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Lukic

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Lukic
Lukik
Type
Synthetic
Alignment
Accusative
Head direction
Initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
0
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



Progress 46%


General informationEdit

Lukic is the language of the Mediterranean island of Luka. 2000 years ago, Luka was a Roman province, and Latin was thel language spoken. In the middle ages, Luka was a part of the Spanish empire and the language spoken (Old Lukic) was a Romance language closely related to Spanish. In 1500, Luka was taken over by the British, and the language took on some aspects of English and rapidly evolved into Modern Lukic, the Lukic that is spoken on the island today.

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p b t d k g
Fricative f v θ  ð s z ʃ  ʒ h
Affricate tʃ  dʒ
Approximant r j w
Lateral Flap ɾ
Lateral Approximate l

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i u
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open ä

AlphabetEdit

There are 25 letters in the Lukic Alphabet:

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn ŋŋ Oo Pp Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Yy Zz

The vowels are pronounced like in Spanish. The consonants are pronounced like in English, except for C, which is pronounced like the "Ch" in English. ŋ is pronounced like the "ng" in English.


PhonotacticsEdit

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No Yes No Yes No Yes
Nouns No No Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes No Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


NounsEdit

There are no grammatical genders in Lukic, which makes nouns easier to grasp than in other languages. The onliy declination on nouns is when a noun is made plural. Pluralizing a noun is simple; all one needs to do is add an -s to the end of the noun. For example, Gat ("Cat") is singular, and Gats is plural.

The only distinct grammatical case is the possessive case. This is formed by adding the suffix -ne after the noun. For example, the sentence "It is the cat's" translates to "Se esse the gatne". Additionally, if the noun ends with the letter e, then the must be changed to an i.

PronounsEdit

There are a variety of personal pronouns in Lukic, which change based upon person, number and in some instances, gender.

Singular Plural
1st Me Mes
2nd Te Tes
3rd

Se

So (masculine)

Sa (feminine)

Ses

Personal pronouns can be made reflexive by adding a- as a prefix, as well as changing the -e to -i.

Singular Plural
1st Ami Amis
2nd Ati Atis
3rd

Asi

Aso (masculine)

Asa (feminine)

Asis

Possessive pronouns are formed the same way that possesive nouns are formed, including changing the -e to -i- for me/te/se.

Singular Plural
1st Mine Mesne
2nd Tine Tesne
3rd

Sine

Sone (masculine)

Sane (feminine)

Sesne

Lukic has 4 demonstrative pronouns:

Singular Plural

Proximal

("This")

Ese Eses

Distal

("That")

Este Estes

VerbsEdit

As with most languages, verbs are the post complicated part of speech in Lukic. Lukic has two types of verbs, -ar verbs and -er verbs. Luckily, they are conjugated very similarly.

There are fifty different ways to conjugate a verb in Lukic. These encompass many different tenses, four different aspects, and five different moods. Verbs do not change conjugation based upon person or number.

Infinitive MoodEdit

The first mood is the infinitive. This is the basic form of the verb. It is equivalent to the to- form in English (i.e. "to be"). An example of an -ar infinitive is ablar - "to speak". An example of an -er infinitive is danser - "to dance".

The Indicative MoodEdit

The indicative mood is the most common mood. It is used when making a factual statement. There a four different tenses and four different aspects in the indicative mood.

Tenses

Present Tense: Used to describe actions in the present (In English: "I speak", "I dance")

Past Tense: Used to describe actions in the past (In English:"I spoke", "I danced")

Future Tense: Used to describe actions in the future (In English: "I will speak, I will dance")

Future-in-past tense: Used to describe actions that are in the future from a past frame of reference, but not necessarily the actual future (In English: "If I had known, I would have done it"). Note that, despite the presence of 'would', this is not the conditional tense nor mood.

Aspects

Simple: The basic aspect, for example, the English, "I do it". In Lukic, this is just the basic conjugation of the verb.

Progressive: An ongoing action, for example, the English, "I am doing it". In Lukic, the progressive conjugation consists of the verb ber ("to be") conjugated to the current tense, followed by the present participle/gerund of the verb. To form the present partiple for -ar verbs, drop the -ar and replace with -ant. For -er verbs, drop the -er and replace with -ient. There are two irregulars: The present participle of ber is bent, and er ("to go") is ent.

