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Mestian/Lexicon

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AquaticsEdit

pírka, pirkássa - aqu. I
(generic) fish, piscine animal
·pírk· - 1a/6cs/8b
·pínk· / ·púr-gh· / ·pí-žd·
itr. swim, float, be afloat; be buoyant
dásu, dasúšša - aqu. V
blackfish
gẽlą, ghelímmą - aqu. IV
salmon

RocksEdit

rhýka, rhykássa - ina. I
pebble, small stone
béč, béčella - ina. VIII [*bet-š]
boulder, large stone
betéšis, betemmášša - adj. cEŠIS [be(t)-tešis]
rocky, stone, of stone
palãmā, palammášša - ina. III
bedrock, river bottom, sea floor

MetallurgyEdit

ûra, ūrássa - neu. I [ūr-a]
iron, crude iron
álira, alírassa (alíssa) - neu. I [alir-a]
copper
ûšša, ūššássa - [ūr-ša]
iron object, item either made up of iron or having iron as the material of its most significant component
coll. iron objects, iron items; iron regalia
ûššaš, ūššašélla - [ūr-ša-š]
iron ore, iron-bearing mineral

BirdsEdit

itáran, itarássa - ani. I
swan
dârab, dârabašša - ani. IX
fowl
íšt, ištášša - ina. IX
bird nest

ReptilesEdit

ĩkur, ikkússa - ign. II
snake

DragonsEdit

trakún, trakúnnu (trąkún, trąkúnnu) - ign. VI
small dragon (<10kg)
pîlī, pīlíššą - ign. V
medium female dragon (20kg ~ 50kg)
sóroš, soršélla - ign. VIII
wing (of a drake, dragon)

AmphibiansEdit

ýšpę, yšpímmę - aqu. IV
tadpole
býrī, byríššą - ́ 'aqu. V
tadpole
ǽljā, æljássa - aqu. III
frog

InsectsEdit

fášša, faššássa - neu. I
beehive

Pet MammalsEdit

pítta, pittássa - ani. I
cat, feline
'ttálī, 'ttalíššą - ani. V [(pi)tta-lī]
kitten, small cat
ndéna, ndenássa - ani. I
dog, hound
vũsur, vussússa - ani. II [*vuẖ-sur]
mouse
pęghán, pęghássa - aqu. I
otter

Silvan FaunaEdit

lĩją, lijjímmą - ani. IV [*liẖj-əw]
deer
lijjpráždžā, lijjpraždžâšša - neu. III [*liẖj-pras-džā]
the presence of deer (at a location, in a forest etc.)
the bedeeredness (of a location, etc.)
sỹlur, syllússa - ani. II
doe, hind
lijjpílin, lijjpilínnu - ani. VI [*liẖj-pilin]
doe, hind, young female deer
ãž, āžélla - ani. VIII [*ẖāž]
elk, moose
āžápnā, āžapnášša - neu. III [āž-apnā]
elklands, area inhabited by elks
——→ Biomes

PhysiologyEdit

apákas, apakássa - ign. I
breath, air in lungs
·pífpi· - 1cs/6a/8b
·púfpi-ŋ· / ·pífpi-xu· / ·pirr·+
itr. urinate
trn. urinate (par)
+ loc urinate upon (obl)
pífpan, pifphmúnnu - aqu. IV
urination
pífpan, pifphrúnnu - aqu. IV
urine

AnatomyEdit

âghur, aghússa - neu. II
egg, ovum
awãraŋ, awarhúnnu - ani. VI
muscle fibre
sîliš, sīlišélla - aqu. VIII
eye, eyeball
káran, karássa - neu. I
foot
kúraš, kurašélla - neu. VIII
bone
zôdan, zōdássa - neu. I
blood
tẽran, stērássa - neu. I [*tẖēran]
skin, leather

Grip, ManuumEdit

âkan, ākánnu - neu. VI
arm, hand
ássam, assánnu - neu. VI
hand
dúffū, duffúššą - ina. V
grip, hold (on sth. po2)
·dúffu· - 2bs/6cp/8s
·z-dúffu-(ž)-agha· / ·dúffu-gha· / ·dúffu-(ži)-s·
trn. hold acc
trn. hold a part of par
assundúffū, assunduffúššą - ina. V
hand's grip, armful, handful
kérex, kerrášša - ina. IX
palm (of the hand)

FaceEdit

vánur, vanússa - ign. II
nose, nostril
vanovánur, vanovanússa - ign. II [āmreḍita of vánur;-nússa < vano-vánur]
snout, nose (intensive; of animals, (metaphorically) animalistic of humans)
vỹl, vyghę́llu - ina. VII
eyebrow; eyebrow ridge
kóvat, kovílla - aqu. IV dt.
eyes

