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Lutta

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Lutta
Lua-ǂXeda
Type
Agglutinative (verbs), Analytic (nouns)
Alignment
Tripartite
Head direction
left
Tonal
No
Declensions
No
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


General InformationEdit

The Lutta Language (natively Lua-ǂHera [lɯʔə ǂʰerə]) is a Luttan language spoken by the Lua-Hushen.

PhonologyEdit

Pulmonic ConsonantsEdit

alveolar palatal pre-uvular glottal
nasal n ɲ ŋ
stop t d c ɟ ʔ
affricate ts dz tɕ dʑ
fricative central s z ɕ ʑ h
lateral ɬ ʎ̥˔
approximant ɹ l j ʎ ɰ
rhotic r

ClicksEdit

postalveolar lateral palatal
! ǁ ǂ tenuis
ǁʰ ǂʰ aspirated
ᵑ!ˀ ᵑǁˀ ᵑǂˀ glottalized nasal

VowelsEdit

front back
high e ɯ
low ɑ̽
  • /e/:æ~e~ɪ
  • /u/:ɨ~ɯ~ɯ̽
  • /a/:ə~ä~ɑ̽

PhonotacticsEdit

CV(N)

/N/ is a nasal homorganic to the following consonant. It is not found before clicks.

The following CV syllables don't occur: /ne/, /ŋe/, /tu/, /du/, /cu/, /ɟu/, /se/, /ze/, /ɬe/, /le/, /wu/, /!e/, /!ʰe/, /ᵑ!ˀe/, /ǁʰe/, or /ᵑǁˀe/

The following consonants may be geminated between vowels: /n/, /ŋ/, /t/, /c/, /k/, /ts/, /tɕ/, /s/, /ɕ/, /ɹ/, and /l/

NounsEdit

Lutta has no grammatical gender, case, number, or definiteness. However, nouns can take many derivational affixes, and new nouns are frequently coined. For example, some common collectivizing suffixes are -n!a and -jawe found in hushen!a "a lot of people/people in general" and qarajawe "a lot of kids/kids in general".

Verbs Edit

Verbs are conjugated for voice, mood, tense, formality, and placement.

Tense Edit

Mood Edit

Voice Edit

Formality Edit

There are two methods of making respectful verbforms. The first is suppletively, as in !an!a "to click" > !uǂella or rura "to copulate, mate" > watcunrha. The second is with the infix -zeC, placed as the penultimate syllable, where C geminates the following consonant, if possible, and disappears.

  • qattesa "to cut, split" > qattezessa
  • caqa "to eat" > cazeqqa
  • fyela "to say" > fyezella
  • eǁula "to jump, hop" > eǁuzella

This infix is strangely effected by consonants that arose do to their proximity to certain vowels. In effect, it becomes -Vze[ʔ], where V is the original vowel which was deleted.

  • rha "to be" > rhazea
  • fya "to do" > fyezea
  • udja "to wiggle, shake" > udjuzea
  • xungya "to swim" > xungyezea

There is also the ultrarespectful infix, -nasse. For verbs with suppletive respectful forms, it is applied to the suppletive respectful form.

  • qattesa > qattenassesa
  • fya > fyenassea
  • rura > watcunnasserha

There are few irregulars, including: rha "to be" > rhazea, rhanassea

Placement Edit

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