be used.

Latin AlphabetEdit

  • C: The letter C is pronounced as the digraph 'ch' (IPA: /tʃ/).
  • J: The letter J is pronounced as the English digraph 'zh' (IPA: /ʒ/).
  • Q: The letter Q is used to represent the sound of the Russian X (IPA: /x/), represented in English most often as 'kh'.
  • X: The letter X is pronounced as the digraph 'sh' (IPA: /ʃ/).
  • Y: The letter Y now makes the sound of the English digraph 'th' (IPA: [θ] and [ð]).

Cyrillic AlphabetEdit

  • Е: The letter Е now represents /ɛ/, taking the place of Э.
  • Ё: The letter Ё now represents /jɛ/, taking the place of E.
  • Э: The letter Э now represents /jɒ/, taking the place of Ë.
  • Ь: The letter Ь now represents /h/.
  • Њ: The letter Њ now represents /θ/.
Luepolan Letter (Latin) Luepolan Letter (Cyrillic) Letter Name English Equivalent IPA Letter Luepolan Example English Example
Aa Аа Ah A /ɑ/ Báza/Бяза (Blaze, Fire) Father
Bb Бб Bah B /b/ Aboí/Абой (to be able to) Broken
Cc Чч Cah Ch /tʃ/ Ace/Аче (Axe, Hatchet) Changing
Dd Дд Dah D /d/ Niden/Диден (Some) Redundant
Ee Ее Eh E /ɛ/ Resi/Реси (To be) Vent
Ff Фф Feh F /f/ Fe/Фе (Of, from) Friar
Gg Гг Geh G /g/ Ogг (On) Agriculture
Hh Ьь Heh H /h/ Xahum/Шаьум (Female human) Hotel
Ii Ии Ih I /ɪ/ Lipinuna/Липинуна (Freedom, Liberty) Mitten
Íí Йй Ee Y (vowel) /i/ Líhum/Лйьум (Child by age) Liter
Jj Жж Jee J /ʒ/ Jacaé/Жачаё (Thanks, Thank you) Vision
Kk Кк Kee K /k/ Kize/Кизе (Five) Kodiak
Ll Лл Lee L /l/ Balaé/Балаё (Polite greeting: 'Hello', 'Welcome', 'Greetings') Abysmal
Mm Мм Mee M /m/ Amaxe/Амаше (Yellow) Maximum
Nn Нн Nee N /n/ Nae/Нае (No) Nostril
Oo Оо Oh O /ɒ/ Od/Од (Opposite of on; off) Bottle
Pp Пп Poh P /p/ Xap/Шап (Ship) Paper
Qq Хх Khoh None /x/ Qaristece/Харистече (Christian) N/A
Rr Рр Roh R /ɹ/, /r/ Roxe/Роше (Red) Risky
Ss Сс Soh S /s/ Osс (indefinite article) Similar
Tt Тт Toh T /t/ Jata/Жата (Run, Jog) Tavern
Uu Уу Oo U /u/ Muу (Me, I) Room
Vv Вв Voo V /v/ Aev/Аев (Because) Veracity
Xx Шш Shoo Sh /ʃ/ Dexirі/Дешири (To want, to desire) Crash
Yy Њњ Thoo Th /θ/ Yersa/Њерса (Mercy) Wreath
Zz Зз Zoo Z /z/ Zdan/Здан (Rock, stone) Azimuth
Áá Яя Yah Ya /jɑ/ Rasá/Рася (Russia) Yacht
Éé Ёё Yeh Ye /jɛ/ Kuénolet/Куёнолет (United [singular]) Yes
Óó Ээ Yoh Yo /jɒ/ Bójí/Бэжй (God) Yodle
Úú Юю Yoo Yu /ju/ Linaúnaj/Линаюнаж (Beautiful [plural]) User

Note: In the Latin script, /j/ is represented by an acute accent mark (´), paired with the vowel A, E, O, or U, to produce the /j/ in combination with the desired vowel. The accent mark over an I merely indicates a change in the I sound. This system is not present in Cyrillic Luepolan, as Cyrillic already has separate letters representing these sounds.

PhonotacticsEdit

SyllablesEdit

To be written.

