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Name: Messian

Type: Agglutinative

Alignment: Ergative-Absolutive

Head Direction: Final

Number of genders: 5

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect







OverviewEdit

Messian is an a priori language which typologically can be identified as having an ergative-absolutive alignment, OSV word order, head-final syntax and an agglutinating morphology. There are minor phonological variations present within three main dialects including the standardised form (here the standard language is not always explicitly labelled, though the changes present within Dialect A and B always are). Messian exists in no conworld or universe and is rather simply an artlang produced in an attempt to achieve a certain aesthetic. The native term for Messian is 'Þév Ismís' [θɛv ɪsmi:s], meaning "the language".

PhonologyEdit

Consonants

Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal

Plosive

b (t)/d
Aspirant t̪ʰ
Nasal m (n̪) n (ɲ)
Trill r
Fricative (ɸ) f/v θ/ð s ç h
Lateral Fricative ɬ
Affricate ts

Approximant

(j) w
Lateral Apprxomiant l ʎ


Vowels

Front Central Back
Unrounded Rounded Unrounded Rounded Rounded

Close

i/iː y/yː ɯ/ɯː u/uː
Mid ə/əː o/oː
ɛ/ɛː œ/œ: ʌ/ʌː ɔ/ɔ:
Open (a/a:) (ɶ/ɶ:) (ɑ/ɑ:)


Vowel length is phonemic is Messian, though gemination of consonants is not.

Diphthongs

ui
iu
ou
ɛɪ
əɪ
ɛə

? ? ==Allophony==

Phones above within parentheses are allophones.The rules governing their mutations are as follows:


Consonants

n -> n̪ Before front vowels.
n -> ɲ After back vowels.
b -> ɸ Word initial, standard.
b -> p *Word initial, dialect A.
b -> β *Word initial, dialect B
d -> t Word initial.
d -> z *Word initial, dialect B (instead of t)
ç -> x *Except after/before front vowels, dialect B
ç -> j Before vowels, does not apply to dialect B.
ts -> dz *Word final, dialect B


Vowels

i/i: ɪ, when unstressed
ə a, after unvoiced stops, before unvoiced fricatives
o ɑ, after unvoiced stops, before unvoiced fricatives
œ ɶ, after unvoiced stops, before unvoiced fricatives
Dialect A no open vowel allophony
Dialect A ø/øː -> ɜ/ɜː, all positions


Vowel Harmonzation

Harmonized Not Harmonized
Front ɛ ɔ
Central ə ɛ
Back u i


Only some affixes make use of vowel harmonization.

OrthographyEdit


Lower Upper
ə/əː a/ā A/Ā
ɛɪ ai AI
ç c C
d d D
ð ð Ð
θ þ Þ
e/eː e/ē E/Ē
ɛ/ɛː é/e̋ É/E̋
ʌ/ʌː è/ȅ È/Ȅ
ɛə ea EA
əɪ ei EI
f f F
v v V
h h H
i i/ɪ I
i: í Í
ia IA
iu iu IU
ʎ j J
l l L
ɬ ll LL
m m M
n n N
o/o: o/ō O/Ō
ɔ/ɔ: ó/ő Ó/Ő
œ/œ: ò/ȍ Ò/Ȍ
ou ou OU
b/ɸ/p p P
çj q Q
r r R
s s S
t T
t̪ʰ th TH
ts ś Ś
u/u: u/ū U/Ū
ɯ/ɯ: ú/ű Ú/Ű
y/y: y/ý Y/Ý
ua UA
ui ui UI
v v V
w w W

GrammarEdit

In Messian there are thirteen cases, five classes, five numbers, five verb moods, seven tenses, three aspects and two voices. Modality is indicated morphologically and vowel harmonization is utilized morphologically in order to carry meaning. There is variously prefixing, infixing and suffixing throughout.

ArticlesEdit

The definite/indefinite article is a foundational unit of speech within Messian. They are declined for case, class and number. Though it does function as both the definite and indefinite article, only the noun that it precedes can decline for definiteness and it will only do so when it is preceded by an article.

