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Lukic

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Lukic
Lukik
Type
Synthetic
Alignment
Accusative
Head direction
Initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
0
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



Progress 46%


General informationEdit

Lukic is the language of the Mediterranean island of Luka. 2000 years ago, Luka was a Roman province, and Latin was thel language spoken. In the middle ages, Luka was a part of the Spanish empire and the language spoken (Old Lukic) was a Romance language closely related to Spanish. In 1500, Luka was taken over by the British, and the language took on some aspects of English and rapidly evolved into Modern Lukic, the Lukic that is spoken on the island today.

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p b t d k g
Fricative f v θ  ð s z ʃ  ʒ h
Affricate tʃ  dʒ
Approximant r j w
Lateral Flap ɾ
Lateral Approximate l

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i u
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open ä

AlphabetEdit

There are 25 letters in the Lukic Alphabet:

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn ŋŋ Oo Pp Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Yy Zz

The vowels are pronounced like in Spanish. The consonants are pronounced like in English, except for C, which is pronounced like the "Ch" in English. ŋ is pronounced like the "ng" in English.


PhonotacticsEdit

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No Yes No Yes No Yes
Nouns No No Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes No Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


NounsEdit

There are no grammatical genders in Lukic, which makes nouns easier to grasp than in other languages. The onliy declination on nouns is when a noun is made plural. Pluralizing a noun is simple; all one needs to do is add an -s to the end of the noun. For example, Gat ("Cat") is singular, and Gats is plural.

The only distinct grammatical case is the possessive case. This is formed by adding the suffix -ne after the noun. For example, the sentence "It is the cat's" translates to "Se esse the gatne". Additionally, if the noun ends with the letter e, then the must be changed to an i.

PronounsEdit

There are a variety of personal pronouns in Lukic, which change based upon person, number and in some instances, gender.

Singular Plural
1st Me Mes
2nd Te Tes
3rd

Se

So (masculine)

Sa (feminine)

Ses

Personal pronouns can be made reflexive by adding a- as a prefix, as well as changing the -e to -i.

Singular Plural
1st Ami Amis
2nd Ati Atis
3rd

Asi

Aso (masculine)

Asa (feminine)

Asis

Possessive pronouns are formed the same way that possesive nouns are formed, including changing the -e to -i- for me/te/se.

Singular Plural
1st Mine Mesne
2nd Tine Tesne
3rd

Sine

Sone (masculine)

Sane (feminine)

Sesne

Lukic has 4 demonstrative pronouns:

Singular Plural

Proximal

("This")

Ese Eses

Distal

("That")

Este Estes

VerbsEdit

As with most languages, verbs are the post complicated part of speech in Lukic. Lukic has two types of verbs, -ar verbs and -er verbs. Luckily, they are conjugated very similarly.

There are fifty different ways to conjugate a verb in Lukic. These encompass many different tenses, four different aspects, and five different moods. Verbs do not change conjugation based upon person or number.

Infinitive MoodEdit

The first mood is the infinitive. This is the basic form of the verb. It is equivalent to the to- form in English (i.e. "to be"). An example of an -ar infinitive is ablar - "to speak". An example of an -er infinitive is danser - "to dance".

The Indicative MoodEdit

The indicative mood is the most common mood. It is used when making a factual statement. There a four different tenses and four different aspects in the indicative mood.

Tenses

Present Tense: Used to describe actions in the present (In English: "I speak", "I dance")

Past Tense: Used to describe actions in the past (In English:"I spoke", "I danced")

Future Tense: Used to describe actions in the future (In English: "I will speak, I will dance")

Future-in-past tense: Used to describe actions that are in the future from a past frame of reference, but not necessarily the actual future (In English: "If I had known, I would have done it"). Note that, despite the presence of 'would', this is not the conditional tense nor mood.

Aspects

Simple: The basic aspect, for example, the English, "I do it". In Lukic, this is just the basic conjugation of the verb.

Progressive: An ongoing action, for example, the English, "I am doing it". In Lukic, the progressive conjugation consists of the verb ber ("to be") conjugated to the current tense, followed by the present participle/gerund of the verb. To form the present partiple for -ar verbs, drop the -ar and replace with -ant. For -er verbs, drop the -er and replace with -ient. There are two irregulars: The present participle of ber is bent, and er ("to go") is ent.

Perfect: A completed action, for example, the English, "I have done it". In Lukic, the perfect conjugation consists of the verb aver ("to have") conjugated to the current tense, followed by the past participle of the verb. To form the past participle for -ar verbs, drop the -ar and replace with -at. For -er verbs, drop the -er and replace with -iet. There are two irregulars: The past participle of ber is bet, and er is et.

