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Melaś Language, Meya Language
Melaśal, Melaśi präkaal
Type
Agglutinative-Fusional
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Mixed
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
2
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

ClassificationEdit

Proto-Meya (2500 B.C.):

  • Old Melaś (300 A.D.):
    • Melaś (Melaś proper) (32,000)
    • Coastal Melaś (500 A.D.) a.k.a "Murra Meya" (separated from Old Melaś)
      • Okhotsk dialect (extinct, 1992)
      • Pacific dialect (2500)
    • Mećka (800 A.D.)
      • Liao dialect (300)
      • Hun dialect (10, poss. extinct)
  • Proto-Orong (~500 B.C.)
    • Orong (80) (some consider it a dialect of Poreng)
    • Poreng (ext., early 19th c.)
    • Temian (ext., 17th c.)
  • Sora language (unknown divergence date, though much earlier than the above branches; ext., 1930s)

Other people possibly spoke languages related to this Sora (especially further west), but nothing besides their name is known. Their languages remain unattested, except in the toponymy and a few words & names in Russian records.

The external classification of the Meya languages as a whole has been a matter of much academic debate. Regardless, they have been placed in the "Paleoasiatic" linguistic grouping, a blanket term for the languages spoken in East Asia and Siberia before the spread of Tungusic, Mongolian, Sinitic, and other larger language families.

Some linguists propose that Proto-Meya (the reconstructed ancestor of Melaś and its relatives) may have distant relations to Uralo-Siberian (especially Uralic), Dené–Yeniseian, or Korean. None of these proposals in particular have majority support, but the first has recently garnered much attention.

Proponents of the Nostratic hypothesis have suggested that Pre-Proto-Meya (the distant ancestor of Proto-Meya, along with any extinct languages paraphyletic to it) may represent one of the earliest, if not the earliest branch of Proto-Nostratic to reach East Asia. Notwithstanding, Nostraticists who believe Indo-Uralic or Uralo-Siberian to be true genetic groupings within Nostratic propose that Proto-Meya may be the closest relative alongside one or both of these families, if not within them already.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Labial Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
PlainEdit
AspiratedEdit
PlainEdit
AspiratedEdit
PlainEdit
AspiratedEdit
PlainEdit
AspiratedEdit
PlainEdit
AspiratedEdit
Nasal m̥  m n̥  n  ɲ̥  ɲ̟ ŋ̊   ŋ [ɴ]
Plosive Plain p t c  ɟ k  g ʔ
Labialized kʷ  gʷ
Affricate ts
Fricative Sibilant s ɕ  ʑ ɕʰ
Non-sibilant β ð ç  ʝ [x]  ɣ h  [ɦ]
Liquid ɾ~r l ʎ
Semivowel Plain j ɰ ~ ʁ
Labialized ɥ w

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
Unrounded Rounded Unrounded Unrounded Rounded
Close i ɨ u
Close-mid e  e̞ː ø  ø̞ː
Mid ə  əː~ɤ̞ o̞  o̞ː
Open-mid ɛ ʌ
Open ä  äː