PhysiologyEdit

tâlhel, tallêlle - ani. VII
blink/eyeblink
nugárī, nugaríššą - ani. V
tiredness, exhaustion
nugárpras, nugarprássa - adj. cA
tired, exhausted
kẽlen, khēlúnnu - ign. VI
skin, (smooth) hide
leather, worked leather

QuantityEdit

lílas, lilássa - adj. cA
lílas/lilássa
liléja/lilájša
lílu/lilúšša
lilésa²/lilíšša²
pos. much, many, plenty of, a lot of
comp. more, more of
sup. most, all of
úlan - adv. incomp.
úlan / úlā / úlla
so, so very, very
Remark: the adverb has three generally interchangeable forms; the only placement rule is that, when used twice, either úlan or úlā may be used, and only in such a way that úlā comes right next to the head that it modifies.
lilîldžā, lilīldžâšša - neu. III [lil-īl-džā]
majority, the most, most
líndžā, lindžâšša - neu. III [lin-džā < *lil-džā]
a lot, plenty
lilîggdžā, lilīggdžâšša - neu. III [lil-īkk-džā]
all of, everyone, every
úktur, uktússa - ina. II
a small chunk, a bit, bit; piece of debris/rubble
awájdžā, awajdžášša - neu. III [awaj-džā]
some, some of, a small amount of, an indeterminate amount of
péjpā, pejpâšša - neu. III
measure, indicator
émas, emássa - adj. cA [*em-as]
only, the only; unique
émut, emúšša - neu. IX [*em-ut]
the Only, the Unique
pārídžā, pāridžâšša - neu. II [pāri-džā]
uniqueness, oneness

FloraEdit

piẖšiẖ· - unattested (†)
·pa:ppãš· - 1bs/7a/8a
·pa:ppãš-ešte· / ·pa:ppãš· / ·pi:ppĩš-(uni)-s·
itr. grow
itr. inch. sprout, sprout from (obl) + dat)
pĩšī, piššíššą - ina. V
fruit
î, ijášša - ani. IX [*ij]
leaf

TreesEdit

tûrī, tūríššą - ani. V
tree, lignic mass; wood, timber
skúja, skujássa - ani. I
(on bifurcating trees) one of the two main bifurcations of a tree; trunk

AcousticsEdit

qásā, qasášša - neu. III
sound, acoustic perception
téril, terlêlle - neu. VII
sound of a heartbeat, heart tick; low frequency (singular) tick

DeathEdit

segárī, segaríššą - ani. V
mass exctinction, mass death
ápen, apénnu - ani. VI
death, of an individual or in general; usually considered to be active or agentive
ghmám, ghmánnu - ani. VI
death, of an individual; end goal, end result, the Fate of Man

DecayEdit

·ĩlma· - 1cp&1gp/6a/8a
·ĩlma-ŋ-w· / ·ĩlma-axu· / ·ĩlma-(ži)-s·
itr. decay, fall apart
itr. decay into (obl) dat
·ajãlma· - 1cp&1gp/6a/8a [*-aj-ælẖma-]
·ajãlmaŋ-w· / ·ajãlma-axu· / ·ajãlma-(ži)-s·
itr. fall down, crumble down
itr. fall down onto + aj + lat

Static ActivitiesEdit

·kíla· - 1cp/6cp/8a(8b) 1a/6a/8b irr. tel/atel.
·kíla-ŋ· / ·kíla-gha· / ·kíla-(ži)-s· (·kíl-ppa-žd·)
·ki:kíl[n]a· / ·ki:kíla-axi· / ·ki:kílda-žd·
itr. sit
itr. inch. sit somewhere (obl)
trn. sit on (acc)
kikíldžā, kikildžâšša - [ki:kíl-džā] neu. III
seat, place to sit at
·ghyr·+ - 1a/6cp/8a
·gh[n]yr· / ·ghyr-ghá· / ·ghyr-(únu)-s·
itr. wait for nothing in specific
trn. wait for (acc)
ghyrásī, ghyrasíššą - neu. III
waiting
waiting for acc

Active/Dynamic ActivitiesEdit

·dér· - 3d/6cp/8a
·dér-gh-(unu)-ŋ· / ·dér-gha· / ·dér-(ži)-s·
trn. do, perform, execute (acc)
trn. do/perform/execute some of (par)
deršpéšis, deršpemmášša - adj. cEŠIS [der-špešis]
doable, performable, executable
possible
fĩ, fijášša - neu. IX [*fijiẖ, *fijarša]
ascent, climb
·ą́lh· - 1cp/6cp/8a [*-V́(gh/w)-əlhə-]
·ą́l-ŋ· / ·ą́l-gha· / ·ą́lh-(unu)-s· [*-V́G-əlh(ə̱)-ŋ- / *-V́G-əlh(ə̱)-gha- / *-V́G-əlh-]
itr. twist, bend out of shape
itr. curl, coil
Remarks: the verb is a partial reanalogisation from its derivatives; the actual root was most likely always prefixed in pre-Mestian
·nûlh· - 1cp/6cp/8a [*(a)núw-əlhə-]
·nûl-ŋ· / ·nûl-gha· / ·nûlh-(unu)-s·
trn. twist, bend sth. (acc) out of shape
ą́lhsī, ąlhsíššą - neu. V [ąlh-sī]
twisting, curling, coiling, bending

