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Mahali
Type
Alignment fusional
Head direction initial
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders 5
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 0%
Statistics
Nouns 0%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 0%
Words of 1500
Creator Willowdove

This is an isolated language I developed for a fictional piece based around an all-female society of mermaids.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive p b t d k g ʔ
Fricative f v s h
Affricate ts
Approximant ɹ
Trill
Flap or tap
Lateral fric.
Lateral app. l
Lateral flap

and voiced labio-velar approximate /w/

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
High i u
Near-high
High-mid o
Mid
Low-mid ɛ
Near-low
Low ɑ

 

PhonotacticsEdit

  • Syllables (C(C))
  • Allowed consonant pairings:
p b m f v t d s ts n l j r k g w
p - pl pr
b - bl br
m -
f - fr
v - vr
t - tr tw
d - dr dw
s sp st - sl sk sw
ts -
n -
l -
j -
r -
k kl kr - kw
g gl gr - gw
w -
  • First instance of adjacent vowels separated by a glottal stop V'V
  • The above case is the only instance in which a glottal stop can occur. All remaining instances of adjacent vowels must be separated by /h/ VhV

Writing SystemEdit

All letters correspond to IPA except for those noted here: 

Letter a e j r '
Sound ɑ

 

ɛ ɹ ʔ

GrammarEdit

1

Past Present Future
I

1st person sin.

-ajasa -aja -ajafa
we (in.)/ we (ex.)

1st person pl.

-arasa -ara -arafa
you/she (an.)/ it (inan.)

2nd + 3rd person sin.

-asa -a -afa
y'all/they (an.)/ they (inan.)

2nd + 3rd person pl.

-anasa -ana -anafa
  • Verbs conjugated according to the table above. Present Progressive form (ing): aw
  • Verbs must agree with subject nouns in ending vowel. If the subject noun ends in /e/, all vowels in the verb ending change to an /e/. This would make the past 3rd person plural -enese
  • Infinitive verbs end in /a/
  • Adverbs follow the verb and agree with the subject noun
  • Adjectives (with exception of numerical modifiers) must agree with the modified noun in end vowel
  • Plurality indicated by ma- prefix
  • Genitive (possessive) indicated by affix o such that the possessed item precedes and the possessor follows. Think Spanish de.
  • SVO word order is default word order
  • Article la/le/li/lo/lu marks the direct object. It agrees with the end vowel of the modified noun
  • The object noun, with its marker, can be moved before the subject to create passive voice
  • Questions are formed in VSO order and marked with rising intonation
  • Subject and object pronouns (I/me, we/us, she/her, they/them) are the same morpheme</p>

LexiconEdit

 Pronouns Edit

I- ja

we (inclusive)- larewa

we (exclusive)- larowa

you- kwa

y’all (plural)- makwa

she (animate)- owa

it (inanimate)- owi’i

they (animate)- ona

they (inanimate)- oni’i


Feeling Adjectives/Verbss Edit

hungry/to hunger- onumwa

tired/to be tired- drusa

sad/to be sad- dunama

angry/to be angry- hoga

ill/to be ill- raliwe

embarrassed/to be embarrassed- helare

ashamed/to be ashamed- sowa

thankful/to be thankful- lime

doubtful/to be doubtful- tiha

worried/to be worry- webaka

sore/to be sore- owida

hopeful/to be hopeful- liho

itchy/to itch- nitse

Question/Answer Edit

question- mawoste

answer- loho’a

who- pija

what- pire

where- pimo

when- pika

why- pivi

how- piwe

this- berere

that- bere

there- bemo

then- beka

long- dane

Adjectives Edit

short- ose

wide- tse

tall- vre

narrow- agise    

small- melera

medium/neutral- ewe

middle- ekware

hot- taniske

warm- ihe

cold- ode

new- ine

old- elete

good- sale

bad- skagre

full- sare

empty- spre

neat- trehene

messy- hapele

murky- iske

clear- pote

shiny- sokale’e

dry- ta’ese

smooth- ome

sharp- tike

rough- jake

heavy- ewile

light- lire

skinny- ene

fat- wage

high (pitch)- a’e

low (pitch)- be

quiet- kene

loud- bome

different- ubre

same- like

strange- wespe

normal- epehe

common- lare

rare- iwoke

right/correct- dare

wrong- tselukre

beautiful- kalele

ugly- uku’e

curious- oklure

friendly- rade

unfriendly- norade (from friendly rade and prefix negative no)

intelligent- pekohe

stupid- igrate

great/best- sasale (from good sale)

terrible/worst- skaskagre (from bad skagre)

