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Martian

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Martian
Malchan/la-dyon d Malt
Type
Analytic (nouns), Fusional (verbs)
Alignment
Accusative
Head direction
right
Tonal
No
Declensions
No
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General InformationEdit

Martian (natively Malchan [malˠˈʃã] or la-dyon d Malt [lɘˈðjɔ̃θ ˈmalˠt]) is the sole official and national language of the Democratic Republic of Mars (natively Zepúglca Demarcátca d Malt) which became de facto sovereign nation independent from the spacefaring Chile in the year 2351 (Martian Republican Year 0).

As of MRY 125 (2581 C.E.), Martian has 86 million native speakers and approximately 18 million L2 speakers. Martian is one of a handful of descendants from Chilean Spanish, which became a language of science after the fall of many world powers from 2050 to 2130.

Paz la-venefich d to.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

There are 18 consonant phonemes. Allophones are in parentheses.

labial dental alveolar palatal velar glottal
nasal m n ɲ
stop p (b) t d k (g)
fricative f v (θ) ð s (z) ɕ ʑ h
approximant l (lˠ) j w
flap ɾ (ɾˠ)
  1. /p/ and /k/ and /s/ are allophonically voiced intervocalically, while /t/ and /d/ contrast only in that environment.
  2. /ð/ is devoiced word-finally or when adjacent to a voiceless consonant.
  3. /l/ and /r/ are velarized in the coda.

VowelsEdit

There are 13 vowel phonemes.

front central back
close i ĩ u ũ
close-mid e ø ɘ o
open-mid ɛ ɛ̃ ɔ̃
open a ã
  1. /e/ and /ɛ/ contrast only in unstressed syllables. In stressed syllables they merge into an archiphoneme /E/ which is realized as [ɛ] before a coda consonant and [e] elsewhere.
  2. /ɘ/ is a phoneme which appears in clitics and word-finally. It cannot be stressed.
  3. The only unstressed vowels that can be word-final are /ɘ/ and /i/.

OrthographyEdit

The Avese Malchan (Martian Alphabet) is a descendant of the Spanish Latin Alphabet. It contains twenty-three separate characters, eight digraphs, and one separate diacritic.

A a C c D d E e Ê ê F f G g H h I i J j
a ce de e e sorver ef ge ach i jot
/a/, /ɘ/ /k/ /ð/ /e/, /E/ /ɛ/ /f/ /w/ * /i/ /h/
L l M m N n Ñ ñ O o P p R r S s T t U u
el men nen ñen o pe er es te u
/l/ /m/ /n/ /ɲ/ /o/ /p/ /r/ /s/ /t/, /d/ /u/
V v Y y Z z an on ch eu th
ve ye zet en un ce ach e u te ach
/v/ /j/ /ʑ/ in /ɕ/ /ø/ /t/
  • <h> only appears in the digraphs <ch> and <th> and in loanwords.
  • An asent aggo (acute accent) is applied to vowels in syllables that are stressed and not word-finally.

PronounsEdit

Pronouns (Pronorf)

nom obl gen
sg 1 cho me mi
2 vo te tuch
3 êl such
pl 1 nosort d nosort
2 uted d uted
3 ech d ech

DeterminersEdit

ArticlesEdit

The indefinite (na-) and definite (la-) articles take the form of clitics that attact to the first word in a noun phrase with a hyphen. When before vowel-initial words, their vowels are dropped.

  • na-sal, la-sal vs. n-águ, l-águ
  • /nɘˈsal/, /lɘˈsal/ vs. /ˈnawɘ/, /ˈlawɘ/
  • "a martian day", "the martian day" vs. "a water", "the water"

DemonstrativesEdit

These also function as demonstrative pronouns.

proximal es ˈɛs
distal acech aˈgɛɕ
  • ex. Es vin solament por nosort. Vo teni acech águ.
  • "This wine is only for us. You have that water."

VerbsEdit

Infinitives are in -al, -el, and -il.

