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Múly

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General informationEdit

The language Múly ['mu:lə].

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Manner ↓ Place → Labial Coronal Dorsal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p t k c
Fricative f v s z ç ʝ
Affricate p͡f t͡s c͡ç
Approximant l
Trill r

VowelsEdit

MonophthongsEdit

Height ↓ Backness → Front Central Back
Close ɪ i: ʊ u:
Mid ɛ e: ə ɔ o:
Open a a:

DiphthongsEdit

Height ↓ Backness → Front Central Back
Close ja ja: jʊ ju: wɪ wi: wa wa:
Open aɪ̯ aʊ̯

StressEdit

Mulian stress is on the ultimate syllable of the word stem. If the ultimate contains a short vowel and the penultimate a long vowel, the stress shifts to the penultimate. The stress also shifts to the penultimate if the last syllable contains /ə/.

AlphabetEdit

Letter Sound Letter Sound
A /a/ N /n/
C /c/ O /o/
E /e/ P /p/
F /f/ R /r/
G /ŋ/ S /s/
H /ç/ T /t/
I /i/ U /u/
J /ʝ/ V /v/
K /k/ Y /ə/
L /l/ Z /z/
M /m/

Long vowels are marked with an accute accent (á é í ó ú).

Diphthongs and affricates are written using the letters of the individual sounds - the letters I and U represent [j] and [w] in diphthongs.

NounsEdit

General informationEdit

Mulian nouns are declined for...

  • their number
  • their case
  • their gender
Number Usage
Singular 1 thing
Plural 2 or more things
Collective all things or every single thing
Case Usage
Nominative agent
Accusative patient
Dative recipient / direction
Prepositional with prepositions
Gender Usage
Male male beings + their characteristics
Female female beings + their characteristics
Neuter gender-neutral speech / honorific / things without gender

DeclensionEdit

Singular Plural Collective
Male Female Neuter Male Female Neuter Male Female Neuter
Nominative -a -y -u -au -i -iu
Accusative -an -en -us -aucyn -ityn -iucyn -án -én -ús
Dative -ars -ers -uly -aurig -inym -iurig -árys -érys -úly
Prepositional -ajy -ejy -ujy -auhal -ihyl -iuhul -ápfy -étsy -úchy

VerbsEdit

General informationEdit

Mulian verbs are conjugated for ...

  • their tense
  • their mood
  • their aspect
Tense Usage
Past actions in the past
Present actions in the present ; general statements
Future actions in the future
Mood Usage
Indicative real actions
Subjunctive unreal actions
Imperative orders
Aspect Usage
Perfective completed action
Imperfective uncompleted action

ConjugationEdit

Perfective Imperfective
Indicative Subjunctive Imperative Indicative Subjunctive Imperative
Past -úra -urán - -amíny -alóna -
Present -ain -aidál -ísih -atorp -aitips -ásih
Future -olka -óla - -alkína -aminó -

Infinite verb formsEdit

Múly has 4 infinite verb forms: an infinitive and three participles.

Infinite verb form Usage Suffix
Infinitive basic form of a verb -ótsan
Participle Present currently doing something / contemporarity -ainai
Participle Past already happened to something / anteriority -úrún
Participle Future about to happen / posteriority -ólak

ModifiersEdit

Múly doesn't distinguish adjectives from adverbs - both ideas are expressed by a part of speech that is called "modifiers".

Modifiers are only declined for their grade of comparison.

Grade of comparison Usage Suffix
Positive having a quality
Comparative having more of a quality -óna
Superlative having the most of a quality -óra

Modifiers are always places before the word they are describing.

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