StressEdit

Stress in Luepolan is generally free; it has little to no impact on the meaning of a word. In fact, most dialectical differences in the Luepolan language are based on the location of stress within a word. It is, however, common practice in all dialects to put stress on the í, if there is one in the word.

PronunciationEdit

In addition to regular alphabetic rules, two unique pronunciations are present.

The first deals with the letters 'i' and 'í'. If an 'i' appears directly after an 'í', the 'i' is pronounced as /ə/, rather than /ɪ/; if the order is reversed, the two are both pronounced either /ɪ/ or /i/, depending on dialect, with a very brief pause in the middle.

The second deals with the Luepolan digraph ae. If the letters 'a' and 'e' are placed together, they together represent a single /æ/ sound. The Æ ligature is used for this sound in some communities; however, it is not common nor official to do so.

DiphthongsEdit

Luepolan makes use of two diphthongs; 'ai' and 'ei'. While the a normally represents /ɑ/, the 'a' in the digraph 'ai' represents /a/, thus creating /aɪ/; similarly, the 'e' in 'ei' represents /e/ to create /eɪ/, rather than /ɛ/.

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No Yes No No No No
Nouns No No Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No No Yes No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No Yes No No No No No
Pronouns Yes No Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

VerbsEdit

ConjugationEdit

Verbs are conjugated based on tense. The Luepolan language has four tenses: Past, Present, Future, and the base infinitive, which is also used as a gerund. Each tense has a suffix tied to it that is added to a root verb to indicate the tense.

Tense Suffix Example 1: San (See) Example 2: Arelí- (Rise) Example 3: Abo (Can, is able)
Past -a (-á after vowels except í) Sana Arelía Aboá
Present -e (-é after  vowels except í) Sane Arelíe Aboé
Future -u (-ú after vowels except í) Sanu Arelíu Aboú
Infinitive -i (-í after vowels except í) Sani Arelíi Aboí

ParticlesEdit

Luepolan makes use of a system of particles wherein a short word is placed after the verb to denote its mood or aspect. The suffix -n is placed at the end of any particle to denote negativity (except núl, which itself denotes negativity).

Mood/Aspect Particle Usage Notes
Emphatic Fla
Progressive Gre
Imperative Á
Subjunctive Se
Conditional Ido
Interrogative Kvi

Perfect

Keti
Negative Indicative Núl

Used when a state of negativity is being communicated in the indicative (The default mood/aspect, which does not have its own particle)


Nouns & PronounsEdit

Luepolan nouns are declined according to number, and are declined slightly differently when used in the genitive.

NumberEdit

Number Suffix Example 1: Hu (He, Him) Example 2: Lixap (Boat) Example 3: Zdan (Rock)
Singular None Hu Lixap Zdan
Paucal (Relatively few) -en (-én after vowels except í) Huén Lixapen Zdanen
Plural (Many) -es (-és after vowels except í) Hués Lixapes Zdanes

There are three number forms in Luepolan: Singular, Paucal, and Plural. Singular, as in English, is used specifically to refer to one item or entity. Paucal is used to refer to a small number of items and/or entities. Plural is used to refer to a larger amount.

There is no exact number at which the paucal becomes the plural, and it usually depends on the item in question and its context. For example, a soldier who has only 20 bullets would be said to have 20 "balisten", as that is a small quantity for a soldier, whereas a man who owns 20 cars would be said to have 20 "otokartes", as that is a large number of cars for a man to own. Another example can be used with currency: A man who makes $100 a year would be said to make 100 "doluren", as that is a small amount given the context; however, a child who owns $100 would be said to have 100 "dolures", as $100 is generally considered a large amount of money for a child.

Pronouns also roughly follow this system; however, there are some notable differences.

PronounsEdit

Luepolan pronouns are as follows:

English Luepolan
I, Me Mu
You Su
We, Us (Inclusive) Lu
We, Us (Exclusive) Luén, Lués
He, Him Hu
She, Her Xu
They, Them (Few) Tuén (nonhuman)
Huén (human, male/mixed/unknown gender)
Xuén (human, female gender)
They, Them (Many) Tués (nonhuman)
Hués (human, male/mixed/unknown gender)
Xués (human, female gender)
It Tu
He (Holy Figure) Ju
One Ku
Ones (Few)

Kuén

Ones (Many) Kués

In addition to the English nominative pronoun types, Luepolan also has the pronoun 'Ju', to refer to a Holy figure. It is uncommon in regular speech and is used mainly in Holy scriptures and texts such as the Bible or Qu'ran.