Case - Stem

Ergative s-
Absolutive θ-
Dative v-
Partitive t̪-
Genitive f-
Possessive ð-
Int. Loc. çj-
Ex. Loc. j-
Instrumental hl-
Purposive l-
Comitative hv-
Intrative sv-
Abessive w-


Number - first suffix

Zero -ə:
Singular
Dual
Plural
Infinite -i


Class - second suffix

Human

-v
Plant -s
Natural -d
Neutral -t̪
Etheral

DeterminersEdit

General determiners function much the same way as the aforementioned articles, though the noun that they modify will not decline for definiteness.

Case - First suffix

Case 1st Suffix
Ergative i
Absolutive u
Dative ə
Partitive ɛ
Genitive əi
Possessive ð
Int. Loc. y
Ex. Loc. ou
Instrumental ɜ
Purposive
Comitative o
Intrative ɛə
Abessive ø

Number - Second suffix

Zero v
Singular s
Dual θ
Plural d
Infinite ð

Class - Third Suffix

Human ə:
Plant ɔ:
Natural u:
Neutal e:
Ethereal i:

NounsEdit

Morphologically, nound declinations are quite complex. In older forms of the language, the verb in a sentence would inflect for mood and the noun performing the action (whether ergative or absolutive) would take a different affix depending on the mood of that verb. In the "contemporary" form of the language however, the verb no longer inflects for mood and only the noun does.

Note: Mass nouns (water/the water, fog/the fog) take the indefinite plural.


Ergative/Subjective absolutive prefixes:

Human Plant Natural Neutral Ethereal
Indicative: i- si- si:- i:- iə-
Interrogative: u- fu- fu:- u:- ou-
Imperative: ɛ- hɛ- hɛ:- ɛ:- ɛə-
Conditional: y- ny- ny:- y:- my-
Subjunctive: ɔ- jɔ- jɔ:- ɔ: ky-


Objective case prefixes:

Human Plant Natural Neutral Ethereal
Absolutive: θ- θl- w- θj- θw-
Dative: v- vl- t̪ʰ- vj- vw-
Locative: l- sl- j- sj- sw-
Genitive: ð- ðl- n:- ðj- ðw-


In the older forms of Messian the definite/indefinite article inflected for as many cases as would the noun. As the number of cases increased however, most were indicated singly on the article and not the noun. Therefore, if a noun can be inflected for either the Absolutive (when the object of a transitive verb), Dative, Locative (a noun precded by an article declined for the Internal Locative or External Locative cases will inflect for the Locative) or Genitive cases, or if it takes a mood prefix, it generally will not need to be preceded by an article lest more precise number information is required.


Definiteness - Second Prefix

Objective Subjective
Indefinite əi θ
Definite i: s

Number

Stem Vowel: Short Long
Zero [V]
Singular [V]
Dual [V:] [V]
Plural [V:V] [VV:]
Infinite [V]* [V:] [VV]**
*First vowel modified along with second only if not monosyllabic
**Second stem vowel doubled if present.

Number is indicated by either modifying the length of the stem vowel(s) of a noun or by 'doubling' the stem vowel in various ways. For example, the root [θli:m] þlím, meaning 'moon' can be inflected for the ergative indicative plural as follows: sí-þli-í-m, síþliím. As we see, the long root vowel in the plural is shortened and then succeded by an infix which is a doubling of the root vowel which has retained its length. In the dual number, the word would be rendered as sí-þlim, síþlim, with the long vowel having been shortened without being accompanied by any infix. It will be the first vowel in the root which will be modified/doubled in this way, unless otherwise stated, such as when a root with more than one root vowel is declined for the infinite (see above).

AdjectivesEdit

An adjective which precedes the noun that it modifies is in the predicate position, whereas when an adjective succeeds a noun, it is in the attributive position.


