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Macro-Arishian

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PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Proto-Arish has the following consonants:

IPA Pulmonic consonants chart
Place → Labial Coronal Dorsal Radical Glottal
↓ Manner Bila​bial Labio​dental Den​tal Alve​olar Post​alv. Retro​flex Pal​a​tal Ve​lar Uvu​lar Pha​ryn​geal Epi​glot​tal Glot​tal
Nasal m n
Plosive p b t d k ɡ ʔ
Fricative f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ x ɣ ħ h
Approximant j
Trill r
Flap or tap
Lateral Fric.
Lateral Appr. l
Lateral flap




Moreover, the combination [kʃ] is considered a consonant on its own.

VowelsEdit

Proto-Arish recognizes only three simple vowels: [a], [i] and [u], both short and long.

SyllablesEdit

A syllable in Proto-Arish always starts with a consonant. There can also be a consonant at the end of a syllable. Semivowels [j] and [w] can come between a consonant and a vowel. So, the overall syllabic structure of the language can be described as:

C(S)V(C)

Most roots have two syllables, so the syllabic structure for roots is:

C(S)V(C)C(S)V(C)

where the optional consonants can also be the semivowels [j] or [w].

Stress falls generally on the first syllable of roots. There are, however, prefixes and suffixes which can carry stress.

MorphologyEdit

Proto-Arishian makes wide use of internal changes in words with grammatical functions. These changes affect both the syllabic structure of words and the nature of specific sounds.

NounsEdit

StateEdit

Noun "states" include both definiteness (reference) and whether the noun is a nucleus or an adjunct, as well as to whether the noun represents a class (generic), an individual or a collectivity.

Definite (Referenced) Indefinite (Unreferenced)
Nucleus Adjunct Nucleus Adjunct
Class ʔas- kas- ʃas- fas-
Instance lux- ʔux- mux- fux-
Collective lin- gin- min- fin-

Example:

  • riɣu "house"
Definite (Referenced) Indefinite (Unreferenced)
Nucleus Adjunct Nucleus Adjunct
Class ʔasriɣu "house" (any house; the conception of a house) kasriɣu "(of) house" ʃasriɣu "any house" fasriɣu "(of) any house"
Instance luxriɣu "the house" (a specific one) ʔuxriɣu "(of) the house" muxriɣu "a house" (not referenced before) fuxriɣu "(of) a house"
Collective linriɣu "the houses" (a whole group of houses) ginriɣu "(of) the houses" minriɣu "houses" finriɣu "(of) houses"

NumberEdit

Plural is indicated by the infix -ja- inserted after the first (stressed) syllable of the noun stem. Stress is, then, shifted onto this infix. Ex.:

  • riɣu "house", rijaɣu "houses"
  • nidaħ "car", nijadaħ "cars"
  • likʃvi "animal", lijakʃvi "animals"

For collective plurals, however, the state prefixes are used (see above).

The so called "expressive plural" (ʔassiʒbi fasɣulta), indicating an excessive quantity, consists in the infix -wa-, the stress shift onto it, and doubling the consonant coming right after it. Ex.:

  • riɣu "house", riwaɣɣu "a lot of houses", "too many houses"
  • nidaħ "car", niwaddaħ "a lot of cars", "too many cars"
  • likʃvi "animal", liwakkʃvi "a lot of animals", "too many animals"

There is also a paucal number, which is not used very often, indicating a small quantity (like "two or three" or "half a dozen" or "just a few"). It consists in extracting the vowel from the first (stressed) syllable and using it as a prefix, properly accompanied by a ʔ because no word can begin with a vowel. Ex.:

  • riɣu "house", ʔirɣu "(just a few) houses"
  • nidaħ "car", ʔindaħ "(just a few) cars"
  • likʃvi "animal", ʔilkʃvi "(just a few) animals"

The dual number consists in the suffix -jân which shifts the stress onto itself. Ex.:

  • riɣu "house", riɣujân "two houses"
  • nidaħ "car", nidaħjân "two cars"
  • likʃvi "animal", likʃvijân "two animals"

