|Alignment||Romance and Germanic|
|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
Luviant ( lɯ vʎant)is a constructed language made by the mixture of the languages French, English and Spanish with natives languages from the Americas. Thus, Luviant belongs to the family of Germanic Languages and Romance languages.
The language uses the Latin alphabet with four kind of accents.
It's the official language of Crystaland and the most spoken in the country. It's the first language for the 94 % of the population in Crystaland with English (3 %), French (2 %) and Spanish (1 %).
The language is regulated by "The Real Luviant Academy" (TRLA) who regulates the language, grammar and meanings of the words.
The name "Luviant" is from the city Luvie, considerate the place where the language born.
Standar Luviant uses differents kind of conosontans sounds depending the combination or the word, the languange has 21 consonants phonemes.
The sounds change with differences beetwen dialects. Also, all of dialects distinguish beetwen the sounds /v/ and /b/.
But with the passage of the time, some sounds and words have changed of the original word.
Luviant only has a glottal and the letter can change the sound depending the word and the tense.
Luviant is quicker than English to pronunciate and the spoken common almost always the final word is omitted.
|Stop||p b||t d||k g|
|Fricative||f v||ð||s z||ʃ ʒ||ʁ|
When the letters 'm' and 'n' have a 'g' next to, the sound becomes into 'ɱ' and 'ŋ'.Luviant's 'r' is like french 'r'. The sound 'ʧ' is the sound of 'ch'.
Luviant has 10 vowel phonemes. The phomene 'e' becames into 'ə' next to the phonome 'ɛ', the phonemes 'ɛ', 'ɔ', 'y' and 'u' only are in grammar diphtongs.
The phoneme are these: /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, /u/, /y/, /ø/, /ə/, /ɯ/, /ɔ/ and /œ/
All the vowel phonemes are some shorts with consonats.
Writing system Edit
Luviant uses the Latin alphabet.
|Sound||/a/||/ai/||Non||/a:/||/b/||/k/,/s/||/s/||/d/ /ð/||/e/||/ei/||Non||/e/ /ə/|
|Sound||Non||/ɯ/||/v/||/w/||/ks/||/ʃ/ /ʒ/ /j/||/z/|
Other sounds are made by diphtongs:
- Ai: /ɛ/
- Ei: /ɛ/
- Oi: /ɔ/
- Ui: /y/
- Ua: /ua/
- Ue: /œ/
- Au: /o/
- Eu: /ø/
- ia: /ʎa/
- ie: /ʎe/
- io: /ʎo/
- Ch: /ʧ/
- Ll: /ʃ/ /ʒ/
- Sh: /ʃ/
- Ee: /i/
The letter 'c' sounds /k/ with the vowels 'a', 'o' and 'u'; and sounds /s/ with the vowels 'e' and 'i'.
The letter 'g' sounds /g/ with the vowels 'a', 'o' and 'u'; sounds /h/ with the vowels 'e' and 'i'; gë /gue/ and gï /gui/; and ghe /ge/ and ghi /gi/
Nouns (Sustants) Edit
Luviant distinguishes two kind of nouns according with the number.
The plural makes with the following rules:
- If the noun ends in vowel, add -s (/s/).
- If the noun ends in consontant, add -s (/s/)
- If the noun ends in 'ch', 'x', 'sh', 's', add -es (/əs/)
- If the noun ends in a grave vowel (`), the vowel becames in a normal vowel and add -s (/s/)
The nouns do not have gender.
The definite article is used to refer to something for the first time or to refer to a particular member of group or class. In Luviant, the definite article does not have gender but it has plural.
- For the singular form, it is used "le" for male and female.
- For the plural form, it is used "les" for male and female.
An indefinite article indicates that its noun is not a particular one (or ones) identifiable to the listener. In Luviant, the indefinite article has gender and number.
- For the singular and female form, it is used "une" .
- For the singular and male form, it is used "unè".
- For the plural and female form, it is used "unes"
- For the plural and male form, it is used "unès"
The word "unès" is an exception in the plural rules.
