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Melaś

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Melaś Language, Meya Language
Melaśal, Melaśi präkaal
Type
Agglutinative-Fusional
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Mixed
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
2
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

ClassificationEdit

Proto-Meya (2500 B.C.):

  • Old Melaś (300 A.D.):
    • Melaś (Melaś proper) (32,000)
    • Coastal Melaś (500 A.D.) a.k.a "Murra Meya" (separated from Old Melaś)
      • Okhotsk dialect (extinct, 1992)
      • Pacific dialect (2500)
    • Mećka (800 A.D.)
      • Liao dialect (300)
      • Hun dialect (10, poss. extinct)
  • Proto-Orong (~500 B.C.)
    • Orong (80) (some consider it a dialect of Poreng)
    • Poreng (ext., early 19th c.)
    • Temian (ext., 17th c.)
  • Sora language (unknown divergence date, though much earlier than the above branches; ext., 1930s)

Other people possibly spoke languages related to this Sora (especially further west), but nothing besides their name is known. Their languages remain unattested, except in the toponymy and a few words & names in Russian records.

The external classification of the Meya languages as a whole has been a matter of much academic debate. Regardless, they have been placed in the "Paleoasiatic" linguistic grouping, a blanket term for the languages spoken in East Asia and Siberia before the spread of Tungusic, Mongolian, Sinitic, and other larger language families.

Some linguists propose that Proto-Meya (the reconstructed ancestor of Melaś and its relatives) may have distant relations to Uralo-Siberian (especially Uralic), Dené–Yeniseian, or Korean. None of these proposals in particular have majority support, but the first has recently garnered much attention.

Proponents of the Nostratic hypothesis have suggested that Pre-Proto-Meya (the distant ancestor of Proto-Meya, along with any extinct languages paraphyletic to it) may represent one of the earliest, if not the earliest branch of Proto-Nostratic to reach East Asia. Notwithstanding, Nostraticists who believe Indo-Uralic or Uralo-Siberian to be true genetic groupings within Nostratic propose that Proto-Meya may be the closest relative alongside one or both of these families, if not within them already.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Labial Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
PlainEdit
AspiratedEdit
PlainEdit
AspiratedEdit
PlainEdit
AspiratedEdit
PlainEdit
AspiratedEdit
PlainEdit
AspiratedEdit
Nasal m̥  m n̥  n  ɲ̥  ɲ̟ ŋ̊   ŋ [ɴ]
Plosive Plain p t c  ɟ k  g ʔ
Labialized kʷ  gʷ
Affricate ts
Fricative Sibilant s ɕ  ʑ ɕʰ
Non-sibilant β ð ç  ʝ [x]  ɣ h  [ɦ]
Liquid ɾ~r l ʎ
Semivowel Plain j ɰ ~ ʁ
Labialized ɥ w

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
Unrounded Rounded Unrounded Unrounded Rounded
Close i ɨ u
Close-mid e  e̞ː ø  ø̞ː
Mid ə  əː~ɤ̞ o̞  o̞ː
Open-mid ɛ ʌ
Open ä  äː