Perfect: A completed action, for example, the English, "I have done it". In Lukic, the perfect conjugation consists of the verb aver ("to have") conjugated to the current tense, followed by the past participle of the verb. To form the past participle for -ar verbs, drop the -ar and replace with -at. For -er verbs, drop the -er and replace with -iet. There are two irregulars: The past participle of ber is bet, and er is et.

Perfect Progressive: Refers to the completed portion of an ongoing action or temporary state, for example, the English, "I have been doing it". In Lukic, the perfect progressive conjugation consists of  aver conjugated to the current tense, followed by the past participle of ber (bet), followed by the present participle of the verb.

This chart shows the indicative conjugations for ablar and danser:

Simple Progressive Perfect Perfect Progressive
Present

abla 

danse

be ablant

be dansient

ave ablat

ave dansiet

ave bet ablant

ave bet dansient

Past

ablan

dansen

ben ablant

ben dansient

aven ablat

aven dansiet

aven bet ablant

aven bet dansient

Future

ablara

dansere

bere ablant

bere dansient

avere ablat

avere dansiet

avere bet ablant

avere bet dansient

Future-in-past

ablaran

danseren

beren ablant

beren dansient

averen ablat

averen dansiet

averen bet ablant

averen bet dansient

Subjunctive MoodEdit

The subjunctive mood is used to describe hypothetical situations as well as hopes, wishes and wants. Examples in English include "It is important that he be here", where 'be' is in the subjunctive, and "If I were you", where 'were' is in the subjunctive. The tenses and aspects are the same in the subjunctive as in the indicative. The only thing that changes in the conjugations is that the -ar and -er verbs switch.

This chart shows the subjunctive conjugations for ablar and danser:

Simple Progressive Perfect Perfect Progressive
Present

able

dansa

ba ablant

ba dansient

ava ablat

ava dansiet

ava bet ablant

ava bet dansient

Past

ablen

dansan

ban ablant

ban dansient

avan ablat

avan dansiet

avan bet ablant

avan bet dansient

Future

ablare

dansera

bera ablant

bera dansient

avera ablat

avera dansiet

avera bet ablant

avera bet dansient

Future-in-past

ablaren

danseran

beran ablant

beran dansient

averan ablat

averan dansiet

averan bet ablant

avera bet dansient

Conditional MoodEdit

The conditional mood is used for possible future situations ("I would do it", "I could do it", "I should do it", "I might do it"). The four aspects of the conditional mood are the same as the indicative and subjunctive, but the four tenses are different.

The four tenses are:

The Conditional Tense: Describing something that will happen (or has happened, or is happening, etc.) if a cartain condition is met. Note that this certain condition may or may not be states outright. In Lukic, this is conjugated by using would followed by the infinitive of the verb.

The Potential Tense: Describing something that has the potential to happen (or to have happened etc.). In Lukic, this is conjugated by using could followed by the infinitive of the verb.

The Necessary Tense: Descrbing something that needs to be done (or needs to have been done etc.). In Lukic, this is conjugated by using should followed by the infinitive of the verb.

The Possible Tense: Describing something that may or may not happen (or have happened etc.). In Lukic, this is conjugated by using might followed by the infinitive of the verb.

Note that the pronunciation of the modal verbs presented here is irregular. They are pronounced the way they are in English, not how you would expect based on the phonology of Lukic.

This chart shows the conditional conjugations for Ablar and Danser:

Simple Progressive Perfect Perfect Progressive
Conditional

would ablar

would danser

would ber ablant

would ber dansient

would aver ablat

would aver dansiet

would aver bet ablant

would aver bet dansient

Potential

could ablar

could danser

could ber ablant

could ber dansient

could aver ablat

could aver dansiet

could aver bet ablant

could aver bet dansient

Necessary

should ablar

should danser

should ber ablant

should ber dansient

should aver ablat

should aver dansiet

should aver bet ablant

should aver bet dansient

Possible

might ablar

might danser

might ber ablant

might ber dansient

might aver ablat

should aver dansiet

might aver bet ablant

might aver bet dansient

Imperative MoodEdit

The imperative mood is the commanding mood. It is used when you tell someone to do something. There is only one conjugation for the imperative, and it is very simple. Just take off the -ar or -er. In this manner, the command to "Speak!" is abl! and the command to "Dance!" is dans!

Verbs with stems that do not contain vowels (such as ber, and tar ["to tar"]) must have a vowel added in front of the stem in the imperative. An a- for -ar verbs and a e- for -er verbs. So ber becomes eb! and tar becomes at!

Note that the verb er is irregular for the imperative, since taking off -er leaves you with nothing. Because of this, the command to go had to be borrowed from English: Go!