LativeEdit

·prón· - 5/7/8a
·pérg· / ·pa:párg· / ·prón-(nu)-s·
itr. go, move, do a lative action or motion
·ýš· - 6cp&1gs/6cp/8a
·ýž-gha-j· / ·ýž-gha· / ·ýš-(unu)-s·
itr. jump
jur-(t)-ýš· - 6cp&1gs/6cp/8a [jur(ē) + ·ýš·]
itr. jump up, jump into the air
yšún, yšúnnu [yš-un]
jump, leap, hop
onom. hop
·tá· - 3d/6cs/8a
·tá-ŋ-gh· / ·tú-gha· / ·tá-(nu)-s·
trn. measure a quantity of (acc)
trn. measure the quantity/dimension (par) in the vicinity
jī-tá· - 3d/6cs/8a [jī-ta]
jī-tá-ŋ-gh· / jī-tú-gha· / jī-tá-(nu)-s·
trn. move (acc)
refl. dep. move oneself
us-tá - 3d/6cs/8a [us-ta]
us-tá-ŋ-gh· / us-tú-gha· / us-tá-(nu)-s·
trn. assemble (acc)
trn. assemble/put some of (par) together
jur-tá· - 3d/6cs/8a [jur(ē) - ·tá·]
jur-tá-ŋ-gh· / jur-tú-gha· / jur-tá-(nu)-s·
trn. carry, bring (acc)
+loc carry/bring across/over (obl)

LocationEdit

·iráva· - 1a/6cp/8a
·irá[m]va· / ·iráva-gha· / ·iráva-(ži)-s·
itr. be (somewhere) + AdP
itr. be located at + AdP
tǽnkē - adv. [tænt-kē]
here, near me
Remark: this adverb is not interchangeable with tǽŋkē
márštas, marštássa - neu. I
location, place
pfâris - adv.
in varying degrees of intensity depending on the location
remark: can only modify adverbs that modify verbs

AnthropologyEdit

Human IllnessesEdit

sýllkur, syllkússa - ani. II [syll-kur]
jaundice

MedicineEdit

·íq· tãmas - 1gs&1f/6cs/8a [unknown second component]
——> ·ÍQ·
itr. cure, practice medicine
itr. + lat cure a disease, be a remedy for (obl)

SexualityEdit

fissâ, fissášša - neu. III
masturbation
·íq· físsas - 1gs&1f/6cs/8a
——> ·ÍQ·
itr. masturbate
ōlúlu, ōlulúšša - adj. cD
'hot & bothered', sexually aroused

Genī, PeoplesEdit

íčur, ičússa - ani. II
human; man
ičúlu, ičulúšša - adj. cD [ič-ulu]
human, of humans
Mastâmī, Mastāmíššą - ani. V [mastā-mī]
a Mestian individual, a Mestian

Political GeographyEdit

sírtur, sirtússa - ani. II
nation, country, state
entá, entássa - ani. I
territory (of a nation/state)

Heroism, GloryEdit

ûrul, ūrmélle - ign. VII [*ûrmul]
hero, vir
·ūré· - 1cp/6a/8a
·ūré-ŋ· / ·ūré-xi· / ·ūré-(ži)-s·
itr. shine, radiate, be glorious
árkan, arkássa - ani. I
patriarch, man of authority; respected/revered one

ArchitectureEdit

lũghun, luhúnnu - ina. VI
wall (usually stone or rock, artificial)
ĩkh, īkhášša - ina. IX [ẖīkẖ]
foundation, basis of walls/floors, wireframe of pillars/walls, reinforcement, 'bones' of a building
·nũkh· - 1a/6cp/8a [*(a)nu-ẖīkẖ-]
·nũ[ŋ]kh· / ·nũg-gha· / ·nũkh-(unu)-s·
trn. put, place (acc) at (obl) lat
párpa, parpássa - ina. I [from a Herder language]
ceiling, top of a room
avárpa, avarpássa - ina. I [presumably from *aj-bárpa]
floor, 'below the ceiling', bottom of a room
ŋérel, ŋellêlle/ŋerrêlle - ina. VII
floor
ustâsī, ustasíššą - neu. V [us-ta-asī]
structure, make-up, assemblage; componentage, component make-up
óffan, offánnu - ina. VI
house, small family household
kíštun, kištúnnu - ign. VI
brick