AlphabetEdit

IPA Letter English equivalent Example Notes
/ä/ a like cot for some speakers, or a more fronted version of the "o" in lot zawëë (existence, position)
/äː/ aa stressed, longer version of the above huwaa (life)
/ɛ/ ä red tässäň (sand)
/ʌ/ å a non-rounded version of sought or all for some speakers kwåmoo (bear)
/β/ b like van, except with both lips urub (horse)
/b/~/p/ bb baby bbentoo (Bento)
  • non-native; only found in loanwords
  • some speakers cannot pronounce a true /b/ correctly, so they replace it with /p/
/ts/ c cats cäq (book)
/tɕ/ ć roughly like catch, except with the tongue placed closer to the palate ćujśëë (weed, dry bush)
/ð/ d then godamyn (to tell a lie)
/d/~/t/ dd dad ddividdi (DVD)
  • non-native; only found in loanwords
  • some speakers cannot pronounce a true /d/ correctly, so they replace it with /t/
/e/ e the first vowel of the diphthong in same gjed (small, little)
/e̞ː/ ee stressed, longer version of the above eerc (eternity, forever)
/ə/ ë Tina śëllmyn (to age, wisen)
/əː/~/ɤ̞/ ëë no English equivalent; somewhat like bowl påćëë (offspring, child)
/g/ g gun ågåm (soup, broth)
/ɟ/ gj no English equivalent; like "j" pronounced closer to the palate ñëgjëëk (rest) historically represented /gʲ/
/gʷ/ gw gwen, except with the "g" and "w" combined into one sound a‎gwåň (yellow, yellow-green)
/h/ h hand śeeh (berry juice)
/ç/ hj no English equivalent; like "sh" pronounced closer to the palate hjözömyn (to yawn)
/i/ i keen, except shorter typi (bothersome, tedious; brown)
/ɥ/ ï no English equivalent; like "y" and "w" pronounced simultaneously ïstökä (termite)
/j/ j yes jyćy (soul, inner spirit)
/ʝ/ jj no English equivalent; similar to Spanish yo ijjäwä (snake)
/k/ k lake; not as in candle kwa (grain)
/kʰ/ kk car, except breathier (more aspirated) kkazallna (Japanese White Birch, Betula platyphylla)
/c/ kj no English equivalent; like "ch" pronounced closer to the palate kjäň (persimmon) historically represented /kʲ/
/cʰ/ kkj like above, except breathy (aspirated) ållkkj (flat, straight)
/ʎ/ l no English equivalent; like "l" and "y" pronounced simultaneously kwittalamyn (to listen in, take heed)
/l/ ll no English equivalent; somewhere between "l" and "r" in most positions, like Korean or Japanese allgwa (wave, ripple)
/m/ m mat këësmy (battle)
/m̥/ mh, mq mhmm; like "m" and "h" pronounced simultaneously symqa (sad, depressed)
/n/ n no änci (nation, country)
/n̥/ nh, nq no English equivalent; like "n" and "h" pronounced simultaneously gwinhwemyn (to inscribe)
/ŋ/ ň sing, or lanky, without the "k" sound pubåň (crevasse, chasm)
/ŋ̊/ ňh, ňq no English equivalent; like the above sound + "h", pronounced simultaneously maňq (health)
/ɲ̟ / ñ similar to canyon, except with the "n" and "y" sounds combined into one ñakwooj (dog)
/ɲ̥ / ñh, ñq no English equivalent; like the above sound + "h", pronounced simultaneously ñhoxamyn (to meet)
/o̞/ o like coat, without the second part of the diphthong oxee (fallen tree)
/o̞ː/ oo stressed, longer version of the above toobo (evening)
/ø/ ö no English equivalent: similar to saying day with rounded lips wög (rabbit)
/ø̞ː/ öö stressed, longer version of the above lööwcemyn (to pierce, strike)
/p/ p lap; not as in pad pyň (bottle)
/pʰ/ pp park, except breathier (more aspirated) ppolluka (torch)
/ʔ/ q like cat and button for British and Australian speakers pëëqjoň (mushroom)
/ɾ/~/r/ r similar to the "tt" in butter or the "dd" in rudder hwora (squirrel)
/rː/ rr no English equivalent; a rolled "r" murromyn (to laugh)
/s/ s sign suňaa (work, chore)
/sʰ/ ss like above, except breathy (aspirated) sussoxomyn (to be ready, prepared)
/ɕ/ ś roughly like shore, except with the tongue placed closer to the palate śoxamyn (to blow)
/ɕʰ/ śś like above, except breathy (aspirated) kjëëśśa (meteor shower)
/t/ t take, without the breathiness (no aspiration) oxtyn (chestnut)
/tʰ/ tt tone, except breathier (more aspirated) uňottåj (mound, hill)
/u/ u cool, but with less emphasis zuh (view, scenery)
/v/~/β/ v cavalier Levaanta (the Levant)
  • non-native; only found in loanwords
  • most speakers cannot pronounce a true /v/ correctly, so they replace it with /β/
/w/ w will joñaaw (goodness, beauty)
/ɣ/ x kalax (leather, hide)
/ɰ/~/ʁ/ xj xjepo (sheep)
/ɨ/ y similar to hook, except with the tongue closer to the center of the mouth my (yes (for agreement))
/ʑ/ z roughly like Asia, except with the tongue placed closer to the palate ñarzumyn (to scrape, dig)

PhonotacticsEdit

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No No No No No No
Nouns No No No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


NounsEdit

VerbsEdit

SyntaxEdit

Generally, Melaś follows a very free VSO (verb-subject-object). However, this is the result of free word order, where the position of grammatical elements is used for emphasis. In interrogative sentences, this is especially the case:

  • "Ćäq pïnrä?" Who is he/she? (simply asking who he/she is)
  • "Pïn ćäq?" Who is he/she? (not only asking who he/she is, almost as if asking, "is that who I think it is?")