Pronouns (Pronombs) Edit
Luviant has the following pronouns with special pronuntiation:
- I: Jey /ʃej/
- You: Vou /vu/
- He: Mes /mes/
- She: Mer /meʁ/
- We: Nous /nus/
- You all: Vous /vus/
- They (male): Mest /mest/
- They (female): Meste /meste/
- One (male): Onê /onei/
- One (female): one /one/
The object pronouns are very similar to English and French:
- Me: je, j' /ʃe/
- You: Te, t' /te/
- Him: il /il/
- Her: ellè /el/
- Us: We, w' /we/
- You (plural): Yu, y' /ʃu/
- They (male): Ils /ils/
- They (female): Ellès /els/
J', t', w' and y' only are used with verbs that start with vowel.
The posesive pronouns are these:
- Mine: moile
- Yours: toile.
- His/Hers/Theirs: Soile
- Ours: noile.
The plurar is adding the letter '-s'.
Verbs conjugation Edit
In English, the infitive verb is made with 'to' after the verb. In Spanish and French, the infinitive verb is made with '-er', '-ir' ('-re' in French and '-ar' in Spanish) before the verb. So, in Luviant, the infinitive verb is made with 'et', 'it' and 'at'
Examples: Comit (to eat) Hablet (to speak) Dormat (to sleep)
Note: Soon a complete list of verbs.
Simple Present: Edit
The simple present is made with the lexeme (verb without infinite suffix) with suffixes according to the pronoun:
- With the first person ('Jey' and 'Nous'), add '-est'
- With the second person ('Vou' and 'Vous'), add '-ast'.
- With the thrid person ('Mes', 'Mer', 'Mest' and 'Meste') add '-as'.
Example: Jey vest (I see) Nous hacest (We do)
Vou sast (You are) Vous bebast (You all drink)
Mes/Mer vivas (He/She lives) Mest/Meste sentas (They feel)
But, there are some exceptions:
- The verb 'at' (to go) is the only "irregulate" verb, because its conjugations are the suffixes of each tense.
- If the verb has a 'c' in the end of the lexeme, it changes into 'k' if the sound of this letter is /k/ before 'e' and 'i'. If the sounds is /s/, it changes into 'ç' before 'a', 'o' and 'u'. This rule is used in all of the tenses.
Negative and Interrogative Edit
The negative and interrogative are made like English, it's used an auxiliary: Shall.
In English, Shall is an auxiliary used for the uncommon future but in Luviant, this auxiliary did not use as this way. Shall is used in all tenses. For negative, needs to add not, Shall not or Shan't
In interrogative, Shall is after the subject (just like English).
Shall is not used in affirmative sentence.
Example: Jey shall not buskest (I do not look at)
Meste shall not sas (She is not)
Shall vous entrast? (Do you all enter?)
Shall nous tenest? (Do we have?)
In English, the gerund uses the suffix '-ing'. In Luviant, the gerund uses the lexeme, after duplicate the consonant and add the suffix:
- With jey, mer and mes, We add: -ondù.
- With vou and vous, we add: -onsù.
- With nous, mest and meste, we add: -ontù.
Some examples: Jey estest deçondù (I am saying), Vous estast leonsù (You all are reading), Mest estas disfrutontù (They are enjoying).
But there are some excepcions:
- For verbs with a lexeme of one letter, the letter does not duplicate.
- For the verb 'at', the lexemes are the conjugations.
- These letters are not duplicated: ç, b, h, j, k, ñ, q, w, y, x, z ans the vowels.
The verb 'estet' (to be) follows the same conjugation of the other verbs.
Simple Past Edit
The simple past is very to English tense, because the tense is made with suffixes, like the gerund. The simple past does not use own words for past conjugation.
The simple past tense uses the lexeme, duplicate the consonant and the following suffixes:
- For jey, mes and mer, add: -entè.
- For vou and vous, add: -ontè.
- For nous, meat and meste, add: -antè.
Some examples: Mer observventè (she watched), vou shan't esperrontè (you did not wait), shall meste comprrantè (did they buy?)
But there some excepcions:
- Vebrs with a lexeme of one letter, the letter does not duplicate.
- These letters are not duplicated: c, b, h, j, k, ñ, g, w, y, x, z and the vowels.