The following table resumes the possibilities of number indication in Proto-Arish:

Singular Dual Paucal Simple Plural Excessive Plural Collective
riɣu riɣujân ʔirɣu rijaɣu riwaɣɣu linriɣu/minriɣu/ginriɣu/finriɣu
nidaħ nidaħjân ʔindaħ nijadaħ niwaddaħ linnidaħ/minnidaħ/ginnidaħ/finnidaħ
likʃvi likʃvijân ʔilkʃvi lijakʃvi liwakkʃvi linlikʃvi/minlikʃvi/ginlikʃvi/finlikʃvi

CaseEdit

AdjunctEdit

The "adjunct" function indicated by the state prefixes works most like a genitive case in nominal syntagmas. Ex.:

  • nikʃim "chief"; sartîkʃ "people"
    • luxnikʃim ʔuxsartîkʃ "the chief of the people"
    • luxsartîkʃ ʔuxnikʃim "the people of the chief"

However, possession is not the only notion indicated by this function, as it simply establishes that the second noun is an adjunct (or a satellite) to the nucleus of the syntagma. It also may function as a dative or instrumental case. Ex.:

  • ħuslu "love"; biʒhi "child"
    • ʔasħuslu kasbiʒhi "love to the children"
  • waflim "death"; ʔîriz "sword"
    • ʃaswaflim fasʔîriz "death by a sword"

Otherwise, there is no "real" genitive or dative case.

LocationEdit

There are several suffixes for indicating different spacial (locative) notions.

Case Suffix Meaning Example
Adessive -man "on" luxkʃiraman "on the box"
Inessive -mâj "in", "inside" luxkʃiramâj "in(side) the box"
Elative -mir "out of" luxkʃiramir "out of the box"
Illative -nâr "into" luxkʃiranâr "into the box"
Allative -taw "onto" luxkʃirataw "onto the box"
Ablative -miθ "off" luxkʃiramiθ "off the box"
Apudessive -laɣ, -laʒ "next to", "near" luxkʃiralaɣ, luxkʃiralaʒ "next to the box"
Lative -hun "to", "towards" (general direction) luxkʃirahun "toward the box"
Perlative -sakʃ "through" luxkʃirasakʃ "through the box"
Subessive -daʂ "under", "beneath" luxkʃiradaʂ "under the box"
Terminative -had "until", "up to" luxkʃirahad "up to the box"

TimeEdit

The following suffixes indicate notions of time:

Case Suffix Meaning Example
Temporal -xid "during" luxnabguxid "during the class"
Antessive -dab "before" luxnabgudab "before class"
Postessive -lir "after" luxnabgulir "after class"
Reiterative -jaʂ "always when"; "at all instances of" luxnabgujaʂ "always at the dinner"

OtherEdit

Other notions such as Instrumental, Commitative &c. are expressed by means of prepositions.

Case Preposition Meaning Example
Instrumental ður "by means of" ður muxrâʃtak "with a hammer"
Commitative dawʒi "(together) with" dawʒi muxwajakʃtiʒ "(together) with some friends"
- ħaj "like" ħaj luxʔixlu "like the sun"
- zâhzan "made (out) of" zâhzan ʃasjurʃam "made of wood"

GenderEdit

There are not properly grammatical genders. However, male and female forms of nouns referring to animals or to humans can be formed with suffixes. Ex.:

  • ʃudra (an animal similar to a) horse
    • ʃudrax "male horse"
    • ʃudraf "female horse"
  • wuthka "teacher"
    • wuthkax "male teacher"
    • wuthkaf "female teacher"

These forms apply only to nouns and do not trigger any kind of agreement in adjectives, pronouns or verbs.

AdjectivesEdit

ComparisonEdit

PronounsEdit

PersonalEdit

PossessiveEdit

DemonstrativeEdit

RelativeEdit

InterrogativeEdit

IndefiniteEdit

NumbersEdit

CardinalEdit

  • 0:
  • 1:
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  • 1000:
  • 1234:

OrdinalEdit

  • 1st:
  • 2nd:
  • 3rd:
  • 4th:
  • 5th:

&c.