Dynasty, Lineage, NamesEdit

žûl, žūlášša - ina. IX
given/birth name
sõmon, sommónnu - ina. VI
taken name, acquired name
áš, ášella - ina. VIII
surname, family name, last name
žôv, žōvášša - neu. IX
call, calling (of an animal)
·žvár· - 1a/7/8a [from an ablaut of žôv]
·žvá[n]r· / ·žôv· / ·žvár-(unu)-s·
refl. be called, be named, be denoted
trn. call sby. (acc)
+dat with the name/using the name (obl)
trn. utter a name (par)

Given NamesEdit

Pára, Parássa - ani. I
a male given name
Nãra, Narhássa - ani. I
a female given name of westerlander origin
Mãghan, Mãghassa - ani. I
a male given name of herder origin
Mirghá, Mirghássa - ani. I
an ambigender/male given name of herder origin
Jállan, Jallánnu - ani. VI
a male given name, of herder origin

SensationsEdit

·vę́p· - 1a/6cp/8a
·vę́[m]p· / ·vę́b-gha· / ·vę́p-(unu)-s·
trn. tickle (acc)
vę́psī, vępsíššą - neu. V [vęp-sī]
tickling (as a concept)
vępjéšis, vępjemmášša - adj. cEŠIS [vęp-ješis]
tickleable

PhilosophyEdit

akãkī, akakkíšša - ina. V
revelation, epiphany
ĩn, ĩnnu - aqu. VI
mind
sarĩn, sarĩnnu - aqu. VI
reason, logic (of a person), sanity
sírū, sirúššą - ani. V
life, existence
·síru· - 1cp/6a/8a [backformation from sírū]
·síru-ŋ· / ·síru-xu· / ·síru-(ži)-s·
itr. exist
inch. +dat be born as (obl)
srû, srúššą - ani. V [shortened from sírū]
poet. life
píttrū, pittrúššą - ani. V [pit-trū < *pit-tirū < *pit-sirū]
boredom
píttpras, pittprássa - adj. cA [pitt(r)-pras]
boring

Literature & LinguisticsEdit

ȳjá, ȳjássa - ina. I
spoken word, utterance
šára, šašássa - ina. I [from Sarrhan]
written word
·ȳj-lá· - 1cp/6a/8a [ȳj-la; inflected by analogy with ·laká·]
·ȳj-lá-ŋ· / ·ȳj-lâxi· / ·ȳj-lá-(ži)-s·
trn. speak, utter, say (acc)
trn. quote, recite a part of (par)
·šā-lá· - 1cp/6a/8a [šā-la < šaš-la; formed by analogy with ·ȳj-la·]
·šā-lá-ŋ· / ·šā-lâxi· / ·šā-lá-(ži)-s·
trn. write (acc)
trn. write a part of (par)
šāláqur, šālaqússa - ani. II [šaš-la-qur]
writer, scribe
šárjan, šarjássa - ina. I [šar-j-an]
book, inscription
šarjákur, šarjakússa - ina. I [šar-j-a-kur]
book
šâttā, šâttašša - neu. III [contraction of šālátā]
script
the Dragon Imperial script, used to write (among others) Mestian
útša, utšássa - ina. I [*utˀ-ša]
the Sarhan beadcord script
(by extension) beadcord records compiled in the Sarhan script
strings of beads, cords of beads; bead-cords
·bat+· utšíssa
itr. read; lit. touch beadcords
+«lat ux» read lat

VocalisationsEdit

·pũ· - 1a/6cp/8a [*-puẖ-]
·púmm· / ·púhha· / ·pũnus·
itr. shout, yell

Art, AestheticsEdit

·laká· - 1cp/6a/8a
·laká-ŋ· / ·laká-axu· / ·laká-(ži)-s·
trn. decorate (acc)
trn. spray (acc) with (obl) dat
·ąwú· - 3e/6d/8b
·ąwú-d-(unu)-zd· / ·ąwúzda· / ·ąwážd·
itr. be an artist, draw
ąwúqqur, ąwuqqússa [ąwu-q-qur]
artist, wannabe-artist
sákka, sakkássa - ina. I
dot, fleck
'kka, kkássa - ina. I
tiny dot, tiny fleck, dotlet/flecklet
sprájspur, sprajspússa - ina. II
appearance, look
character, silhouette

PleasantriesEdit

ōráka, ōrakássa - ina. I [ōrak-a]
pleasantness, nicety/niceness (as a concept)
ōrápras, ōraprássa - adj. cA [ōra(k)-pras]
pleasant, nice, hospitable (of people)
ōrágdžā, ōragdžâšša - neu. III [ōrak-džā]
pleasantness, nicety, hospitability (of people)
·šmã· - 1cp/6cp/8a
·šmã-ŋ· / ·šmã-gha· / ·šmã-(nu)-s·
trn. be delighted by acc
trn. take pleasure in doing or carrying out par
šmãra, šmarhássa - neu. I [šmã-ara]
euphem. brothel, house of pleasure