CopulasEdit

Lukic has two copulas (verbs meaning "to be"): esser and ber. Esser is used when talking about intrinsic qualities and permanent states. Ber is used when talking about temporary aspects of someone or something. It is also used as the helping verb in the progressive and perfect progressive aspects.

Vocab Edit

==


No. English
1IMe
2you (singular)Te
3heSo
4weMes
5you (plural)Tes
6theySes
7thisEse
8thatEste
9hereContionary_Wiki
10thereContionary_Wiki
11whoContionary_Wiki
12whatContionary_Wiki
13whereContionary_Wiki
14whenContionary_Wiki
15howContionary_Wiki
16notContionary_Wiki
17allContionary_Wiki
18manyContionary_Wiki
19someContionary_Wiki
20fewContionary_Wiki
21otherContionary_Wiki
22oneContionary_Wiki
23twoContionary_Wiki
24threeContionary_Wiki
25fourContionary_Wiki
26fiveContionary_Wiki
27bigContionary_Wiki
28longContionary_Wiki
29wideContionary_Wiki
30thickContionary_Wiki
31heavyContionary_Wiki
32smallContionary_Wiki
33shortContionary_Wiki
34narrowContionary_Wiki
35thinContionary_Wiki
36womanContionary_Wiki
37man (adult male)Contionary_Wiki
38man (human being)Contionary_Wiki
39childContionary_Wiki
40wifeContionary_Wiki
41husbandContionary_Wiki
42motherContionary_Wiki
43fatherContionary_Wiki
44animalContionary_Wiki
45fishContionary_Wiki
46birdContionary_Wiki
47dogContionary_Wiki
48louseContionary_Wiki
49snakeContionary_Wiki
50wormContionary_Wiki
51treeContionary_Wiki
52forestContionary_Wiki
53stickContionary_Wiki
54fruitContionary_Wiki
55seedContionary_Wiki
56leafContionary_Wiki
57rootContionary_Wiki
58barkContionary_Wiki
59flowerContionary_Wiki
60grassContionary_Wiki
61ropeContionary_Wiki
62skinContionary_Wiki
63meatContionary_Wiki
64bloodContionary_Wiki
65boneContionary_Wiki
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggContionary_Wiki
68hornContionary_Wiki
69tailContionary_Wiki
70featherContionary_Wiki
71hairContionary_Wiki
72headContionary_Wiki
73earContionary_Wiki
74eyeContionary_Wiki
75noseContionary_Wiki
76mouthContionary_Wiki
77toothContionary_Wiki
78tongueContionary_Wiki
79fingernailContionary_Wiki
80footContionary_Wiki
81legContionary_Wiki
82kneeContionary_Wiki
83handContionary_Wiki
84wingContionary_Wiki
85bellyContionary_Wiki
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckContionary_Wiki
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastContionary_Wiki
90heartContionary_Wiki
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkContionary_Wiki
93eatContionary_Wiki
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seeContionary_Wiki
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowContionary_Wiki
104thinkContionary_Wiki
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearContionary_Wiki
107sleepContionary_Wiki
108liveContionary_Wiki
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killContionary_Wiki
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comeContionary_Wiki
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140sayContionary_Wiki
141singContionary_Wiki
142playContionary_Wiki
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunContionary_Wiki
148moonContionary_Wiki
149starContionary_Wiki
150waterContionary_Wiki
151rainContionary_Wiki
152riverContionary_Wiki
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seaContionary_Wiki
155saltContionary_Wiki
156stoneContionary_Wiki
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthContionary_Wiki
160cloudContionary_Wiki
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skyContionary_Wiki
163windContionary_Wiki
164snowContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_Wiki
167fireContionary_Wiki
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountainContionary_Wiki
172redContionary_Wiki
173greenContionary_Wiki
174yellowContionary_Wiki
175whiteContionary_Wiki
176blackContionary_Wiki
177nightContionary_Wiki
178dayContionary_Wiki
179yearContionary_Wiki
180warmContionary_Wiki
181coldContionary_Wiki
182fullContionary_Wiki
183newContionary_Wiki
184oldContionary_Wiki
185goodContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctContionary_Wiki
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atContionary_Wiki
202inContionary_Wiki
203withContionary_Wiki
204andContionary_Wiki
205ifContionary_Wiki
206becauseContionary_Wiki
207nameContionary_Wiki

Vocabulary==

Example textEdit

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