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Macaronian

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Name: Macaronian

Type: Fusional

Alignment: Ergative

Head Direction:

Number of genders: 2

Declensions: No

Conjugations: No

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No No No No No No
Nouns No No No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


Introduction (Internal History) Edit

Macaronian (Macaronian: Lígua Macaroniana) is a Romance language spoken in Madeira Islands and Azores Islands (part of Macaronesia, hence the name), brought by immigrants from Iberia to Madeira in 2nd century AD, and to Azores by another wave in around 500-700 AD. It is generally classified as a separate branch of Romance.

Due to the substrate languages spoken in both archipelagoes, sometimes under the term of "(the hypothetic) Atlantic family", Macaronian has some unique properties among Romance languages, such as ergative alignment, and its over-simplification of consonant clusters. Similar to Sardinian, G and C did not undergo palatalization before I and E, and voiceless consonants are voiced between vowels. Lexically, due to contacts with Iberia and North Africa, there are some features (including lexicon) shared by Ibero-Romance and words of Berber and Phoenician origin.

Sound Changes Edit

1. Classical Latin to Pre-Migration Vulgar Latin (before 200AD) Edit

(1) /h/ is lost: HABĒRE, PREHENDERE > *aβere, *prendere > aver, piéder

(2) Final /m/ disappears i.e. m> ∅ /_# e.g. VĪTAM, SEPTEM > *βida, *septe > vida, seut

except in some monosyllables: QUEM, TAM> *kwen, *tan > quen, tan

(3) AE and OE are monophthongized:ai, oi > e, e.g. CAELUM, GRAECUM, POENAM > *kelu,*greku, *pena > cel, gieg, pena;

(4) Single plosives lenite intervocalically: p, t, k, b, d, g, pp, tt, kk > b, d, g, β, ð, ɣ, p, t, k,/V_V: BIBERE, NŪDUM > *biβere, *nuðu > biver, nuz;

CAEPULLAM, RECIPERE, PRĀTUM, FOCUM > *kebulla, *rekibere, *pradu, *ɸogu > cebuxa, reciber, piad, hog;

STUPPAM, GUTTAM, PECCĀTUM > *stupa, *guta, *pekadu > þupa, guta, pecad;

(Plosives surrounded by a semivowel were somewhat preserved for they were geminated intervocalically, but suffered other changes)

(5) Vowel length are leveled: LUPŌS, VĪTAM > *lubos, *βida > lubö, vida;

(6)Clusters of three consonants are simplified: ASSŪMPTUM, SANCTUM, PRŌMPTUM > *assuntu, *santu, *prontu > asút, piót;

(7) pʰ tʰ kʰ > ɸ t k;

(8) y > i: CYGNUM > *kiɲu > cinh;

(8) F and V become /ɸ β/ respectively;

(9) e, i > j / _V: FORTIAM, VĪNEAM > *ɸortja, *βiɲa > höiça, vinha;

(10) u > w / _V: VIDUA > *widwa > vidva;

(10) ns > s: ĪNSULAM > *isula > ixa;

2. Vulgar Latin to Proto-Macaronian (200-500 AD)Edit

(1) ɸ > h / #_V, e.g. FĪLIUM > *ɸilju > hij;

otherwise retained: OFFICIUM > *oɸikkju > *oɸitsju > ofich;

(2) Palatalization: (t)tj/(k)kj, (d)dj/(g)gj > tsj, j / _V e.g. ALTIĀRE, BRĀCHIUM, FACIEM, LINTEOLUM, INVIDIAM, RADIUM  > *altjare, *brakkju, *ɸakkje, *lintjolu, *inβidja, *radju > *altsjare, *bjatsju, *hatsje, *lintsjolu, *inβija, *raju > älçar, byäç, häç, líçol, inviya, rai;

stj, skj > ʃ, e.g. FASCIAM, QUAESITIONEM, SCIENTIAM > *ɸaskja, *kʷesitjoni, *skjentja > *haʃa, *kʷeʃoni, *ʃentsja > haxa, quexön, xéça;

sj, ssj > ʃ, ʃʃ, e.g. MANSIONEM, PASSIONEM, RUSSEUM >*masjoni, *passjoni, *russju > *maʃoni, *paʃʃoni, *ruʃʃu > maxön, paxön, rux;