DispleasantriesEdit

ajpírpa, ajpírpassa - neu. I [aj-pirp-a]
insult, slander
·pírp· - 1gs/6a/8a atel.
·púrp-i· / ·pírp-axi· / ·pírp-(unu)-s·
trn. insult acc
aj=pírp· - 1gs/6a/8a tel. [aj=pirp]
aj=púrp-i· / aj=pírp-axi· / aj=pírp-(unu)-s·
trn. insult lat (obl)

SociologyEdit

ũndī, ūndíššą - neu. V
people, nation, folk
lûr, lûssa - ani. II [*luur]
(collective) people, mass of people, men, women etc.
lelûr, lelûssa - ani. II [āmreḍita of lûr, lûssa < *lue-lúur]
(collective) people, mass of people (intensive)

ClothesEdit

Interior DecorationsEdit

járvę, járvimmę - ign. IV
tapestry, rug, floor covering, mat

AgeEdit

êŋqajn, ēŋqúnnu - neu. VI
life, freshness, ripeness
ēntéja, entájša - adj. ign/aqu/ani. cB
young, fresh, full of life, new
mŷmu, mȳmúšša - adj. ign/aqu/ani. cD
old, elderly
pílin, pilínnu - ani. VI
girl, young woman (especially older than thirteen or fourteen)
avýrta, avyrtássa - ani. I
boy, young man (especially older than thirteen or fourteen)
ávī, avíššą - ani. V [from avýrta]
(endearing) young man, boy, lad

Personality & TraitsEdit

saráka, sarakássa - neu. I [sar-aka(?)]
honesty, sincerity, frankness
sarákpras, sarakprássa - adj. cA [sarak-pras]
honest, sincere, frank

MentalEdit

·âwę· - 1cp/6a/8a
·âwę-ŋ· / ·âwę-xi· / ·âwę-(ži)-s·
itr. think, consider
trn. think (acc) (tenker)
trn. think/be of the opinion that acc (synes)
·sál· - 1bp/6a/8a
·sál-(ž)-ešte· / ·sál-li· / ·sál-(ži)-s·
trn. remember a thing, an event (par)
trn. remember a person (acc)
trn. +dat remember a characteristic/property (par) of a person (obl)
salásī, salasíššą - neu. V
memory
+dat a memory of (dat)
inkájpras, inkajprássa - adj. cA [*inkai-pras]
imbecilic, moronic

PoliticsEdit

tándžā, tandžâšša [tán(es)-dža] - neu. III
tension, conflict

SecrecyEdit

pŷrī, pȳríššą - neu. V [pȳr-ī]
secret
pȳrúlu, pȳrulúšša - adj. cD [pȳr-ulu]
secret, mysterious, unknown
šára pȳrúlak, šašássa pȳrulássa - phr. [fixed phrase]
secret word
password, watchword
linguistic shibboleth
remark: the phrase may refer to both written and spoken secret words, passwords and shibboleths, even though it uses šára:šašássa — a word that otherwise strictly refers to written words
pȳrúlut, pȳrulúšša - neu. IX [pȳr-ul-ut]
colloquial shortening of šára pȳrúlak; password

GovernmentEdit

·pta·+ - 1cp/6a/8a
·pta-ŋ·+ / ·ptāxú· / ·pta-(ží)-s
itr. be a ruler
trn. rule the political entity of (acc)
trn. rule sby. (par)
+loc rule/be a ruler in (obl)
·éna· - 3ap/6a/8a [*én-a]
·ésna-(ž)-aj· / ·énāxu· / ·éna-(ží)-s
trn. allow (acc)
+lat allow sth (acc) to sby (obl)
énqę, enqímme - neu. IV [*én-qę]
that which is allowed
legislative/governmental/authoritative mandate
enqâra, enqārássa - neu. I [enqę-ara]
council, parliament
ø̂ha, ø̄hássa - neu. I [from Marpanni]
legitimacy (of a regime, ruler, faction)
ø̄hjurtúqur, -qússa - ani. II [ø̄h-jurtuqur]
imperial official, emissary
ptaghán, ptaghrúnnu - neu. VI [pta-gh(r)an]
ruled area
province of the Imperium
province (in general)
ptaghrájan, ptaghrajássa - neu. I [pta-ghra-jan]
(con)federacy; state made up of multiple areas/provinces
zor-tá· - 3d/6cs/8a [zor-ta < zol-ta]
zor-tá-ŋ-gh· / zor-tú-gha· / zor-tá-(nu)-s·
trn. inherit sth. (acc)
+dat from sby. (obl)
zortásī, zortasíššą - neu. V [zol-ta-sī]
inheritance
zortáqur, zortaqússa - ani. II [zol-ta-qur]
noble
inheritor
zortatáqur, zortataqússa - neu. II [zol-ta=ta-qur]
nobility
zortáqjan, zortaqjássa - neu. I [zol-ta-q-jan]
nobility
zortáqę, zortaqímmę - ina. IV [zol-ta-qę]
inherited property
zortaqŷn, zortaqŷssa - ina. I [zol-ta-qi-j-an > zorta-qȳn]
noble estate; feudal land property
zortášša, zortaššássa - ina. I [zol-ta-s-ša]
the Imperial feudal system of inheritance
zortákkur, zortakkússa - ani. II [zol-ta-q-kur]
Emperor, Imperator
zortákkjan, zortakkjássa - ani. I [zol-ta-q-k-jan]
imperial dynasty; sequence of emperors
Zortághrjan, Zortaghrjássa - neu. I [zol-ta-ghr-jan]
the Dragon Imperium
ptághan, ptaghrúnnu - neu. VI [pta-ghan]
reign, rule, regime
remark: frequently used to count time according to length reign or a regime's existence