Case - First Suffix

Human Plant Natural Neutral Ethereal
Ergative n n n n n
*Absolutive θ θɔ θlɔ θe θəɪ
Dative v vwɔ ve vei
Partitive f fjɔ fe fiə
Genitive ð ðɔ ðwɔ ðe ðu:
Possessive t̪ɔ t̪wɔ t̪e t̪ei
Int. Loc. j çjɔ je
Ex. Loc. l le lu
Instrumental s sjɔ se sou
Purposive d de
Comitative r re
Intrative pʰɔ pʰlɔ pʰe pʰəɪ
Abessive t̪ʰ t̪ʰɔ t̪ʰwɔ t̪ʰe t̪ʰ
  • Intransitive Absolutive = the case vowel is dropped and the mood vowel takes its place.

Mood - Second Suffix

After Consonant After Vowel
Indicative i: s
Interrogative ou m
Imperative ə n
Conditional ɛ d
Subjunctive y ts


Degree - Third Suffix


Comparative ɪnis
Superlative i:lə
Excessive edə:l
Deficient es
Sufficient ɪvɛ:

A noun modified by an adjective declined for degree when preceding a noun declined for the Partitive case will indicate that it is 'more X/Y' than the second noun when marked for the comparative and more excessive/more sufficient/more deficient when marked for those degrees.


Tense - Prefix

Active *Negative
Past çjy- jɜ-
Present - -
Future θɛ- wɛ-


Adjectives can be inflected to demonstrate the time at which the modified noun took whichever state is being described. Lengthening the vowel will serve to emphasize this.

VerbsEdit

Tense - Prefix

Active Negative
Dist. Past fj v
Past h θ
Near Past w ɛw
Present çj j
Near Future sl l
Future ts
Dist. Future ð ðw

Voice - Second Prefix

In the passive, the subject of the verb is marked in the absolutive and the agent is marked in the genitive.

The phrase "I was loved by them" would translate as "Méð líþív hóþiní", litteraly "of.they me was.loved".

Active V, harmonized with root
Passive V, not harmonized with root

The second suffix will be a vowel, the quality of which will be determined by the quality of the stem vowel. The rules governing vowel harmonization are outlined above under phonology.


Potentiality - Second Prefix The second prefix, that which indicates voice, will be doubled like the stem vowel of a noun in the plural in order to communicate potentialiy. When potentially is combined with a first prefix indicating negation, impotentiality will be communicated.

Person/Number - Suffix

Neutral Affectionate
1st sg. ə -
1st d. ɔ ɛə
1st pl. ɔ:
2nd sg. əi əɪ
2nd d. u y
2nd pl. u: y:
3rd sg. ə: ɜ
3rd d. o i
3rd pl. ɜ i:
Zero yd yd
Infinite ɛð

ɛð

The Netural/Affectionate registers are not equivalent to the tu/vous, du/sie formal/familiar distinction that is present within modern European languages. It is rather a means of expressing earnest affection/admiration/amazement, used generally for emphatic professions as various as "I love you" and "You did really well today", the register will however only be used for those phrases and will not be used throughout any conversation in which those phrases might be present.


Aspect - Second Suffix

Perfect *l
Habitual *n
Reflexive *s
  • After a consonant, [e] before C


Modality - Stem vowel modification

A verb which is inflected for modality will see its stem vowel modified in the same way that a noun in the pl. would (see above). The verb that it modifies will conjugate for the same tense, person, voice and aspect as the verb displaying modality and will either immediately succeed it or be separated from it by an adverbial phrase.

eg. [un] = run, [li:sui] want (roots).

q-e-l-i-i:sui-a (present-active-root-modality-root-first person singular-)

q-u-un-a (present-active-root-first person singular-)


qeliísuia quuna = I want to run.

qeliísuia cevuinit quuna = I really want to run.

AdverbsEdit

Mood - Suffix


Indicative

it̪
Interrogative ɔð
Imperative əd
Conditional ɛs
Subjunctive yt̪ʰ


Tense - Prefix


Active Negative
Past θɛ:
Present je
Future t̪e de



PronounsEdit

Pronouns, like the nouns they stand for, can be declined for mood. Messian is also a 'pro-drop' language, meaning that it is not strictly necessary to include a pronoun if the verb it is performing is marked for person (which it always will be), its inclusion in such environments will serve to emphasize the person performing the action, eg. 'he did it'.