VerbsEdit

ConceptsEdit

Arishian verbs show a number of derivational forms that express notions like transitivity, cause, passiveness and other ideas conceived in English by means of modal verbs.

There are no auxiliary verbs or periphrastic constructions, all verbal expressions are made up with a single word.

Infixes are used to create derivational roots. Aspect is indicated by means of infixes, prefixes or root alteration (mutation). Time is indicated by means of suffixes.

Indication of person is rather complex. It depends on verb transitivity and on the existance and nature of direct objects.

SyntaxEdit

VocabularyEdit

DerivationEdit

There are four main derivation methods: prefixation, suffixation, mutation and composition.

PrefixationEdit

Prefixes generally add some meaning to the basic root, leaving the result word in the same category as the original word. The most important prefixes are:

Prefix Meaning Example
paw- "repatition", "again" pawkʃakʃku "be born again"
raj- "des-", "dis-", "opposite process" rajnuʂraʔ "destroy"
zâ- "effectively", "truly" zârajnuʂraʔ "effectively destroy"
tos- "inside", "in the inner side" tosʂifti "internal guard"
ɣur- "outside", "external" ɣurʒuwθi "superficial/apparent effect"

SuffixationEdit

Suffixes generally (but not always) create a word in a different class then the original word.

Suffix Meaning Examples
-kin "tool" mawsakin "weapon"; duwlakin "(working) tool"; kʃajθûkin "key"
-ʂaj "group" kʃâjfaʂaj "(whole) family"; duwlaʂaj "team"
-θi "adjective" kʃâjfaθi "familiar", "relating to the family"; duwlaθi "relating to work"
-xta "quality" ʃintîxta "happiness"; θarsaxta "violence"; wathahxta "peace"; ðâxlixta "(state of) war"
-ukʃ "action" mawsaukʃ "killing", "death", "murder"; watzâʜukʃ "rejection"; ðâxliukʃ "(act of) war"

MutationEdit

The process called "mutation" is the most important one in Macro-Arish word formation. It consists in altering the internal structure of words either by changing one or more vowels in the word or by changing completely the syllabic structure of the root. Prefixes and suffixes may also be used together with these mutations.

  • In the table below, we use the following conventions to indicate the structure of the mutations:
    • A hyphen ( - ) indicates a single consonant.
    • Three dots ( ... ) indicate that this part of the word remains intact. So, ...-â- indicates that you have only to insert the vowel â before the last consonant of a word; while -u...u- means that you must insert a u both after the first consonant and before the last consonant of the stem.
    • An ex ( x ) indicates that all the vowels in this section of the stem are to be removed, remaining only the vowels. So, e.g., -u-x-a indicates that you must remove all vowels of the stem and then add a u after the first consonant and an a to the end of the word.
    • A number indicates which syllable must have its vowel changed to the vowel indicated in the formula. So, u2 indicates that you have only to turn the second vowel of the word to u, while î2 indicates that the next-to-last syllable of the word must have its vowel shifted to î.
Mutation Meaning Examples
-u-x-a "doer", "agent" wuthka "teacher" (from wathuk "teach"); duwla "murderer", "killer" (from duwla "kill")
-i...e- "passive" withek "pupil", "student" (from wathuk "teach"); diwel "victim", "killed" (from duwla "kill")
-e...-ma "place" wethukma "school" (from wathuk "teach"); dewlma "arena" (from duwla "kill")
ja-i-x-i "realization" jawithki "teaching" (from wathuk "teach"); jadiwli "killing" (from duwla "kill")

CompositionEdit

SamplesEdit

  • An-cinlumçû´i´ an-madu emeshdupu-lel nafgimrû, gurkûcdûn-uf wi huswismnâci´-uf. Lâ´u egewordeshef-el dîwer-uf wi wûsdâc-uf, wi bûnuduran-el an-´uhgomye.´i´-en 'îfsûcken-uf shâc'inu-yîc.
    • ("All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.")

Correlation of phonemesEdit

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