worthy- hanebe

sweet- nere

salty- gwate

umami- fame

bitter- ospite

Quantity Edit

total- drili

all- afra

many- dolalo

few- itsi

most-  hakiha’i (from yes ha’i)

least- nono (from no no)

less/subtract- adima

more/add- riple

only- bi

some- sla’ati

part/piece- ada

zero/none- nela

one- be

two- se

three- he

four- ele

five- ala

six- to

seven- ka

eight- ri

nine- sadu

ten- sko

eleven- skobe (ten 1)

twelve- skose (ten 2)

twenty- sesko (2 ten)

twenty-one- seskobe (2 ten 1)

hundred- mekala

two hundred- se mekala

three hundred and thirty three- ka mekala kaskoka

first/initial- robe

second- rose

last/final- klima

Time Edit

time- ka

second- rama

minute- pe

hour- ovra

day- a’ola

week (5 days)- etare

month (29/30 days)-  loda (from moon loda)

year (12 months)- amoni

season/cycle- metaba

summer- faleri

winter-  kate

spring- inara

fall- umigi

night- lise

sunrise/dawn- nalehamona (from up nale and sun hamona)

sunset/dusk- ladruhamona (from down ladru and sun hamona)

morning- emame

evening- lehoska

noon- adable

afternoon- era’adable (from after era and noon adabe)

before- latsa

after- era

early- vresa

late- tseli

earlier- vrevresa

later- tsetseli

always- stasle

often- mila

rarely- so’iwoke

never- wi’uba

again- kito

while- ajosi

now- kereti

tomorrow- eme

yesterday- kiha

past- ari

future- rekana

Color Edit

red- ake

green- ralama

yellow- vrebrale

blue- otsinu

orange- kidri

purple- elewa

teal (more green than blue)- a’ope

turquoise (more blue than green)- rebida

white- kale

black- lepijo

light- laka

dark- elisi

Body Nouns Edit

head- kweso

ear- afela

eye- olihi

nose- saswi

mouth- etoni

lips- ma’opi

tooth- drali

tongue/speech- baso

neck- daguske

throat- eso’a

arm- e’ilu

elbow- gletse

hand- ani

finger- ifola

thumb- do

belly- edawo

back- onila

breast- muwela

skin- resposu

blood- oro

bone- aspesi

stomach- krabeni

liver- osuke

intestines- matan

heart- arepa

waste- kaka

hair- pelo

nail- omila

scale- koto

tail- ga

fluke- fani

Verbs Edit

be- isa

do- hatsa

make- unopa

try- rota

breathe- eleva

suffocate- no’eleva (from breathe eleva and prefix negative no)

eat- ebosa

bite- lapola

look/seek- oba

see/sight- obesa

hear- hera

sound/to make noise- ku’ela

smell- vriruda

taste- atola

feel/touch- aja

know- romika

think- apona

believe- ofula

sleep- lema

wake- kliwa

birth- osame

die- grune

kill- huke

wound- iraka

break- ska

ruin- miga

swim (slowly)- stolida (from swim normally lida)

swim (normally)- lida

swim (quickly)- ralida (from swim normally lida)

move- vreda

sink- elata

float- frela

hunt- tarama

catch- mona

come-  omogwa

avoid- sajome

twist- mila

turn- rema

smash- gibera

roll- emala

gouge- draka

guide- abola

lie (down)/recline- wospa

orient oneself parallel- spahoda

orient oneself perpendicular- stakwiba

laugh- erula

smile- asila

frown- anewa

give- gola

grant- gilifa

bless- afraja

take- redesa

keep- lihana

say- basa (from tongue baso)

ask- aska

tell- bika

sing- kala

swear/give oath- e’ana

love- idala

like/enjoy- alina

dislike/be aggravated by- no’alina (from like alina and prefix negative no)

hate- spatsa

want- sta

leave- tahita

go- amoga

stay- no’amoga (from go amoga and prefix negative no)

let/allow- temispa

forbid/prohibit- senakra

put- wespa

seem/appear- misa’asa

begin- skiha

end- pelaba

carry- meta

change- maraka

join- astira

meet- ihisa

trade- gwiha

barter- wadiva

respect- amama

have/own- ilaka

Animal and Plant Nouns Edit

mermaid/person- ladwa

human- kige

male- piwawespi (from strange wespi and prefix associated thing piwa)

animal/creature- narake

fish- eme’e

jellyfish- wota

shark- lahato

whale- amedi

octopus- livrita

squid- ufi

eel- i’ile

coral- ba

seaweed- haho

anemone- anemone

egg- a’a

shell- lekawo

oyster- atemi

pearl- posi

barnacle- lesko

algae- laso

algal bloom- lasoso

sea star- atave

sea cucumber- letu

dolphin- akuha

Environmental Nouns Edit

life- ra

sun- hamona

moon- loda

ocean- sasale mame (from great sasale, and mother mame)