Person - Stem

Neutral Affectionate
1st sg. li: -
1st d. lɛɪ wɛɪ
1st pl. svɛ
2nd sg. sto θə:
2nd d. tsə θli:
2nd pl. ne θi:
3rd sg. ve wy:
3rd d.
3rd pl.


Case - First Suffix

Human Plant Natural Neutral Ethereal
Ergative n n n n n
Absolutive θ θl θl θj θw
Dative v vl vl vj vw
Partitive f fl fl fj fw
Genitive ð ðl ðl ðj ðw
Possessive t̪r t̪r t̪j t̪w
Int. Loc. s sl sl sj sw
Ex. Loc. l l l l l
Instrumental j cj cj j j
Purposive d dr dr d dw
Comitative r r r r r
Intrative pʰl pʰl pʰj pʰw
Abessive t̪ʰ t̪ʰ t̪ʰ t̪ʰj t̪ʰ


Mood - Second Suffix

Indicative i:v
Interrogative ɔ:
Imperative ɛ:
Conditional y:
Subjunctive ə:n


PostpositionsEdit

Messianmakes use of postpositions which follow nouns and not prepositions which precede them. They can inflect for person, number and negation in which case they will not follow a noun but instead perform as a prepositonal pronoun.

eg. hvāl-a-v, 'hvālav' = 'with me' or hvāl-ó-s, 'hvālós' = 'with you two'

Many postpositions can be connected to the noun they modify by becoming an enclitic. When this occurs, the intital consonant(s) will be dropped.

eg. [neθ], neþ = under/underneath. 'fe̋d sísfeth neþ' meaning 'underneath the table', could be rendered as 'fe̋d sísfeth'eþ'. Such enclitics are generally reserved for spoken and more casual forms of the language, though they are not in themselves vulgar or unsuitable for polite conversation.

Where locatives are not pertinent, nouns within a Prepositional Phrase will take the genitive.


Person - First suffix

1st -ə-
2nd -ɔ-
3rd -i-

Number - Second suffix

Singular -v
Dual -s
Plural -m
Zero -n
Infinite -d

Negation - Prefix

ɜ-

SyntaxEdit

Basic word order:

  • Main clause: Object-Subject-Verb. 'The man I saw' = 'I saw the man'
  • Subordinate clause: Subject-Object-Verb, with a subordinating conjugation following the subjective noun phrase. '...I although the man saw' = '...although, I saw the man"
  • Relative clause; Verb-Object-Subject. '...saw I' = '...who I saw' The only indication of a clause's being relative is the position of the verb, as it is only in relative clauses that the verb phrase takes the first position.


Modifiers:

  • Adverbs will always follow the verbs that they modify.
  • Adjectives will precede the noun modified in the predicate position and will succeed it in the attributive position. The verb "to be" need not be used in conjunction with a predicate adjectival phrase.3
  • Articles will always precede the noun that they accompany.


Postpositions:

  • Messian makes use of postpositions which follow nouns and not prepositions which precede them.



LexiconEdit

?

