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Luryo

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Luryo
'
Type
Agglutinative
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Mixed
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
4
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


Luryo or Lurian (xxx; /ˈɺy:.ɻɪ̈.ɔ/), is a language spoken by the 288 Lurian species and is the official language of the United Empire of Lur, one of the galactic states.

General informationEdit

Luryo is the reconstructed version of the Early Modern Melnarian, a constructed language, thus some linguists also know Luryo as Neo Melnarian. It is spoken by far more than 4.2*1017 people inside the UEL, where it is standardised, and outside, where it has many pidgins and developed several creoles, being the Nezanomian Luryo Creole the most similar to the standard form.

HistoryEdit

In their earlier history, the Melnarians spoke a few languages. Through time, these languages began to evolve and split, creating whole new languages. Due to many people were not able to communicate with each other, a big group of linguist documented all the tongues of almost all the regions of their home planet. They took into account phonology, word roots, grammar and writing. After that, they began a project to create an universal language. They accomplished their goal and named the new language Melnarian. After a test period, it became official and all the people in the empire had to be able to speak Melnarian along with, if so, their native language

The Melnarians ruled over a vast extension of the Milky Way, so contact with other languages within their territory and with languages of other galactic civilisations, espcielly the Nezasomi, influenced Old Melnarian and created multiple dialects gouped in what was named Middle Melnarian. Another group of linguists decided to revise and standardise the language again in what was named Late Melnarian.

The Melnarians spoke Late Melnarian for hundreds of years without any significant changes but neologisms. However, it didn't last too much due to the involvement of the Melnarians in a bloody military conflict with the other galactic civilisations. In the final years of Galactic War 1, the Melnarian population that escaped their home planet and from plenty of minor colonies divided in 72 flotillas each of which headed to one of the seventy-two major colonies that they had previously founded. These colonies comprised a trinary star system with six inhabitable planets.

After thousands of years of isolation, new languages evolved in each planet of each colony. When the 72 colonies met, there were 288 different languages. Once again, a goup of linguists began a project to create an universal language. They found it difficult, so they decided to reconstruct the language used in the journals of the sunk ships. This reconstructed lanaguage was unofficially known as Neo Melnarian. Then it was officially named Luryo.

The regulatory authority for the teaching of Luryo is the Imperial Academy of the Lurian Language (ponto pangyen; xxx; /pɔn.tɔ.paŋ.jɛn/), an especial body of the Lurian Ministry of Education (ponto pangyen; xxx; /pɔn.tɔ.paŋ.jɛn/). The carer body of the literary heritage in Luryo is the Imperial Institute of the Lurian Literature (ponto pangyen; xxx; /pɔn.tɔ.paŋ.jɛn/), an especial body of the Lurian Ministry of Culture (ponto pangyen; xxx; /pɔn.tɔ.paŋ.jɛn/).

Brief OverviewEdit

Luryo is extremely flexible respect to word order, allowing to write a sentence with any of the six sintactic word orders. It has 96 phonemes of which 15 have a short allophone.

PhonologyEdit

Luryo has 77 consonant phonemes, 30 vowel phonemes, 15 long and 15 short, and 4 semivowel phonemes.

ConsonantsEdit

The inventory of consonants in Luryo is spread over almost all the places of articulation founded in human languages, but it has no clicks, ejectives nor implosives. The 77 consonants and 4 semivowels are:

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar

Post-alveolar

Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Glottal
Nasal m ɱ n ɳ ɲ ŋ ɴ
Plosive p b t d ʈ ɖ c ɟ k g q ɢ
Fricative ɸ β̞ f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ ħ ʕ
Affricate p̪͡f b̪͡v t̪͡θ d̪͡ð t͡s d͡z t͡ʃ d͡ʒ ʈ͡ʂ ɖ͡ʐ c͡ç ɟ͡ʝ k͡x ɡ͡ɣ q͡χ ɢ͡ʁ h ɦ
Approximant ʋ ɹ ɻ j* ɰ*
Labialised app. ɥ* w*
Trill r ʀ
Flap or tap ɾ ɽ
Lateral fric. ɬ ɮ ʟ̝̊ ʟ̝
Lateral affri. t͡ɬ d͡ɮ k͡ʟ̝̊ ɡ͡ʟ̝
Lateral app. l ɭ ʎ ʟ
Lateral flap ɺ

VowelsEdit

The inventory of vowels, like that of consonants, is spread over almost all the places of articulation founded in human languages. with each of the 15 long vowels phonetically paired with one of the 15 short vowels. The 30 vowels are:

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i: y: ɨ: ʉ: ɯ: u:
Near-close ɪ ʏ ɪ̈ ʊ̈ ɯ̽ ʊ
Close-mid e: ø: ɘ: ɵ: ɤ: o:
Mid ə
Open-mid ɛ œ ɜ ɞ ʌ ɔ
Near-open ɐ:
Open a: ɶ: ɑ ɒ

AlphabetEdit

The Lurian alphabet consists of 81 consonants, including semivowels, and 15 vowel graphemes. There are upper and lower cases. Luryo is written in rows from left to right.

PhonotacticsEdit

The standard syllable structure is;

C (A) V (C)

Where (A) is a liquid consonant or a semivowel. There is consonant harmony according to the place of articulation when a syllable ends with a nasal or a liquid consonant (except fricatives and affricates) and the next syllable begins with a plosive, a fricative or an affricate.

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No Yes No No Yes Yes
Nouns Yes No Yes No No No No No
Adjectives Yes No Yes No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes No Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article Yes No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

Luryo is a nominative–accusative language, morphologically agglutinative, slightly flexive and uses several particles to determine the grammatical functions of the sentence elements.

World orderEdit

Luryo has a relative free word order, meaning that it can follow any of the structural orders which are: SOV, SVO, VSO, VOS, OVS and OSV. These orders are grouped in SO, OS, VO, OV, SV and VS. The VO sentences are head initial, have the adjectives after nouns, place adpositions as prepositions before the noun phrases they govern and use the place-manner-time order. In contrast, OV are ussually head final, have the adjectives before nouns, place adpositions as postpositions after the noun phrases they govern and use the time-manner-place order. SV sentences follow the inderect-direct objects order and VS sentences follow the direct-indirect objects order. SO place complements after the object and OS sentences place complements before the object. Even though someone can use any word order, the SO orders are the most common.

NounsEdit

The noun is the nominal part of speech which refers to a concrete or an abstract entity.

In Luryo there two classes of nouns, animate and inanimate beings, both in the sense of living, not motion. The fomer class has three genders: masculine, feminine - both of which are based on the sex of living beings - and neuter - which is used when the speaker doesn't know the sex of the person, of the animal or of the plant; in plural it's used to include beings that are masculine, feminine and ambiguous. The latter class has one gender and includes objects, places, abstractions and actions.


VocabularyEdit


No. English
1I
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name


Example textEdit

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