WarfareEdit

pûnī, pūníššą - neu. V [*pūn-iẖ]
victory
pūnápnā, pūnapnášša - neu. III [pūn-apnā]
battlefield
·íj· pūnísis - 1gs&1f/6cs/8a
——> ·ÍJ·
itr. win, be victorious
kẽššjan, khēššjássa - neu. I [kẽl-š-jan]
"mass produce of leather jacket utilisation"
leather-clad army; army

WeaponryEdit

qétta, qéttassa - ina. I
spear, spearhead
íššis, iššášša - ina. IX [*išš-is]
sword
ájsa, ájsašša - ina. I
arrowhead

ArmourEdit

kẽšša, khēššássa - ina. I [kẽl(en) + -ša]
leather garment
(of armour) leather jacket
khēššíkkā, khēššikkášša - ina. III [kẽl-š-ikkā]
leather vendor

Food Rituals & UtensilsEdit

eléta, elétašša - neu. III
table knife
sĩ, sĩšša - neu. IX [*siẖ]
table, desk, counter top, flat surface at waist level

Mestian DishesEdit

ājjãdan, ājjādássa - neu. I [āmreḍita of ãdan;-dássa < *aẖdi-áẖdan]
small, sticky rice cake with a sweet core (usually made of fruit, honeyed fruit jam or honeyed nuts)

RelationshipsEdit

májis, majsášša - ani. IX
friend
înda, īndássa - ani. I
acquaintance, buddy, casual friend
sĩ, sĩššą - ani. V [*ẖsī]
neighbour

EmotionsEdit

ékal, eglêlle - ign. VII
happiness
eglápras, eglaprássa - adj. cA
happy
·vęr·+ - 4b/6b/8b 4a/6b/8b irr. tel/atel. inch.
·s-vęr-d·+ / ·vęr-rh·+ / ·vąr-žd·+
·s-vęr-gh·+ / ·vęr-rh·+ / ·vąr-žd·+
itr. begin to be able to love
trn. start to love acc, begin to love acc
·ir(i)·+ - 3d/6cp/8a
·ir-gh-(únu)-ŋ· / ·irghá· / ·iri-(nú)-s·
trn. caus. make acc cry
refl. make self (acc) cry; cry
pna-ir(i)·+ - 3d/6cp/8a [pnan-ir(i)-]
trn. caus make acc cry over/after/because of dat + pnan
refl. cry because of dat + pnan

KinshipEdit

ēsánta, ēsantássa - ani. I
ancestor, predecesor
gárū, garúššą - ani. V
brother, male cousin
jãllū, jāllúššą - ani. V
sister, female cousin
pæntúr, pæntússa - ani. II
brother
járur, jarússa - ani. I
father

Commerce, EconomyEdit

·pâgh· - 1a/7/8a
·pâ[ŋ]gh· / ·pâg· / ·pâgh-(unu)-s·
itr. be worth, have value
trn. have the worth of par
·ĩw· - 1bs/6cs/8a
·ũw-(n)-ešte· / ·ũw-(nu)-gha· / ·ĩw-(nu)-s·
trn. sell an item (acc)
trn. sell some of par
ĩwghan, īwghmúnnu - neu. VI [ĩw-ghan]
store, shop, marketplace lot; place where sales are conducted

Populational AilmentsEdit

sípa, sipássa - ina. I
hunger, famine

ViolenceEdit

·být· - 1a/6d/8b
·bý[n]t· / ·býzd· / ·býžd·
trn. kill, incapacitate, murder (acc)
trn. cull, cull some of (par)

TactileEdit

·bat+ - 1gs/6a/8a
·búti· / ·bat-áxi· / ·bat-(únu)-s·
trn. touch (par)