1 θi:
2 θem
3 θə
4
5 es
6 ɜle
7 ɔlə
8 sən
9 lɛn
10 ədə
11 θi:əd
12 θeməd
13 θəd
14 təd
15 esəd
16 ɜled
17 ɔləd
18 sənəd
19 lɛnəd
20 θemdə
21 θiθemdə
30 θədə
40 tədə
50 esdə
60 ɜledə
70 ɔlədə
80 səndə
90 lɛnda
100 ədəs
1000 ədəf
10000 ədəv
100000
1000000
above/over luwə
account, reckoning cjɛtθ
accuse fɜsə
acorn stem
acquit tsətʰ
admit, confess ðuinel
adolescent θwə
adult sneɪ
adultery cjøtə
aeroplane (skyboat) enhɪt̪
affirmation/affirmative wəles
after/following wisim
again, re- ðwɔ
age win
air tʰɔ
also/too sfo
altar jisun
always səf
ambush bəɪθ
ancestors ðutʰə
anchor hvø
and ɹə
anger əməs
anger/angry/angrily ɹut
animal bouiə
announce cjøl
answer fwətʰul
anvil cjesun
anxious tθɜ
apple ɛnə
approach efes
arm no:s
armor (defensive) cjo
army tsi:
arrow ɹenə
arson ɹeθ
ash, ashes bɜt
ask, request nunə
ass, donkey cjøn
assemble from pieces θfə
at/unto θil
atmosphere/air-sky tʰɔen
attack buit
aunt ewes
avaricious, stingy adj. . hləɪt̪
awe/awesome
ax mel
axle əmou
bad ðɜ:nə
bag dom
bank/riverbank stʰi
barley hwuis
basic/simple swem
basket bəɪc
bathe/bath vwen
battle-ax ðend
bear t̪uð
beauty/beatiful vlɛnə
because ðɔ
bee ɛəvnɛ:
beech hvəɪ
beggar θvy
believe, accept as true hif
bend cjɜ
big hwɪn
big adj. 9. est
birch benu
birth ɪsvem
black øn
blame cjots
bless wish good upon əfels
blood θem
blow move/cause to move as a current of gas
blue slɪn
boast ɹəi
boat esen
boat/ship hɪt̪
book ʌnə
booty, spoils hløc
bore fɔsɜ
borrow hwuiv
bottle tʰɜ
bottom dɔ:r
boundary ict
bow hɛəc
boy fuə
branch tin
brave adj. cjɛ
bread lun
break v bəɪm
breath/breathe teɪ
breeze ɔði
bridge juin
broom fuəs
brother əwə
brother jousun
build/make/construct θfu
burn hliu
but fli
buy ɔs
call, name hic
calm hu
camel bɛsɜs
captive, prisoner jɛsun
car jom
carpenter mev
carriage, wagon, cart vlɛts
carry θɹə
carve bɜm
cast (metals) cjenɛ:
cat we
cause
center hwuiv
chain cjon
chair ut
change, become/make different cjol
cheap adj. vys
chicken hwɛə
child
chin ɪç
chisel bɜs
circle foud
citizen vəθuð
city tu
clay ðwei
clear, plain adj. hwø
clock wel
clothes ɔs
cloud əɪiə
cloud ələsi:
club cjom
coin wələn
cold θɛdə
collect, gather cjøn
come bu
come/arrive ðə:
command, order cjuin
common nʌð
computer st̪wɛ
condemn met
confused ɹɪ
consider/contemplate/to dwell on ə:lənə
conspiracy, plot lɜd
continent inen
convict
copper, bronze adj. əsou
core ɜd
corner nes
correct also right adj. fwɛlɜn
count hɛɬes
country/nation fuəɪ
couple sjeɪ
court tul
cousin cjos
cover jɜt
cow, bull, steer dɜl
create/creation mə'lə
creep, crawl ewem
crooked adj. ɛəs
crop, harvest ɛəts
cross lɜs
cruel θven
cry, weep belɛn
cultivate, till
curse fi:d
custom mes
cut ouvel
cute ti
dance jeɪ
danger (situation) θwei
dare eθets
dark tθɜ
darkness ɛən
daughter ivʌ:nə
daughter-in-law (of a man) ɛfe
dawn - sun+birth miθsvem
day tsə
dear (costly, expensive) adj. hic
death sfen
debt ted
debtors/creditors vɛnuf
deceit ti:n
deep hlə
deer, stag, fawn huit
defeat nuə
defend, defense cjəɪs
defendant nɛs
demon (evil spirit) ese
deny say that X is not true oud
