|Agglutinative (verbs), Analytic (nouns)|
|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
The Lutta Language (natively Lua-ǂHera [lɯʔə ǂʰerə]) is a Luttan language spoken by the Lua-Hushen.
|stop||t d||c ɟ||k̙||ʔ|
|affricate||ts dz||tɕ dʑ|
|fricative||central||s z||ɕ ʑ||x̙||h|
|approximant||ɹ l||j ʎ||ɰ|
/N/ is a nasal homorganic to the following consonant. It is not found before clicks.
The following CV syllables don't occur: /ne/, /ŋe/, /tu/, /du/, /cu/, /ɟu/, /se/, /ze/, /ɬe/, /le/, /wu/, /!e/, /!ʰe/, /ᵑ!ˀe/, /ǁʰe/, or /ᵑǁˀe/
The following consonants may be geminated between vowels: /n/, /ŋ/, /t/, /c/, /k/, /ts/, /tɕ/, /s/, /ɕ/, /ɹ/, and /l/
Lutta has no grammatical gender, case, number, or definiteness. However, nouns can take many derivational affixes, and new nouns are frequently coined. For example, some common collectivizing suffixes are -n!a and -jawe found in hushen!a "a lot of people/people in general" and qarajawe "a lot of kids/kids in general".
Verbs are conjugated for voice, mood, tense, formality, and placement.
There are two methods of making respectful verbforms. The first is suppletively, as in !an!a "to click" > !uǂella or rura "to copulate, mate" > watcunrha. The second is with the infix -zeC, placed as the penultimate syllable, where C geminates the following consonant, if possible, and disappears.
- qattesa "to cut, split" > qattezessa
- caqa "to eat" > cazeqqa
- fyela "to say" > fyezella
- eǁula "to jump, hop" > eǁuzella
This infix is strangely effected by consonants that arose do to their proximity to certain vowels. In effect, it becomes -Vze[ʔ], where V is the original vowel which was deleted.
- rha "to be" > rhazea
- fya "to do" > fyezea
- udja "to wiggle, shake" > udjuzea
- xungya "to swim" > xungyezea
There is also the ultrarespectful infix, -nasse. For verbs with suppletive respectful forms, it is applied to the suppletive respectful form.
- qattesa > qattenassesa
- fya > fyenassea
- rura > watcunnasserha
There are few irregulars, including: rha "to be" > rhazea, rhanassea