AgricultureEdit

ãdan, ādássa - neu. I
rice
jókā, jokášša - ina/neu. III [*jok-aẖ]
junk, rubbish, waste material
·îj· jokášša - 1gs&1f/6cs/8a
——> ·ÎJ·
itr. fertilise (loc)
jókjan, jokjássa - neu. I [jok-jan]
fertiliser

ReligionEdit

Sprênta, Sprêntašša - ign. III
(a personified embodiment of the celestial body) the Sun, Sprênta
Dãpškur, Dāppškússa - aqu/ina. II [*daẖv-š-kur, *daẖv-š-kur-sa]
(a personified embodiment of the aquatic mass) the Sea, Dãpškur
remark: Dãpškur is considered an amaglamation of all the seas and masses of water, an aquatic supra-entity
túna, túnassa - ign. I
a type of deity, divinity
yghúŋ, yghúnnu - neu. VI
faith, belief (religious, spiritual)
·jãq· yghúnnu - 1gs&1f/6cs/8a
——> ·JÃQ·
itr. be religious, believe
itr. believe in/'through' (loc) + sar

AstronomyEdit

óllą, ollímmą - ani. IV
sky, firmament
ólkur, olkússa - ani. II [ol(l)-kur]
sky (intensive)
sprênta, sprêntašša - ign. III
(as a celestial body) the Sun
(as a personified embodiment of the celestial body) the Sun (Sprêntā)
remark: the noun features an uncharacteristically short nominative suffix; the rest of the paradigm is regularly determinable from the partitive stem
sprêntatā, sprêntatašša - ign. III
field of stars, starry firmament
coll. the stars that make up the night sky

HydrologyEdit

dãva, daffássa - aqu. I
sea
tĩlpī, tīlpíššą - aqu. V
bay, gulf; partially enclosed large sea
gãun, gāwúnnu - aqu. VI [*gaẖun]
river, stream

HydronymyEdit

Twánnī, Twanníššą - aqu. V [*Twarniẖ]
the river Twanni, a major Nimerote river (formed and drained primarily in Nimeria)
Tárpī, Tarpíššą - aqu. V
the river Tarpi
Dẽres, Dēresášša - aqu. IX
the river Deres

EcologyEdit

pifpára, pifparássa - aqu. I [pifp-ara]
swamp, marsh

ClimatologyEdit

qáma, qamássa - aqu. I
rain

BiomesEdit

āžápnā, āžapnášša - neu. III [āž-apnā]
fig. taiga

PedologyEdit

sírtur, sirtússa - ani. II
soil, earth
sirttéšis, sirttemmášša - adj. cEŠIS [sirt-tešis+]
terrestrial, pertaining to soil
entá, entássa - ani. I
soil, dirt; mud
rânta, rântassa - ina. I
powder, powdered earth
rânkur, rānkússa - ina. II [rān(t)-kur]
dirt, dust
'bálī, balíššą - aqu. V
mud

GemologyEdit

píllī, pillíššą - ina. V
gem, precious stone, gemstone
tšális, tšalsášša - ina. IX
jade, white jade
tšaltéšis, tšaltemmášša - adj. ign/aqu/ani/ina/neu. [tšal-tešis]
jaden, of jade, of white jade
kílis, kilsášša - ina. IX
lapis lazuli
úxū, uxúššą - ina. V [*utˀuẖ]
pearl, bead

OpticsEdit

·fíra· - 1cs/6a/8b
·fúra-ŋ· / ·fíra-(a)xu· / ·fížd·
itr. shine, spark, glow intensely
ā-fíra· - 1cs/6a/8b [ā-fíra]
———
trn. shine onto (par)
trn. reveal part of (par)
firkúšis, firkummášša - adj. cEŠIS [fír(a)-kušis]
shining, shiny, bright
fírqan - adv. [fír(a)-qan]
brightly, shinily
·léra· - 1cp/6a/8a [-ler-a-]
·léra-ŋ· / ·léra-axu· / ·léra-(ži)-s·
trn. reveal (acc)
trn. reveal part of (par)
lérqan - adv/postp. [ler-qan]
acc + showing/revealing
par + showing/revealing a part of
firxúždžā, firxuždžâšša - neu. III [fir-(a)xu-ž-džā]
glimmer, sparkle, shine
·héjp· - 1a/6a/8a
·héj[m]p· / ·héjp-axu· / ·héjp-(unu)-s·
itr. see, be able to see, be sighted
trn. see (acc), see part of (par)
trn. look at (acc), look at a part of (par)
hejpásī, hejpasíššą - neu. V [hejp-asī]
seeing, sight
acc + seeing, looking at
par + seeing part of, looking at a part of
kóvat, kovílla - aqu. IV dt.
eyes

ColoursEdit

múla, mulássa - ign. I
black
pǽker, pækrášša - aqu. IX
light blue, silvery, silvery-blue
sýlla, syllássa - ani. I
yellow
Remark: sometimes used to describe Westerlander skin tones