descendants hwɔ
desire, want jɜ:və
destroy huif
diary ə:tiç
die t̪ɛəjo
difficult adj. 15. jɜð
dig jɜm
dirt/soil eθem
distant svɪl
divide slə
do iv
dog vrɛ
doubt mɛ:
dream hələ
duck, (drake), duckling jɛtθ
dust slu:
ear tsə
early
earn uinɛ
earth, soil jɛsy
east bəɪn
easy adj. 6. hwø
eat ɪli:n
elbow
electricity dasin
elephant buin
elm seə:
end døn
enemy əθuin
enter sly
entire/whole () sfu
envy, jealousy esef
establish eið
Europe urɔpə
evergreen/immortal/immortality viθɜnə
evil vɜməl
evil vɹeið
explain lɜd
eye luɪn
fairy nuis
faithful adj. tsiun
fall hɛəd
family tsuə
far adj. ʎʌl
farmer huic
fast eθen
father itun
father-in-law (of a man) ɬit
fault tuil
fear To fear can ! to respect. idə
feel isðu
female adj. human tsuil
fever or swelling. fous
field sfuɔ
fight fɜ:
find i:s
fine wyl
finger øn
fir u:lə
fire jɛtθə:
fish ɹel
fisherman uəs
flame uis
flat adj.
flay, skin tθənə
flee yðɛ
float lɜnɛ
flow travel in a current əvel
flower θvø
fly i:sɛn
fog hlius
fold leb
follow can ! act according to. jɜvi
food lu:n
foolish, stupid adj. muəm
forbid jɜv
forest θiəθɔ
forever wəsyn
forge huin
forget wəfɛ
forgive hlɛθ
fork pronged instrument for picking up things
fortress hwi:
fox, kit lɜt
freedom/free vwəni
friend usvy
friend, companion juət
frost ys
frown niðə
furniture
furrow vɜð
game (prey) fəɪ
garden θlɔ
gas seɪ
ghost, phantom cjun
gift fjɛmə
girl ouven
give weɪs
give back, return ðwɔweɪs
glass tro
glory tsenum
go sɛn
goat, buck, wether, doe, kid tuits
god y:nə
gold swɔð
good θes
good fortune, luck tθɛ
goodbye tsynə
goose, gander, gosling lɜm
government/to govern sjɛne
grain (barley, oats etc) fwət̪
granddaughter
grandfather
grandmother
grandson
grass θɛə
green θɹot
greet ɜtðu
grief, sorrow, sadness nem
groan suiv
grow əɪc
guest ewet
guilty adj. eði:
gulf, bay vəɪθ
gun, cannon miuts
hail tiðu
hair də:ed
hammer otθ
happy ytθ
harbor, port wərə:s
harm, injure, damage hloun
hat slə
love θin
have an opinio ɔts
have possess / be furnished with muis
hay slən
head θəɪn
heart ɛlɪçt
heaven/holy inum
hell θic
hello
helmet θod
help, aid To prop up can ! help. tθɛv
herdsman vlɔni:
here elɜð
hide, conceal vlɔ
high adj. uiv
hinder, prevent vli
hire v tsɜ
hit also strike, beat di:m
hoe jəɪ
hold muθ
hole os
holy, sacred adj. om
home
hook
horse, stallion, gelding, mare, foal/colt efen
host cjɛ:
hot hyvə
house fəut
husband ov:i
ice yn
idea, notion t̪oumc:
idol si:lis
image t̪ʰɛmi
in front of/before fien
in/inside/into - out/outside/out of syθ
infant, baby vɜts
inferior sie:n
insane, crazy adj. slɛn
insect ʌsi:
intelligence/intelligent dələ
intention, purpose cji:lə
internet touləð
iron wiuts
island təly
joyful, glad, happy adj. hlic
jump, leap on
keep/savour ðu:m
king, ruler tsuə
king/lord fɔð
kingdom fəɪfɔð
kiss
kitten tθi:cə
knee nɜm
knife besɔ:
knot tsɜt̪ə
know May distinguish knowing people from other
lake sut̪
lake eðɛ:ts
language mi:s
late ðiu
laugh dɜn
laugh vyl
law sou
lead dən
leaf ɜs
learn ynə
leave θou
left adj. uət
leg hɪs
lend əɪt
let, permit cjil
lie, tell lies əɪm
life oθel?
light θjesiə