BĀSIUM, ECCLĒSIAM,  LAESIONEM > *basju, *eklesja, *lesjoni >*baʃu, *etɬeʃa, *leʃoni > bax, chexa, lexön;

rj > j, e.g.  IANUĀRIUM, FEBRUĀRIUM > *janwarju, *ɸebrwarju > *dʒaŋwaju, *hebjwaju > janhvai, hebiai;

gn, mn, nj > *ɲ, e.ɡ. AUTUMNUM, DOMINAM, PUGNUM > *autumnu, *dómina, *pugnu > *atuŋu, *doɲa, *puɲu > atunh, dönha, punh;

j > dʒ / #_, e.g. IAM, IEIŪNUM, IŪSTUM, MĀIOREM > *ja, *jejunu, *justu, *majori > *dʒa, *dʒejunu, *dʒutθu, *majori > ja, jeyun, juþ, mayör;

lj > dʒ, e.g. FĪLIUM > *ɸilju > hij;

(3) C+/s/ clusters are simplified intervocalically: bs, ps, ks >s, s, ts, e.g. ABSOLŪTUM, PSALMUM > *absolutu, *psalmu> *asolutu, *salmu > asolut, salm;

COXAM, FLUXUM, TOXICUM, VEXĀMEN > *koksa, *ɸluksu, *toksiku, *βeksamen > *kotsa, *ɬutsu, *totsiku, *βetsamen > coça, xuç, toçic, veçame;

Pretonically ks > dz: EXHAURĪRE, EXŌTICUM, EXSULTĀTIONEM > *egsaurire, *egsotiku, *egsultatjoni > *edzaurire, *edzotiku, *edzultatsjoni > ejaurir, ejotic, ejultacön;

ks > s/_C, e.g. DEXTERUM, EXPRESSIONEM, EXTENSUM > *déksteru, *ekspresjone, *ekstensu > *désteru, *espjeʃʃoni, *estensu > dester, espiexön, estés;

(4) bt, pt > wt, e.g.  OBTENĒRE, SEPTEM, OPTIONEM > *optenere, *septe, *optjoni > *owtenere, *sewte, *owtsjoni > outener, seut, ouçön;

(5) Frication of /s/+C clusters within morpheme boundary: sp, st, sk, skw > ɸ, tθ, x, xw, e.g. SCĀLAM, SPATIUM, STĀRE > *xala, *ɸatsu, *tθare > hala, faç, þar;

(6) Loss of /r/ in Cr clusters: r> j / C_, C={p,t,k,b,d,g} e.g. GRATIA > *grattja> *gjatsja > giyäça; ɸr > β e.g. FRIGIDUM > *βiɣiðu > *βejzu > veiz;

(7) Loss of /l/ in Cl clusters: pl, kl > tɬ; bl, gl > dɮ; hl > ɬ; ɸl > ɬw, e.g. CLĀMĀRE, FLŪMEN, PLŌRĀRE > *klamare, *hlumen, *plorare > *tɬamare, *ɬumen, *tɬorare > chamar, xüme, chorar;

l > j/{p,f,k}_ , e.g. CLĒMENTIAM, FLUXUM, PLATEAM> *klementja, *ɸluksu, *plattja > *kjementsja, *hjutsu, *pjatsja > cieméça, hiuç, piaça;

(8) unstressed C1VC2 > C1C2 / V = o, u: ARTICULUM, POPULUM, ROTULUM, INSULA, EPISTULAM, SOLEMNEM, MONASTĒRIUM > *artiklu, *poplu, *rotlu, *isla, *ebistla, *slemni, *mnasterju > *artitɬu, *popwu, *rotɬu, *iɬa, *bitθla, *ɬeɲi, *ɲatθeju > artich, poup, roch, ixa, biþla, xenh, nhaþei;

(9) 

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