Present tenseEdit

-al -el -il
cho/êl -0
vo -ay -i
nosort -an -en -in
uted/ech -n

Past tenseEdit

-al -el -il
cho/vo/êl -af -it
nosort -ávmo -ímo
uted/ech -avn -in

Future tenseEdit

-al -el -il
cho -are -ere -ire
vo/êl -ara -era -êra
nosort -aren -eren -iren
uted/ech -aran -eran -êran

ConditionalEdit

-al -el -il
cho/vo/êl -êri -eri -iri
nosort -êrímo -erímo -irímo
uted/ech -êrin -erin -irin

Medioreflexive voiceEdit

The medioreflexive voice is shown by a prefixing clitic sa. It becomes a suffix -s when attached to the infinitive form. It is used for reflexive and reciprocal actions of most verbs. Some verbs undergo unpredictable semantic changes.

  • ex. acusal -to accuse vs. acusals -to confess
  • Êrvi la-peult ileug acusay êlgin! = "Open the door and accuse someone!"
  • Cho eper c-êl s-acus pront. = "I hope he confesses soon."

CopulaEdit

Sel [ˈsɛlˠ] {ser} -to be (in essence)

sg pl
1 say son
2 say son
3 (e) son

Etal [eˈdalˠ] {estar} -to be (in a state)

sg pl
1 etay etan
2 etay etan
3 eta etan

ExamplesEdit

Eperal [ebeˈɾalˠ] {esperar} -to hope

present past future conditional
sg pl sg pl sg pl sg pl
1 eper eperan 1 eperaf eperávmo 1 eperare eperaren 1 eperêri eperêrímo
2 eperay epern 2 eperaf eperavn 2 eperara eperaran 2 eperêri eperêrin
3 eper epern 3 eperaf eperavn 3 eperara eperaran 3 eperêri eperêrin

Cozel [koˈʑɛlˠ] {correr} -to run

present past future conditional
sg pl sg pl sg pl sg pl
1 coz cozen 1 cozit cozímo 1 cozere cozeren 1 cozeri cozerímo
2 cozi cozn 2 cozit cozin 2 cozera cozeran 2 cozeri cozerin
3 coz cozn 3 cozit cozin 3 cozera cozeran 3 cozeri cozerin

Ocuzil [oguˈʑilˠ] {ocurrir} -to happen

present past future conditional
sg pl sg pl sg pl sg pl
1 ocuz ocuzin 1 ocuzit ocuzímo 1 ocuzire ocuziren 1 ocuziri ocuzirímo
2 ocuzi ocuzn 2 ocuzit ocuzin 2 ocuzêra ocuzêran 2 ocuziri ocuzirin
3 ocuz ocuzn 3 ocuzit ocuzin 3 ocuzêra ocuzêran 3 ocuziri ocuzirin

Sound ChangesEdit

CategoriesEdit

V=aɛiouɔe, F=eiɛ, B=aouɔ, U=aɛiou, C=mnɲpbftdsɕjkxglrɾvðɣwhθzʑ, S=ptks, Z=bdgz, G=vðɣ, K=fθj, R=rɾ, N=mnɲ

ChangesEdit

  1. t//_ɕ
  2. sˈb/ˈf/_
  3. sˈg/ˈx/_
  4. sb/f/_
  5. sg/x/_
  6. d//ˈ(C)(C)(C)V_
  7. ɾ/n/_(ˈ)n
  8. b/u/_(ˈ)l
  9. Z/G/_
  10. j/ɕ/_/V_(ˈ)[C#]
  11. i/j/V_
  12. i/j/_(ˈ)V/ˈC_
  13. u/w/V_
  14. u/w/_(ˈ)V/ˈ(C)(C)(C)_
  15. R/l/_(ˈ)[C#]
  16. r/ʑ/_
  17. k//_s
  18. s//_(ˈ)[C#]/_[jw]
  19. e/ɛ/_(ˈ)C(ˈ)[C#]
  20. o/ɔ/_(ˈ)C(ˈ)[C#]
  21. V//ˈ(C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C)_
  22. w//_l#
  23. x/ɕ/_F
  24. x/ɕ/F_(ˈ)[C#]
  25. x/ɕ/V_C(ˈ)[C#]
  26. x/h/_
  27. h//_#
  28. N/~/V(j)_(ˈ)[C#]
  29. S/Z/V(~)(ˈ)_(ˈ)V
  30. [pc]//_(ˈ)t
  31. tɾ/ɕ/[#Cˈ]_
  32. CR/\\/_/#_
  33. ˈɾt/ˈɕ/#_
  34. sj/ɕ/_
  35. j/i/[C#]_[C#]
  36. a/ɛ/_…ˈ(C)(C)(C)i
  37. i/ɛ/_…ˈ(C)(C)(C)B
  38. [ɛe]//#_CC/_[jw]C
  39. ɣ//C_
  40. G/K/_(ˈ)[Sɕ#]
  41. ɔ/o/_~
  42. V~/U/_(ˈ)[fθwlR]
  43. ɔ/a/_
  44. /h/B_(ˈ)B
  45. w//_(ˈ)ɛ~
  46. w[eɛ]/ø/_
  47. wˈ[eɛ]/ˈø/_
  48. ɣ/w/_
  49. ɛ/e/ˈ(C)(C)(C)_(~)C/_C[C#]
  50. e/ɛ/ˈ(C)(C)(C)_(~)C[C#]
  51. /ɣ/[lɾ]_[C#]
  52. w/u/#_C
  53. w/u/C_#
  54. ɛ~w/u~/_