Perfect Progressive: Refers to the completed portion of an ongoing action or temporary state, for example, the English, "I have been doing it". In Lukic, the perfect progressive conjugation consists of  aver conjugated to the current tense, followed by the past participle of ber (bet), followed by the present participle of the verb.

This chart shows the indicative conjugations for ablar and danser:

Simple Progressive Perfect Perfect Progressive
Present

abla 

danse

be ablant

be dansient

ave ablat

ave dansiet

ave bet ablant

ave bet dansient

Past

ablan

dansen

ben ablant

ben dansient

aven ablat

aven dansiet

aven bet ablant

aven bet dansient

Future

ablara

dansere

bere ablant

bere dansient

avere ablat

avere dansiet

avere bet ablant

avere bet dansient

Future-in-past

ablaran

danseren

beren ablant

beren dansient

averen ablat

averen dansiet

averen bet ablant

averen bet dansient

Subjunctive MoodEdit

The subjunctive mood is used to describe hypothetical situations as well as hopes, wishes and wants. Examples in English include "It is important that he be here", where 'be' is in the subjunctive, and "If I were you", where 'were' is in the subjunctive. The tenses and aspects are the same in the subjunctive as in the indicative. The only thing that changes in the conjugations is that the -ar and -er verbs switch.

This chart shows the subjunctive conjugations for ablar and danser:

Simple Progressive Perfect Perfect Progressive
Present

able

dansa

ba ablant

ba dansient

ava ablat

ava dansiet

ava bet ablant

ava bet dansient

Past

ablen

dansan

ban ablant

ban dansient

avan ablat

avan dansiet

avan bet ablant

avan bet dansient

Future

ablare

dansera

bera ablant

bera dansient

avera ablat

avera dansiet

avera bet ablant

avera bet dansient

Future-in-past

ablaren

danseran

beran ablant

beran dansient

averan ablat

averan dansiet

averan bet ablant

avera bet dansient

Conditional MoodEdit

The conditional mood is used for possible future situations ("I would do it", "I could do it", "I should do it", "I might do it"). The four aspects of the conditional mood are the same as the indicative and subjunctive, but the four tenses are different.

The four tenses are:

The Conditional Tense: Describing something that will happen (or has happened, or is happening, etc.) if a cartain condition is met. Note that this certain condition may or may not be states outright. In Lukic, this is conjugated by using would followed by the infinitive of the verb.

The Potential Tense: Describing something that has the potential to happen (or to have happened etc.). In Lukic, this is conjugated by using could followed by the infinitive of the verb.

The Necessary Tense: Descrbing something that needs to be done (or needs to have been done etc.). In Lukic, this is conjugated by using should followed by the infinitive of the verb.

The Possible Tense: Describing something that may or may not happen (or have happened etc.). In Lukic, this is conjugated by using might followed by the infinitive of the verb.

Note that the pronunciation of the modal verbs presented here is irregular. They are pronounced the way they are in English, not how you would expect based on the phonology of Lukic.

This chart shows the conditional conjugations for Ablar and Danser:

Simple Progressive Perfect Perfect Progressive
Conditional

would ablar

would danser

would ber ablant

would ber dansient

would aver ablat

would aver dansiet

would aver bet ablant

would aver bet dansient

Potential

could ablar

could danser

could ber ablant

could ber dansient

could aver ablat

could aver dansiet

could aver bet ablant

could aver bet dansient

Necessary

should ablar

should danser

should ber ablant

should ber dansient

should aver ablat

should aver dansiet

should aver bet ablant

should aver bet dansient

Possible

might ablar

might danser

might ber ablant

might ber dansient

might aver ablat

should aver dansiet

might aver bet ablant

might aver bet dansient

Imperative MoodEdit

The imperative mood is the commanding mood. It is used when you tell someone to do something. There is only one conjugation for the imperative, and it is very simple. Just take off the -ar or -er. In this manner, the command to "Speak!" is abl! and the command to "Dance!" is dans!

Verbs with stems that do not contain vowels (such as ber, and tar ["to tar"]) must have a vowel added in front of the stem in the imperative. An a- for -ar verbs and a e- for -er verbs. So ber becomes eb! and tar becomes at!

Note that the verb er is irregular for the imperative, since taking off -er leaves you with nothing. Because of this, the command to go had to be borrowed from English: Go!

CopulasEdit

Lukic has two copulas (verbs meaning "to be"): esser and ber. Esser is used when talking about intrinsic qualities and permanent states. Ber is used when talking about temporary aspects of someone or something. It is also used as the helping verb in the progressive and perfect progressive aspects.

Vocab Edit

==


No. English
1IMe
2you (singular)Te
3heSo
4weMes
5you (plural)Tes
6theySes
7thisEse
8thatEste
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name

Vocabulary==

Example textEdit

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