Unlike English, Luepolan does not distinguish case; thus, whereas English has subject pronouns and object pronouns (e.g. he vs. him, she vs. her, we vs. us), Luepolan simply has nominative pronouns. Also unlike English, which uses 'They/Them' as the plural form for most pronouns, Luepolan's numeric/possessive system for nouns carries over into pronouns; thus, Luepolan has sepatate words for they (referring to a group of men- Huén/s), they (referring to a group of women - Xuén/s), and they (referring to miltiple inanimate objects Tuén/s).

An exception to this rule is 'Lu', its plural and paucal forms, and 'Mu'. 'Lu' on its own, which, by regular Luepolan grammar standards, would translate to 'I/me', translates to a form of 'we/us' that denotes inclusiveness of the addressee, while leaving ambiguity as to whether it is paucal or plural, on the grounds that the addressee, included in the group, would already know the number. 'Luén' and 'Lués' translate to forms of 'we/us' that denote exclusiveness of the addressee, in addition to their grammatical numbers. 'Mu', which is the actual Luepolan word for 'I/me', has no plural or paucal form. Pronouns use the same possessive system as regular nouns.








PossessiveEdit

Luepolan contains a possessive system wherein the noun being possessed by the other is marked, rather than the noun with possession over the other one.

Each pronoun has its own possession affix that is attached to the noun the pronoun has possession over. In addition to pronouns, all nouns share the same affix. Each affix has a singular, paucal, and plural form.

When a possessed noun is used with a pronoun, it is common practice to drop the pronoun altogether, as the possessive article itself can convey the possesser.

Possesser Singular Affix ('s) Paucal Affix (s') Plural Affix (s') Example: Griá (City)
Mu -ma -main -maes [Mu] Griáma (My city)
Su -sa -sain -saes [Su] Griása (Your city)
Lu -la -lain -laes [Lu] Griála (Our city)
Hu -qa -qain -qaes [Hu] Griáqa (His city)
Xu -xa -xain -xaes [Xu] Griáxa (Her city)
Tu -ta -tain -taes [Tu] Griáta (Its city)
Ju -ga -gain -gaes [Ju] Griága (His city)
Ku -ka -kain -kaes [Ku] Griáka (One's city)
Luepola* -na -nain -naes Luepola Griána (Luepola's city)

























*Representative of all nouns.

AdjectivesEdit

Luepolan adjectives function in a fairly simple manner. Adjectives may be placed before or after the noun which it describes, although placing them before is the most common practice.

Adjectives must agree with noun being modified in number; thus, there are three possible endings for any adjective. The endings are shown below.

Number Suffix Example 1: Amax-  Otokart (Yellow Car)

Example 2: Lina-  Xahum (Beautiful Woman)

Example 3:  Sovertí- Federazon (Sovereign Federation)
Singular -olet (-ólet after vowels except í) Amaxolet Otokart Linaólet Xahum Sovertíolet Federazon
Paucal (Relatively few) -akud (-ákud after vowels except í) Amaxakud Otokarten Linaákud Xahumen Sovertíakud
Plural (Many) -unaj (-ébim after vowels except í) Amaxunaj Otokartes Linaúnaj Xahumes Sovertíunaj Federazones

VocabularyEdit


No. English Luepolan
1IMu
2you (singular)
3heHu
4weWu, Wuén, Wués
5you (plural)
6theyTuén, Tués, Huén, Hués
7thisDas
8thatDes
9hereAki
10thereAli
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16notNúl
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22oneOki, Ku
23twoDwe
24threeYa
25fourTetu
26fiveKize
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36womanXahum
37man (adult male)Hahum
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breatheBreti
100laugh
101see
102hear
103knowKonsri
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172redRoxe
173greenVerxe
174yellowAmaxe
175whiteBlenxe
176blackNoxe
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202inEn
203withC
204andJ
205ifS
206becauseAev
207name


Example textEdit

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