VocabularyEdit

NumbersEdit

# name 10+# #*10
0 ser dye
1 un ons dye
2 do dyes-do venñt
3 che dyes-che chent
4 cgart catals cgarent
5 sinc cins sincent
6 sey dyes-sey sesent
7 chet dyes-chet setent
8 och dyes-och ochent
9 neuf dyes-neuf novent
10 dye venñt chyen

ColorsEdit

  • colal [koˈlalˠ]: colors
  • ner [ˈnɛɾˠ]: black
  • vlanc [ˈvlãk]: white
  • zo [ˈʑo]: red
  • luzos [luˈʑos]: pink
  • colora [koloˈɾa]: colored, blush-colored
  • anaranja [anaɾãˈha]: orange
  • êmêrich [ɛmɛˈɾiɕ]: yellow
  • asul [aˈzulˠ]: blue
  • veld [ˈvɛlˠθ]: green
  • vyolet [vjoˈlɛt]: violet, purple
  • mora [moˈɾa]: bruise-colored
  • mazon [maˈʑɔ̃]: dark brown
  • vronsea [vɾɔ̃zɛˈa]: light brown (tan)
  • zuch [ˈʑuɕ]: gray
  • ureclal [uɾekˈlalˠ]: gray
  • platea [pladeˈa]: silver

FamilyEdit

Family members (Myerf):

  • fêmíli: family
  • par: parents
  • par/pêsit: father
  • mar/mêmit: mother
  • gag: children
  • ich: son or daughter
  • epos: spouse
  • êlman: sibling
  • ti: aunt or uncle
  • prin: cousin
  • sarvin: niblings
  • aveul/veulit: grandparents
  • ñet: grandchildren
  • visaveul: great-grandparents
  • tíaveul/tíveulit: grandaunt/granduncle
  • seur: parents-in-law
  • cuña: siblings-in-law

Days of the WeekEdit

  1. lun- Monday
  2. malt- Tuesday
  3. myélcle- Wednesday
  4. jeuf- Thursday
  5. vyenn- Friday
  6. sávdo- Saturday
  7. dominñ- Sunday

MonthsEdit

As the Martian year is about twice as long as Earth's, upon declaring independence, a modified version of the Darian calendar was adopted, changing the number of months to 16 and the weeks per month to 6. Unlike in modern Spanish, the names of the months are capitalized.

  1. Sajêthári
  2. Písis
  3. Jéminis
  4. Vírco
  5. Ener
  6. Fêrver
  7. Mals
  8. Êrvil
  9. Mach
  10. Junñ
  11. Júli
  12. Agot
  13. Sêtyerf
  14. Acturf
  15. Navyerf
  16. Dêcherf
  • ex1. Today is Monday, Sagittarius 1.
  • Ach lun, la-sal primer d Sajêthári.
  • ex2. Today is Tuesday, February 23.
  • Ach malt, la-vent-che d Fêrver.

SeasonsEdit

  • Primaver: Spring
  • Veran: Summer
  • Oton: Autumn/Fall
  • Invyenn: Winter

ConjunctionsEdit

and ("i"), or ("o"), but ("per")

DirectionsEdit

nalt
noroet naldet
oet senchal et
suroet sudet
sul

Important phrasesEdit

sip, nop = yes, no

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