rain/water- oro o sasale mame (from blood oro, of o, and ocean sasale mame)

air- aseha

surface (above water)- astehi

trench- dospo

mountain- ena

cave- lefolu

home- welo

deep water- ogo

shallow water- blima

wave- desi

stone- ospaso

sand- e’i

reef- pitsi

surface current- gada

deep water current- wihojo

hunting ground- lidutarama (from tarama to hunt, and place lidu)

danger- alara

glow- lutoda

shine- ale’e

storm- ejofo

Produced Object Nouns Edit

ship- te’u

rope- eselo

net- kesa

knot- legu

metal- vodale

spear- bena

knife- gako

driftwood- itospa

basket- slisi

jewelry- mesade

hook- gwako

hammer- eturaki

chisel- todro

tool- tule

bag- piwameta (from carry meta and prefix associated thing piwa)

song-

octave- wase

note (music)- egi

story/to tell a story- resta

gift- piwagola (from give gola and prefix associated thing piwa)

food- tsele

fishbait- eme’etsele (from fish eme’e and

food tsele)

Family/Social Nouns Edit

mother- mame

sister- naja (from I ja and prefix near na)

child- inasani (from new ina and fluke sani)

daughter- ama

nuclear family- nabasa (from family basa and prefix near na)

extended family- basa

merfolk/people- gebasa (from nuclear family basa and prefix far ge)

outsider/social outcast- nobasa (from nuclear family basa and prefix negative no)

cousin- hedi

aunt- namame (from mother mame and prefix near na)

niece-  enolo

grandniece-  dekwamu

grandmother- sola

granddaughter- ekri

great aunt- na’sola (from grandmother sola and prefix near na)

unrelated girl/woman w/o children- gehedi (from cousin hedi and prefix far ge)

unrelated mother- gemame (from mother mame and prefix far ge)

unrelated grandmother- gesola (from grandmother sola and prefix far ge)

ancestor- iskeme

tribe- eweho

elder (of higher social class)- uta’a

youth/girl (of lower social class)- bebe

stranger- luko

shaman- ekala (from sing kala and prefix associated person e)

hunter- etarama (from hunt tarama and prefix associated person e)

hello-  ma’asila (from smiles ma’asila)

goodbye- afraselikwi (bastardization of blessed journey)

alone- hable

together- kotse

Relative Location/Directionality Edit

here- bekamo

place- lidu

everywhere- afralidu (from all afra and place lidu)

in- ale

on- a

off- hu

out- ibo

near/close- nana (from prefix close na)

far- gege (from prefix far ge)

over- ahaspa

under- atomo

through- duji

top-  se’abla

bottom- se’opo

side- rimeli

left- dideda

right- taspu

up- nile

down- ladru

across/opposite- kusti

against/adjacent- amensa

among- erasa

forward- kobre

back- naso

Miscellaneous Edit

to- tu

into- aletu (from in ale and to tu)

too/also- emi

a/the- la/le/li/lo/lu

no- no

yes- ha’i

but- pero

and- i

or- da

of/belonging to- o

by- ja

from- so

may- ta

should- bekini

could- twakini

would- pokini

if- samo

because- esko

so- adu

for- fo

with/together- sa

without- nosa (from with sa)

than- okwa

quite- rapora

very- neta

name- komo

word- tsu

idea- pedre

must- tadu

must not- notadu (from must tadu and prefix negative  no)

can- dra

cannot- nodra (from can du and prefix negative no)

everything- afrapiwa (from all afra and thing piwa)

value- alesa

purpose/reason- bekora

meeting- blene

journey- lekwili

weight- ralota

maybe/possibly- eta

secret- sakite

please- atse

thank you- plane

Example textEdit

May the Great Mother smile on our meeting (formal greeting) 

Ta Sasale Mame asile a le blene o larewa

may great mother smile on obj-meeting of us(in.)

May the Great Mother bless your journey (formal farewell) 

Ta Sasale Mame afraje li lekwili o kwa

may great mother bless obj-journey of you

Sharks often swim in that area

Malahato lido milo ale beru lidu

sharks swim often in that area

The shaman sang the home song and a cave was made in the mountain

Ekala kalasa la kala o welo i lefolu unopusu ale ena

shaman sang obj-song of home and cave made in mountain

 

Later in the year we will be able to hunt in the hunting grounds again

Tsetseli ale amoni larowa drarafa tarama ale la lidutarama kito

later in year we(ex.) can hunt in obj-hunting grounds again

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