Historically, Old Melaś had free word order, and this has sometimes been posited for Proto-Meya as well (the other competitor being SOV).

VocabularyEdit


No. English
1IContionary_Wiki
2you (singular)Contionary_Wiki
3heContionary_Wiki
4weContionary_Wiki
5you (plural)Contionary_Wiki
6theyContionary_Wiki
7thisContionary_Wiki
8thatContionary_Wiki
9hereContionary_Wiki
10thereContionary_Wiki
11whoContionary_Wiki
12whatContionary_Wiki
13whereContionary_Wiki
14whenContionary_Wiki
15howContionary_Wiki
16notContionary_Wiki
17allContionary_Wiki
18manyContionary_Wiki
19someContionary_Wiki
20fewContionary_Wiki
21otherContionary_Wiki
22oneContionary_Wiki
23twoContionary_Wiki
24threeContionary_Wiki
25fourContionary_Wiki
26fiveContionary_Wiki
27bigContionary_Wiki
28longContionary_Wiki
29wideContionary_Wiki
30thickContionary_Wiki
31heavyContionary_Wiki
32smallContionary_Wiki
33shortContionary_Wiki
34narrowContionary_Wiki
35thinContionary_Wiki
36womanContionary_Wiki
37man (adult male)Contionary_Wiki
38man (human being)Contionary_Wiki
39childContionary_Wiki
40wifeContionary_Wiki
41husbandContionary_Wiki
42motherContionary_Wiki
43fatherContionary_Wiki
44animalContionary_Wiki
45fishContionary_Wiki
46birdContionary_Wiki
47dogContionary_Wiki
48louseContionary_Wiki
49snakeContionary_Wiki
50wormContionary_Wiki
51treeContionary_Wiki
52forestContionary_Wiki
53stickContionary_Wiki
54fruitContionary_Wiki
55seedContionary_Wiki
56leafContionary_Wiki
57rootContionary_Wiki
58barkContionary_Wiki
59flowerContionary_Wiki
60grassContionary_Wiki
61ropeContionary_Wiki
62skinContionary_Wiki
63meatContionary_Wiki
64bloodContionary_Wiki
65boneContionary_Wiki
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggContionary_Wiki
68hornContionary_Wiki
69tailContionary_Wiki
70featherContionary_Wiki
71hairContionary_Wiki
72headContionary_Wiki
73earContionary_Wiki
74eyeContionary_Wiki
75noseContionary_Wiki
76mouthContionary_Wiki
77toothContionary_Wiki
78tongueContionary_Wiki
79fingernailContionary_Wiki
80footContionary_Wiki
81legContionary_Wiki
82kneeContionary_Wiki
83handContionary_Wiki
84wingContionary_Wiki
85bellyContionary_Wiki
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckContionary_Wiki
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastContionary_Wiki
90heartContionary_Wiki
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkContionary_Wiki
93eatContionary_Wiki
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seeContionary_Wiki
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowContionary_Wiki
104thinkContionary_Wiki
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearContionary_Wiki
107sleepContionary_Wiki
108liveContionary_Wiki
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killContionary_Wiki
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comeContionary_Wiki
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140sayContionary_Wiki
141singContionary_Wiki
142playContionary_Wiki
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunContionary_Wiki
148moonContionary_Wiki
149starContionary_Wiki
150waterContionary_Wiki
151rainContionary_Wiki
152riverContionary_Wiki
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seaContionary_Wiki
155saltContionary_Wiki
156stoneContionary_Wiki
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthContionary_Wiki
160cloudContionary_Wiki
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skyContionary_Wiki
163windContionary_Wiki
164snowContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_Wiki
167fireContionary_Wiki
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountainContionary_Wiki
172redContionary_Wiki
173greenContionary_Wiki
174yellowContionary_Wiki
175whiteContionary_Wiki
176blackContionary_Wiki
177nightContionary_Wiki
178dayContionary_Wiki
179yearContionary_Wiki
180warmContionary_Wiki
181coldContionary_Wiki
182fullContionary_Wiki
183newContionary_Wiki
184oldContionary_Wiki
185goodContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctContionary_Wiki
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atContionary_Wiki
202inContionary_Wiki
203withContionary_Wiki
204andContionary_Wiki
205ifContionary_Wiki
206becauseContionary_Wiki
207nameContionary_Wiki


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