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Maríshan

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Maríshan is a romance-derived conlang that is fictionally spoken by the natives of the island of Maríshe, which is located not terribly far from France and other European countries and governments. For this reason Maríshe has a lot of similarity with French with regards to loanwords and some grammar, but there is also a very distinct "formal" version which has a distinct OSV layout that is very unusual. Fictionally the modern period runs from 1545 to the current day though the middle period would be understandable to most (though spelling was often arbitrary).


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Name: Maríshan

Type: Romance Derivative

Alignment: Nominative-accusative (?)

Head Direction: Final

Number of genders: Two (marginally)

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


SettingEdit

The history of the language is broadly categorized into three periods: old, middle and modern Maríshan. Like French and English, most native speakers would have trouble reading, much less understanding Old Maríshan. A native speaker might understand spoken middle Maríshan after a period of acclimation, but spelling was largely arbitrary, so reading would be difficult. The Old period is roughly 900 - 1390, and the middle period starts in 1390 and runs to 1545, the date at which the Maríshan people gained independence. After gaining their freedom, the language continued to evolve into what is considered modern Maríshan today.

Old Maríshan was a considerably different language than even Middle Maríshan. This drastic difference from Old to Middle Maríshan has caused many to consider that Middle Maríshan was actually a creole since France had started occupation in 1386, and it is from this contact that most scholars believe that Maríshan picked up its largely Romance vocabulary. The creole theory is largely controversial, however, and there are many who dismiss it. They reason that any language sufficiently exposed to another will tend to pick up the vocabulary of the other, especially if one language is the language of the courts, and the other is not. Considering that Maríshan has always been OSV in its lowest register seems to indicate that the creole theory is wrong, or at least flawed, though others believe that a generation of exposure to both Old Maríshan and French could have also lead to the newer generation picking up the OSV tendencies. It is interesting to note that Maríshan did not obtain a high register form that allowed flexible placement of subject and object via re-ordering of the pronouns until the middle period, and many have speculated that it was a concession to allow a more readily understood conversation between the occupiers and the natives.

Nevertheless, scholars point to the complicated pronoun system, and conjugation system as reasons why the creole theory is incorrect. The toi- prefix on conditional verbs, for example, is traceable to taoa- in Old Maríshan, which functioned the same way as the current prefix. The -soí postfix on pronouns (-soae Old. Mar.), as well as the definite and indefinite classes of pronouns also trace directly back to Old Maríshan.

Middle Maríshan would be reasonably well tolerated by a modern speaker once they acclimated to the accent. Speaking would be possible once the required vowel changes were made, but reading would still be difficult. Reading even in the early modern period would have been difficult, as it wasn't until 1634 that the Academy formalized the language, grammar, and spelling. Modern Maríshan grammar itself has not changed much from Middle Maríshan, but as loan words gain acceptance, the vocabulary is drifting slowly away from the mostly French influence. Englaisismen include words like oqaé which is abbreviated to the familiar ok that is replacing the French inspired word acord meaning roughly the same thing.


PhonologyEdit

Maríshan uses the standard latin alphabet. The letters W, K, X are not often used; though K does show up in two oft-used pronouns (ki (this) and kili (that)). W appears in foreign names, and words usually borrowed from other languages.