AlphabetEdit

IPA Letter English equivalent Example Notes
/ä/ a like cot for some speakers, or a more fronted version of the "o" in lot zawëë (existence, position)
/äː/ aa stressed, longer version of the above huwaa (life)
/ɛ/ ä red tässäň (sand)
/ʌ/ å a non-rounded version of sought or all for some speakers kwåmoo (bear)
/β/ b like van, except with both lips urub (horse)
/b/~/p/ bb baby bbentoo (Bento)
  • non-native; only found in loanwords
  • some speakers cannot pronounce a true /b/ correctly, so they replace it with /p/
/ts/ c cats cäq (book)
/tɕ/ ć roughly like catch, except with the tongue placed closer to the palate ćujśëë (weed, dry bush)
/ð/ d then godamyn (to tell a lie)
/d/~/t/ dd dad ddividdi (DVD)
  • non-native; only found in loanwords
  • some speakers cannot pronounce a true /d/ correctly, so they replace it with /t/
/e/ e the first vowel of the diphthong in same gjed (small, little)
/e̞ː/ ee stressed, longer version of the above eerc (eternity, forever)
/ə/ ë Tina śëllmyn (to age, wisen)
/əː/~/ɤ̞/ ëë no English equivalent; somewhat like bowl påćëë (offspring, child)
/g/ g gun ågåm (soup, broth)
/ɟ/ gj no English equivalent; like "j" pronounced closer to the palate ñëgjëëk (rest) historically represented /gʲ/
/gʷ/ gw gwen, except with the "g" and "w" combined into one sound a‎gwåň (yellow, yellow-green)
/h/ h hand śeeh (berry juice)
/ç/ hj no English equivalent; like "sh" pronounced closer to the palate hjözömyn (to yawn)
/i/ i keen, except shorter typi (bothersome, tedious; brown)
/ɥ/ ï no English equivalent; like "y" and "w" pronounced simultaneously ïstökä (termite)
/j/ j yes jyćy (soul, inner spirit)
/ʝ/ jj no English equivalent; similar to Spanish yo ijjäwä (snake)
/k/ k lake; not as in candle kwa (grain)
/kʰ/ kk car, except breathier (more aspirated) kkazallna (Japanese White Birch, Betula platyphylla)
/c/ kj no English equivalent; like "ch" pronounced closer to the palate kjäň (persimmon) historically represented /kʲ/
/cʰ/ kkj like above, except breathy (aspirated) ållkkj (flat, straight)
/ʎ/ l no English equivalent; like "l" and "y" pronounced simultaneously kwittalamyn (to listen in, take heed)
/l/ ll no English equivalent; somewhere between "l" and "r" in most positions, like Korean or Japanese allgwa (wave, ripple)
/m/ m mat këësmy (battle)
/m̥/ mh, mq mhmm; like "m" and "h" pronounced simultaneously symqa (sad, depressed)
/n/ n no änci (nation, country)
/n̥/ nh, nq no English equivalent; like "n" and "h" pronounced simultaneously gwinhwemyn (to inscribe)
/ŋ/ ň sing, or lanky, without the "k" sound pubåň (crevasse, chasm)
/ŋ̊/ ňh, ňq no English equivalent; like the above sound + "h", pronounced simultaneously maňq (health)
/ɲ̟ / ñ similar to canyon, except with the "n" and "y" sounds combined into one ñakwooj (dog)
/ɲ̥ / ñh, ñq no English equivalent; like the above sound + "h", pronounced simultaneously ñhoxamyn (to meet)
/o̞/ o like coat, without the second part of the diphthong oxee (fallen tree)
/o̞ː/ oo stressed, longer version of the above toobo (evening)
/ø/ ö no English equivalent: similar to saying day with rounded lips wög (rabbit)
/ø̞ː/ öö stressed, longer version of the above lööwcemyn (to pierce, strike)
/p/ p lap; not as in pad pyň (bottle)
/pʰ/ pp park, except breathier (more aspirated) ppolluka (torch)
/ʔ/ q like cat and button for British and Australian speakers pëëqjoň (mushroom)
/ɾ/~/r/ r similar to the "tt" in butter or the "dd" in rudder hwora (squirrel)
/rː/ rr no English equivalent; a rolled "r" murromyn (to laugh)
/s/ s sign suňaa (work, chore)
/sʰ/ ss like above, except breathy (aspirated) sussoxomyn (to be ready, prepared)
/ɕ/ ś roughly like shore, except with the tongue placed closer to the palate śoxamyn (to blow)
/ɕʰ/ śś like above, except breathy (aspirated) kjëëśśa (meteor shower)
/t/ t take, without the breathiness (no aspiration) oxtyn (chestnut)
/tʰ/ tt tone, except breathier (more aspirated) uňottåj (mound, hill)
/u/ u cool, but with less emphasis zuh (view, scenery)
/v/~/β/ v cavalier Levaanta (the Levant)
  • non-native; only found in loanwords
  • most speakers cannot pronounce a true /v/ correctly, so they replace it with /β/
/w/ w will joñaaw (goodness, beauty)
/ɣ/ x kalax (leather, hide)
/ɰ/~/ʁ/ xj xjepo (sheep)
/ɨ/ y similar to hook, except with the tongue closer to the center of the mouth my (yes (for agreement))
/ʑ/ z roughly like Asia, except with the tongue placed closer to the palate ñarzumyn (to scrape, dig)

PhonotacticsEdit

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No No No No No No
Nouns No No No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


NounsEdit

VerbsEdit

SyntaxEdit

Generally, Melaś follows a very free VSO (verb-subject-object). However, this is the result of free word order, where the position of grammatical elements is used for emphasis. In interrogative sentences, this is especially the case:

  • "Ćäq pïnrä?" Who is he/she? (simply asking who he/she is)
  • "Pïn ćäq?" Who is he/she? (not only asking who he/she is, almost as if asking, "is that who I think it is?")

Historically, Old Melaś had free word order, and this has sometimes been posited for Proto-Meya as well (the other competitor being SOV).

VocabularyEdit


No. English
1I
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name


Example textEdit

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