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Maarkos

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Name: Maarkos

Type: Agglutinating with fusional characteristics

Alignment: NomAcc

Head Direction: Initial

Number of genders: None

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes Yes No No No
Nouns No Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No No Yes No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No Yes No No No No No
Article No No Yes No No No No No
Particle No Yes No No No No Yes Yes


Classification and DialectsEdit

Dialactal variations mostly have to do with what suffixes are used and when schwa's are incorporated.

Phonology (Fonologexa)Edit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar
Nasal ɱ n ɲ ŋ
Plosive p b t d k g
Fricative ɸ f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ç
Affricate t͡s t͡ʃ d͡ʒ c͡ç
Approximant ɹ j ɰ
Lateral fric. ɮ̱
Lateral app. l

VowelEdit

Front Near-Front Central Back
Close i u
Near-Close ɪ
Mid e ə o
Near-Low æ
Low a


Writing System (Syxèmy daa Grafy)Edit

Letter A a Aa aa B b C c D d E e F f G g H h I i J j K k L l M m
Sound [æ] [a] [b] [t͡ʃ] [d] [e] [f] [g] [∅] [i] [j] [k] [l] [ɱ]
Letter N n Ñ ñ O o P p

Q / Nq

R r S s T t Sj sj V v W w X x Y y Z z
Sound [n] [ɲ] [o] [p] [ŋ] [r] [s] [t] [ʃ] [v] [ɰ] [ç] [ə] [z]
Letter Zj zj Th th Dh dh Lh lh U u Ǵ ǵ Tz tz Kx kx Ai ai Ph ph È è
Sound [ʒ] [θ] [ð] [ɬ] [u] [d͡ʒ] [t͡s] [c͡ç] [aɪ] [ɸ] [ɪ]

Allophonic SoundsEdit

Original Letter Allophonic Sound
T /d/ /ʔ/
D /ɾ/
X /x/
A At the end of the word is /a/

Grammar (Graamatika)Edit

Nouns (Nomynyz)Edit

Noun Classes (Klazyz daa Nomynyz)Edit

Nouns fall into one of two declension categories:

  • Deliberate (Èntènxaanale):  The nature of the word yields to a more standard pronunciation
  • Relaxed (Daconsate):  The nature of the word yields to a more lazy pronunciation; unstressed vowels becomes <y> and stressed vowels either stay as is or become <è>

There is no pattern for determining this.  The lexicon includes the class of noun.

First declensionEdit

NomAcc Dative
Singular -a -u
Plural -az -uz


Second declensionEdit

NomAccDat
Singular -yt
Plural -yz

Adjectives (Metanomynyz)Edit

Adjectives end in -e and are pluralized with a z.The articles used are dependent on only number, and are Col and Colez for singular and plural respectively.

Pronouns (Èntyrnomynyz)Edit

Irregulars are in bold

Nom Acc Dat Singular Dual Plural
First Ai al u Laa lal lu Naa nal nu
Second Vi vel vu Ti tal tu
Third Qaa qal uq Dhaa dhal udh

Verbs (Verbez)Edit

Can start with a vowel and end with -ere

Imperitives are formed by taking the -ere from the infinitive and replacing it with -alhe

Compound Tenses and Passive VoiceEdit

The compound tenses and passives are formed as follows:

  • Past Participle:  -ate[z]
  • Present Part:    -arnte[z]
  • Perfect Tenses:           Sparere  +  Past Participle
  • Progressive Tenses:   Tzere      +  Present Participle
  • Passive Voice:            Tzere      +  Past Participle

Inflection (Kaanzjugexa)Edit

Verbs in Maarkos are the only part of speech that can begin with a vowel; all of them do.  They are conjucated to tense, number and person.  Aspect and voice are indicated through particles.  Moods are contextual.

Irregular forms are in bold

Past Present Conditional Future
1s -o -e -ai -a
1d -olh -elh -ailh -alh
1p -on -en -ain -an
2s -ov -ev -aiv -av
2p -ot -et -ait -at
3s -om -em -aim -aam
3p -odh -edh -aidh -adh

Syntax (Lajuta)Edit

Word order is SVO in declaratives, VO in imperatives, and VSO in interrogatives.  The indirect object takes the dative case and preceeds the direct.

Subjunctives (Kaanzjuntiv)Edit

Instead of the subjunctive, Maarkos uses a similar structure to English and a few other Germanic languages.  The main indicative clause comes first, followed by Kal, the subject, then the infinitive verb.

Any other construction involving would, and ALWAYS any would construction which has a requirement to be fullfilled, uses the conditional.

LexiconEdit

Maarkos Lexicon

Example textEdit

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