Vowels Edit

  • A
    • IPA: /æ/ and /a:/
    • Written: < a á ä â >
    • Examples: lu quat /ly kæt/ (the cat), loinas /lwa:na:/ (away)
    • Pronunciation Rules: A is nearly always pronounced /a:/, but there are many words that use /æ/. There is no specific rule to indicate when one should use /æ/, and so those words are generally memorized. Note: The diacritics on A do not modify pronunciation; they only serve to distinguish between homophones.
  • E
    • IPA: /e/ and /ɛ/
    • Written: < e é ë ê >
    • Examples: demandev /dma~de/ (to demand), avé /a:ve/ (with)
    • Pronunciation Rules: <e, ë, ê> are all pronounced /ɛ/. <é> is pronounced /e/.
    • Exceptions: <e> is occasionally silent in a word, affecting pronunciation of vowels near it, but not itself being pronounced. <e> at the end of a word is never pronounced, but it does force the pronunciation of the previous consonants. Thus, academíe is pronounced /akadɛmi:/, demandev /dma~de/, dîtanse /di:ta~s/. Unfortunately, the exceptions must generally be memorized.
  • I
    • IPA: /i:/ and /ɪ/
    • Written: < i í ï î >
    • Examples: riv /ʁi:v/ (to read)
    • Pronunciation Rules: < i, í, î > are all pronounced /i:/. <ï> is pronounced /ɪ/.
  • O
    • IPA: /o/
    • Written: < o ó ö ô >
    • Examples: shoze /ʃoz/ (thing)
    • Pronunciation Rules: Diacritics do not affect pronunciation; only pronounced /o/.
  • U
    • IPA: /y/ and /ə/
    • Written: < u ú ü û >
    • Examples: lu /ly/ (the)
    • Pronunciation Rules: < u, ú, û > is pronounced /y/. <ü> is pronounced /ə/.
  • Y
    • IPA: /i:/
    • Written: <y>
    • Examples: y /i:/ (and)


Nasal Vowels Edit

  • A (nasal)
    • IPA: /a~/
    • Written: an, am, ain, aim
    • Examples: sans /sa~z/ (without)
  • E (nasal)
    • IPA: /e~/
    • Written: en, em, ein, eim
    • Examples: pensée /pe~ze/ (thought)
  • I (nasal)
    • IPA: /i~/ and /ɪ~/
    • Written: in, im
    • Examples: minte /mi~t/ (mint), motin /motɪ~/ (words)
    • Pronunciation Rules: When found at the end of the word, pronounced /ɪ~/, otherwise as /i~/.
  • O (nasal)
    • IPA: /o~/
    • Written: on, om, aun, aum
    • Examples: monde /mo~d/ (world)
  • U (nasal)
    • IPA: /u~/
    • Written: un, um
    • Examples: brun /bʁu~/

There has been a recent trend to merge several of the nasal vowels in the southern provinces, resulting in the nasal A, E, and U being pronounced as /a~/. Thus sans, pensée, brun are pronounced with the same nasal vowel and results in /sa~s/, /pa~ze/, and /bʁa~/. In the northern provinces and the capital, all the nasals are still used, though a speaker from the north will understand a speaker from the south, and vice versa, with very few problems.


Digraphs/Diphthongs Edit

  • AI
    • IPA: /e/ or /ai/
  • AE
    • IPA: /ɛ/
  • AU
    • IPA: /o/
  • EU
    • IPA: /y/
  • IU
    • IPA: /jy/
  • OI
    • IPA: /wa:/

Diacritics Edit

Maríshan uses the standard 26-letter latin alphabet, but also adds several diacritics on the vowels. Diphthongs and digraphs are pronounced, even if one of the letters has a diacritic, so would be pronounced the same as au. The tréma, however, indicates that the vowel should be pronounced separately, so would not be pronounced /o/, but /ay/.


ConsonantsEdit

Maríshan has the following consonants:

Written:

b

c

ch

d

f

g

h

j

k

l

m

n

p

q(u)

r

s

sh

t

v

w

x

zh

IPA:

/b/

/s/, /k/

/tʃ/

/d/

/f/

/g/, /dʒ/, /ʒ/

(mute)

/ʒ/

/k/

/l/

/m/

/n/

/p/

/k/

/ʁ/

/s/, /z/

/ʃ/

/t/

/v/

/v/

/ks/, /s/

/ʒ/

Voiced:

Y

-+

-

Y

Y++

Y

-

Y

-

Y

Y

Y

-

-

Y

-

-

-

Y

Y

-

Y


Here, voiced means consonants which would cause a noun to take a -en ending, instead of -in, as well as the consonants that are usually pronounced at the end of a word (all others are mute).

+ 'C' is considered to be unvoiced, but is always pronounced at the end of a word.

++ 'G' is considered to be voiced because it forces a -en ending, but does not pronounce at the end of a word if the final sound.