light, kindle, ignite fluvɛə
lightning cjø
like hli:
like/as/similarly/just as (prep.) tsɛn
line hwøc
lion θɛɪ
liquid bef
live çjoθɪl
livestock uin
lonely/alone/lonliness i:sθə
long of much length adj. ɔ
look after, care for tsiul
lose ul
love θin
low adj. nen
lungs trom
magic, witchcraft, sorcery
main/primary θvɛ:
mainland tsiu
maize, corn lɛɪf
male adj. human etsel
male animal adj. vuiθ
man həl
manure
market (place) cjic
mast uim
master ɜd
match little fire-stick slʌ
material/texture vwət̪
measure muə
medicine i:θef
meet sɔt
merchant eðɛs
metal sɪnɪd
middle fɔn
mind
misfortune, bad luck tsuə
mist jɜvə
mistake, error esev
modal particle
mold (clay etc) bɜsɛ:
monkey ɔt
month sɔt̪
moon θli:m
mother
mother Gr.; female wəv
mother-in-law (of a man)
mountain fəθ
mountain forest θiəfəð
mountain also: hill juə
mouse, rat wi:n
mouth θɹɪð
mow, reap wius
mud
mule n tuis
music əɪ
nail fastener, used with hammer buim
name nel
narrow? wyn
nature ɛmə
near/close/neaby/proximity flu:m
need fwɛ:sə
negative θfɔ
neighbor fɜθ
nephew
never tə:tɜ
new tsen
next θvəl
niece hlø
night/darkness ɛðɜt
noble, nobleman? swynə
north tul
nose
novel/narrative/story douen
now/soon/immediately ouɔd
oak ɜlə
oar tθə
oats bøn
obey Listen can ! obey. tɛtə
obscure adj. hluif
ocean hwɪs
offspring (son or daughter) esef
old num
old person founum
omen, portent lɛɪ
one’s native country
open hjet̪
open mes
oppress/oppression çjen
orphan etses
other fei
owe suviə
pain
pants os
paper suə
parents etsɛ
passport frin
path/road li
pay y:təs
peace θus
pen
people, populace ict̪ʰ
person fuwɪn
pine/pine tree vəni:l
pity juə
place/position/station fen
plain, field dɜm
plant həen
play
plow ol
poem ɛv
poet wiuð
poetry ɛvet
pole dent̪em
poor wəsen
positive hjɔ
possess ðoθy:
possible/possibly/possibility θfɛt̪
pot su:s
potter muin
pour, cause to flow oveθ
power vɛfuð
praise vi:tθ
pray communicate with god(s) fɜ:tʰ
preach cjɛɪ
preserve ots
press do pressure to; push upon əməs
price slys
priest swuis
promise muits
prostitute mout̪
proud adj. tsel
pull, also draw θuə
pupil nes
pursue v ðlosen
push, also shove ulə
queen slɔ:
quick/quickly/speed ɘɪt
rabbit stel
raft vəɪ
rain ɛlð
raise, lift nɛ:
rake jɜ:θ
reach, arrive v oul
read
record osɔlə
red fə:θ
refuse jyme
regret, be sorry mused
relatives, kinsmen nɛə
release, let go osɛ
religion fout
remains, left overs dɜsə
remember tsɛ
retreat əvəd
rice oun
rich? uwɛ
ride sit/perch in/on eðɛ
right ɪn
right(legal) tsənem
ring si:s
rise cjo
river sfəm
roll move like a ball vlə
roof t̪ləv
root dɜvi:n
rope also cord esen
rose vɪn
round? sɔt
row fəɪv
rub also wipe muiθ
rudder
rule, govern dɜs
run un
rye hlui
sacrifice, offering fɜlə
sad hɪfθ
sail fɛrə
sail v its
sand ot
save, rescue ewɛs
save/redeem/deliver mɛ:em
saw jɜf
say oufes
scholar
school jy
scissors, shears sɔ:
sculptor oven
sea fuəv
search wɛð
secret adj. suif
see/sight fɪn
seek, look for v
seem flynə
seize, grasp, take hold of uθə
sell syv
send ic
separate lɜθ
servant scn
shade, shadow hwuiv
shake uvət
shallow of little depth adj.
