|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
Lukic is the language of the Mediterranean island of Luka. 2000 years ago, Luka was a Roman province, and Latin was thel language spoken. In the middle ages, Luka was a part of the Spanish empire and the language spoken (Old Lukic) was a Romance language closely related to Spanish. In 1500, Luka was taken over by the British, and the language took on some aspects of English and rapidly evolved into Modern Lukic, the Lukic that is spoken on the island today.
|Plosive||p b||t d||k g|
|Fricative||f v||θ ð||s z||ʃ ʒ||h|
There are 25 letters in the Lukic Alphabet:
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn ŋŋ Oo Pp Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Yy Zz
The vowels are pronounced like in Spanish. The consonants are pronounced like in English, except for C, which is pronounced like the "Ch" in English. ŋ is pronounced like the "ng" in English.
There are no grammatical genders in Lukic, which makes nouns easier to grasp than in other languages. The onliy declination on nouns is when a noun is made plural. Pluralizing a noun is simple; all one needs to do is add an -s to the end of the noun. For example, Gat ("Cat") is singular, and Gats is plural.
The only distinct grammatical case is the possessive case. This is formed by adding the suffix -ne after the noun. For example, the sentence "It is the cat's" translates to "Se esse the gatne". Additionally, if the noun ends with the letter e, then the e must be changed to an i.
There are a variety of personal pronouns in Lukic, which change based upon person, number and in some instances, gender.
Personal pronouns can be made reflexive by adding a- as a prefix, as well as changing the -e to -i.
Possessive pronouns are formed the same way that possesive nouns are formed, including changing the -e to -i- for me/te/se.
Lukic has 4 demonstrative pronouns:
As with most languages, verbs are the post complicated part of speech in Lukic. Lukic has two types of verbs, -ar verbs and -er verbs. Luckily, they are conjugated very similarly.
There are fifty different ways to conjugate a verb in Lukic. These encompass many different tenses, four different aspects, and five different moods. Verbs do not change conjugation based upon person or number.
The first mood is the infinitive. This is the basic form of the verb. It is equivalent to the to- form in English (i.e. "to be"). An example of an -ar infinitive is ablar - "to speak". An example of an -er infinitive is danser - "to dance".
The Indicative MoodEdit
The indicative mood is the most common mood. It is used when making a factual statement. There a four different tenses and four different aspects in the indicative mood.
Present Tense: Used to describe actions in the present (In English: "I speak", "I dance")
Past Tense: Used to describe actions in the past (In English:"I spoke", "I danced")
Future Tense: Used to describe actions in the future (In English: "I will speak, I will dance")
Future-in-past tense: Used to describe actions that are in the future from a past frame of reference, but not necessarily the actual future (In English: "If I had known, I would have done it"). Note that, despite the presence of 'would', this is not the conditional tense nor mood.
Simple: The basic aspect, for example, the English, "I do it". In Lukic, this is just the basic conjugation of the verb.
Progressive: An ongoing action, for example, the English, "I am doing it". In Lukic, the progressive conjugation consists of the verb ber ("to be") conjugated to the current tense, followed by the present participle/gerund of the verb. To form the present partiple for -ar verbs, drop the -ar and replace with -ant. For -er verbs, drop the -er and replace with -ient. There are two irregulars: The present participle of ber is bent, and er ("to go") is ent.
Perfect: A completed action, for example, the English, "I have done it". In Lukic, the perfect conjugation consists of the verb aver ("to have") conjugated to the current tense, followed by the past participle of the verb. To form the past participle for -ar verbs, drop the -ar and replace with -at. For -er verbs, drop the -er and replace with -iet. There are two irregulars: The past participle of ber is bet, and er is et.
Perfect Progressive: Refers to the completed portion of an ongoing action or temporary state, for example, the English, "I have been doing it". In Lukic, the perfect progressive conjugation consists of aver conjugated to the current tense, followed by the past participle of ber (bet), followed by the present participle of the verb.
This chart shows the indicative conjugations for ablar and danser:
ave bet ablant
ave bet dansient
aven bet ablant
aven bet dansient
avere bet ablant
avere bet dansient
averen bet ablant
averen bet dansient
The subjunctive mood is used to describe hypothetical situations as well as hopes, wishes and wants. Examples in English include "It is important that he be here", where 'be' is in the subjunctive, and "If I were you", where 'were' is in the subjunctive. The tenses and aspects are the same in the subjunctive as in the indicative. The only thing that changes in the conjugations is that the -ar and -er verbs switch.
This chart shows the subjunctive conjugations for ablar and danser:
ava bet ablant
ava bet dansient
avan bet ablant
avan bet dansient
avera bet ablant
avera bet dansient
averan bet ablant
avera bet dansient
The conditional mood is used for possible future situations ("I would do it", "I could do it", "I should do it", "I might do it"). The four aspects of the conditional mood are the same as the indicative and subjunctive, but the four tenses are different.
The four tenses are:
The Conditional Tense: Describing something that will happen (or has happened, or is happening, etc.) if a cartain condition is met. Note that this certain condition may or may not be states outright. In Lukic, this is conjugated by using would followed by the infinitive of the verb.
The Potential Tense: Describing something that has the potential to happen (or to have happened etc.). In Lukic, this is conjugated by using could followed by the infinitive of the verb.
The Necessary Tense: Descrbing something that needs to be done (or needs to have been done etc.). In Lukic, this is conjugated by using should followed by the infinitive of the verb.
The Possible Tense: Describing something that may or may not happen (or have happened etc.). In Lukic, this is conjugated by using might followed by the infinitive of the verb.
Note that the pronunciation of the modal verbs presented here is irregular. They are pronounced the way they are in English, not how you would expect based on the phonology of Lukic.
This chart shows the conditional conjugations for Ablar and Danser:
would ber ablant
would ber dansient
would aver ablat
would aver dansiet
would aver bet ablant
would aver bet dansient
could ber ablant
could ber dansient
could aver ablat
could aver dansiet
could aver bet ablant
could aver bet dansient
should ber ablant
should ber dansient
should aver ablat
should aver dansiet
should aver bet ablant
should aver bet dansient
might ber ablant
might ber dansient
might aver ablat
should aver dansiet
might aver bet ablant
might aver bet dansient
The imperative mood is the commanding mood. It is used when you tell someone to do something. There is only one conjugation for the imperative, and it is very simple. Just take off the -ar or -er. In this manner, the command to "Speak!" is abl! and the command to "Dance!" is dans!
Verbs with stems that do not contain vowels (such as ber, and tar ["to tar"]) must have a vowel added in front of the stem in the imperative. An a- for -ar verbs and a e- for -er verbs. So ber becomes eb! and tar becomes at!
Note that the verb er is irregular for the imperative, since taking off -er leaves you with nothing. Because of this, the command to go had to be borrowed from English: Go!
Lukic has two copulas (verbs meaning "to be"): esser and ber. Esser is used when talking about intrinsic qualities and permanent states. Ber is used when talking about temporary aspects of someone or something. It is also used as the helping verb in the progressive and perfect progressive aspects.
|37||man (adult male)||—|
|38||man (human being)||—|