While most consonants don't change pronunciations based on the following letter, the following do:

  • C
    • Pronounced /s/ when followed by < e i y > (and all accented variants). Otherwise, /k/.
    • Examples: cycle /si:kl/ (circle)
  • G
    • Pronounced /g/ when followed by < a i o u >, but /ʒ/ when followed by an < e >. When followed by an < e i > at the beginning of a word, however, it is pronounced /dʒ/.
    • Examples: regale /rɛga:l/ (trifle), longe /lo~ʒ/ (length), George /dʒoʁʒ/
  • H
    • Never pronounced; considered mute. When found in a < th > combination, pronounced /t/.
  • Q
    • Always pronounced /k/, but is usually written < Qu >. < U > in this combination is silent, but if it is not present, the next vowel is pronounced in full, thus, < qoi > is /qwa:/. But if a word like < quoi > existed, it would also be pronounced /kwa:/.
  • S
    • Pronounced /s/ at the beginning of a word and when followed by < a o i u >. Pronounced /z/ when followed by < e > or when blended into the next word.
  • W
    • Only found in foreign names or borrowed words. When pronounced, always /v/.

Finally, it is important to note, that there are always exceptions to the rules, and a simple word illustrates such exceptions perfectly: lu quat (the cat) is pronounced /ly kat/, not /ly ka:/ as the rules would suggest. The exceptions must generally be memorized.

Verb Ending PronunciationEdit

Verbs have some special pronunciation rules which are not followed by the rest of the language. These pronunciation rules end up making spoken verbs simpler than their written counterparts because the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd person singular forms sound similar, if not exactly the same as, each other in each tense. However, pronouns aren't always required to know which form the verb is in, because in low register speech, the language is OSV - thus the conjugated verb directly follows its subject. In higher register speech, the pronoun floats, based on its subject prhase, but one can determine the conjugation based on the subject pronoun used. Edit

  • Ending EV
    • Pronounced /e/
    • Indicates the infinitive form of an -ev verb.
    • Example: pensev /pe~ze/ (to think)
  • Ending AV
    • Pronounced /a:/
    • Indicates the infinitive form of an -av verb.
    • Example: tocav /toka:/ (to play an instrument/sports)
  • Ending IV
    • Pronounced /i:/ or not at all
    • Indicates the infinitive form of an -iv verb.
    • Example: arriviziv /aʁi:vi:zi:/ or /aʁi:vi:z/ (to arrive)
  • Ending ER
    • Pronounced /e/
    • Indicates the imperative form of a -ev or -iv verb.
    • Example: penser /pe~se/ (think!)
  • Ending AR
    • Pronounced /a:/
    • Indicates the imperative form of an -av verb.
    • Example: tocetar /tokɛta:/ (play!)
  • Ending S, Z
    • Mute
    • Examples: dé (I say), dés (you say), and déz (he, she, it says) are all pronounced /de/, as are dev (to say) and der (say!).
  • Final S before conjugation stem in imperatives
    • Pronounced /s/; S tends to stay /s/ when using an imperative form, even though the above states /s/ before E becomes /z/.
    • Example: penser /pe~se/ (think!)
  • C
    • Sometimes pronounced /s/, other times /k/
    • When the final sound of the root of the verb is /s/, the letter is pronounced /s/ even though the above rules indicate it would be pronounced /k/. However, when the final sound is /k/, the letter is pronounced /k/ even though the above rules indicate it would be pronounced /s/.
    • Examples: The verbs marciv and tocav are good examples of each phenomenon. Marcais is very commonly used as "Thank you" (though high regiser would add the pronouns: Ve më marcais). The infintive marciv is pronounced /ma:ʁsi:/ (or /ma:ʁs/), and so when conjuaged, marcais should sound like /ma:ʁse/, NOT /ma:ʁke/, even though the rules are that C becomes /k/ before an A. Likewise, the infinitive tocav is pronounced /toka:/, and thus its imperative form of tocetar should be pronounced /tokɛta:/, NOT /tosɛta:/, even though the rules indicate that C becomes /s/ before an E. p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 36.0px; font: 12.0px Helvetica}

span.s1 {letter-spacing: 0.0px}

Basic GrammarEdit

DictionaryEdit


No. English
1I
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name


Example textEdit


No. English
1I
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name

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