shame tyl
sharp jict̪
shelter tɪfs
shield t̪ʰɛ
ship tsiun
shirt jəm
shore uif
short of little length ovui
shout, cry out idou
shovel mʌ:
shut, close
sickle, scythe ɹɔtʰ
side t̪ʰɛt̪ʰ
silent (be) jɜ:m
silver muən
sin/transgression st̪ɛtʰ
sing θɪθ
sing tθɔ
sink net
sister vlɔs
sit ɔː
size wət̪
sky en
slave dɜb
sleep vɜn
slide, slip θe:m
sling tui
slow/slowly flus
small dɘɪl
small adj. also little vui
smile sɪθeθ
smith, blacksmith wyn
smoke tun
snow ɛlðyn
social wɛθ
soldier vli:ɛ
solid i:əð
son-in-law (of a man) vlə:
sorcerer, witch mius
sorts of knowledge. Gr.; ability, habitual.
soul, spirit
south sys
sow jɜθ
space fəsti:nə
spacecraft (heavenboat) mɪθihɪt
spade ouc
speak, talk hliu
speak/speech/language mɛ:t
spear besɔ
sphere, ball vlɜ
split vuis
spread out, strew bɛɪθ
spring, well uisɛ
square wiun
stand tsɛθ
star miθju
state invu
statue hwəv
stay ɔd
steal/theft tʰɜl
steam θɹeθ
step()/stair/stairs fəs
stepdaughter
stepfather
stepmother
stepson
stomach ðɔ
stone, also: rock wɛfə
stop ti
store, shop wəmɛ
straight not bent adj. wynə
stranger
stream bəɪn
stretch ytsɛ
strife, quarrel wouð
study vlin
stupid wɜl
subject (citizen) hwɛə
sun miθ
sunset - sun+death miθsfen
superior fiə
sure, certain adj. tsic
surrender yθi:m
sweep juit
swim tʰou
sword ðuviə
table fetʰ
take cjul
tall adj. wə:
tax, tribute hwə
teach θuviə
teacher əɪ
tear buit
telephone tʰə
temple, church əɪθ
temptation/to tempt fwɔ
that (distal)
that (medial) sə:
thick? hlym
thin? woun
think (= reflect) slɛs
think be of the opinion To calculate, count can !
this (proximal) tʰɛ
though douəs
threaten lədəs
thresh θwi:c
threshing-floor fɜs
through fenə
throw jysɛ
thunder hluiθ
tie also bind ɜb
tin, tinplate ovɛə
to be ɛθ
to carry out/ t̪ɛ
to give a speech ðrɛ
to hang out tʰətʰ
to open up (intrans.)/to become clear vɛθu
to turn into dɘlɘd
tobacco mətʰu
today tsəwi:s
toe monø
tomorrow suwɪs
tool dɛ:r
top bytʰ
tower fəɪm
town jɜt
trade, barter uəð
travel ɛɜn
tree ɔle
tribe, clan dets
true/truth lɛə
try, attempt tɛɪ
turn around can ! become. tsəɪ
turn θjem
tyranny/tyrannical fwɛsɜ:
tyrant fwet
ugly dynis
uncle ərɛ:
under neθ
understand, grasp, can understand.
unite/united I'yç
used for work. Cattle can ! wealth. ouð
valley nəntsu
valley forest nənfəð
vehicle slen
victory ɛθɜ
village vɛ:fi
vine θwitə:
violate/insult ləmɜ
visit nyn
voice bədə
wages cjus
waldeinsamkeit i:sθfəð
walk sjɪs
want sryt̪
war, battle tsəɪθ
warm hɪmu
wash vufiə
watch vwɪ
water lə:s
waterfall vwɛl
wave cji:n
wealth? est
weapon feld
weapons, arms n fuəf
weather buət
weave, plait cjy
week tɪn
west ɛəls
wheat hi:f
wheel erə
whilst (conj.) bɛs
whisper hwic
white ɬi:s
wide, broad dɜv
widow ɔð
will/wish tsel
wind hwɛ
wind, wrap di:ɛm
window ɛðɜ
wine tym
wipe also rub flys
wise adj. hiɛf
with/accompanying hvə:l
woman vəl
wood vles
word hwəθ
work jesun
world flesen
worship ɹeis
write oni:
wrong løn
year hlu:
yellow
yoke idɛ
young swi
young/youth mou
zeal cjɛm
can, to be able to jui:s
swamp ni:n

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