Front Central Back
Short Long Short Long Short Long
Close ɪ ʏ i: y: - - ʊ u:
Mid ɛ œ e: ø: ə - ɔ o:
Open - - a a: - -
Vowel Short vowel Long vowel
/a/ [a] [a:]
/e/ [ɛ] ~ [ə] [e:]
/i/ [ɪ] [i:]
/o/ [ɔ] [o:]
/ø/ [œ] [ø:]
/u/ [ʊ] [u:]
/y/ [ʏ] [y:]
/e/ is only pronounced [ə] in word-final unstressed syllables.


The following diphthongs occur in the Lydian language: /aɪ̯/ /aʊ̯/ /ɔʊ̯/ /ɔɪ̯/ /ʊɪ̯/.


Vowel I-umlaut U-umlaut
/a/ /e/ -
/e/ - /a/
/i/ - -
/o/ /ø/ -
/ø/ - /o/
/u/ /y/ -
/y/ - /u/


Labial Coronal Dorsal Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ -
Plosive p b t d k g -
Fricative f v s z ʃ ʒ ç x h
Affricate - t͡ʃ - -
Approximant - l j -
Consonant Primary sound Secondary sound
/h/ [h] [ç] ~ [x]
/n/ [n] [m] ~ [ŋ]
All consonants not listed in the second table do not have any allophones.
/h/ is pronounced [ç] after front vowels and [x] after central and back vowels.


Letter Phoneme
A /a/
B /b/
C /t͡ʃ/
D /d/
E /e/
F /f/
G /g/
H /h/
I /i/
J /ʒ/
K /k/
L /l/
N /n/
O /o/
Ö /ø/
P /p/
S /s/
T /t/
U /u/
Ü /y/
V /v/
X /ʃ/
Y /j/
Z /z/

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