FireEdit

·firúra· - 1cp/6a/8a [*fi-fura-]
·firúra-ŋ· / ·firúra-(a)xu· / ·firúra-(ži)-s·
itr. burn, be aflame
·firúra-gh· - 3d/6a/8a [*fi-fura-gh-]
·firúra-gh-(ži)-ŋ· / ·firúra-gh-(a)xu· / ·firúra-gh-(ži)-s·
trn. burn, light, set aflame
firurásī, firurasíššą - neu. V [firura-sī]
burning, nom's burning
firurghásī, firurghasíššą - neu. V [firur(a)gha-si]
burning, nom's burning of acc, of a part of par
êpa, ēpássa - ign. I
small fire, burning (camp)fire
pémmer, pemmérašša - ign. IX
smoke
pýffī, pyffíššą - ign. V [onomatopoetic]
ash, combustion residue

TimeEdit

pēn - adv.
before, earlier; pst
Remark: also a postposition
pnan - adv.
later, after; fut
Remark: also a postposition
swá - adv.
again, anew
tẽrkūt - adv. [locative of tẽrkur]
today, this day, on this day
tẽrkuvi pnan - adv. phrs. [tẽrk-uvi + pnan]
after today, tomorrow
tẽrŋan - adv. [colloquial clipping of tẽrkuvi pnan]
tomorrow
hôf - adv.
later, tonight
práppā - adv. [prap(i)-kā]
when even, never even, at no time, at what time; sarcastic, ironic, emphatic, negative or expecting of negative

CalendarEdit

tẽrka, stērkássa - aqu. I
day, daytime
íkenan, ikénunnu - aqu. VI
night
tẽrkur, stērkússa - aqu. II [*tẖērk-(k)ur]
time that includes both day and night
calendar day
pę́jdža, pęjdžássa - neu. I
morning
tomorrow day
vĩlli - adv. [from *viẖl-di?] - adv.
at around noon, early in the afternoon
élī, elíššą - neu. V
year, calendar year

Impersonal PronounsEdit

IndeterminatesEdit

áwaj - pron. ind.
awájlla, awájkka, awájssa, awájčča, awájtta
someone, something
awêtta - pron. ind.
somewhy, for some reason

InterrogativesEdit

prákaj - pron. int.
prakájlla, prakájkka, prakájssa, prakájčča, prakájtta
who? what?
prakêtta - pron. int.
why?
prápi - pron. int.
when?
prákē - pron. int. [pra-kē]
near what? in which area? close to what?

DemonstrativesEdit

képpi - pron. dem. [kev-pi]
then, at that time

Special Relative PronounsEdit

ûppi - pron. rel. [ūt-pi]
at which time, when

DerivationEdit

-tešis+, -temmašša+ - adj. cEŠIS
derives material adjectives from nouns
derives partitive adjectives from nouns
-pras, -prassa+ - adj. cA
derives adjectives indicating presence of noun
-(u)lu(+), -(u)lušša+ - adj. cD
-ulu/uleja/ulu/ulak/ulak
derives adjectives characteristic or intrinsic to the noun
-džā, -džâšša - neu. III
derives abstract nouns from adjectives
-(a)sī, -(a)siššą+ - neu. V
derives abstract verbal nouns from verbs
-kur, -kussa+ - ~~ II
derives augmentative or intensive nouns from other nouns; preserves gender
-lī, -liššą+ - ~~ V
derives diminutive or reduced nouns from other nouns; preserves gender
-ša, -šassa+ - ina. I
derives nouns denoting an object or a collection of objects materially made up from nouns
-špešis+, -špemmašša+ - adj. cEŠIS
derives agentive abilitative adjectives from verb roots
-ješis+, -jemmašša+ - adj. cEŠIS
derives accusative-argument abilitative adjectives from verb roots
-kušis+, -kummašša+ - adj. cEŠIS
derives imperfect participles from verb roots
-qan - adv.
derives active imperfect adverbial participles from verb roots
-qele - adv.
derives active negated imperfect adverbial participles from verb roots
-qur, -qussa - ~~ II
derives nominative argument agent nouns from verb roots
-qę, -qimmę+ - ~~ IV
derives accusative argument patient nouns from verb roots
erg. derives nominative argument subject nouns from intransitive verbs
-jī, -jiššą+ - ~~ V
derives partitive argument nouns from verb roots
-ara+, -arassa2+ - ~~ I
derives locations and location types from a noun that is characteristic to or reminiscent of such a location
derives locations and location types from verb roots where the location indicates high frequency of the performance of the action of the verb from which it derives
-apnā+, -apnašša2+ - ~~ III
derives locations and location types from a noun indicating high presence of it
derives locations and location types from an animal noun indicating habitat or locus of collection
-ikkā+, -ikkašša2+ - ~~ III
derives nounsA from other nounsB such that A is characterised by or possesses a large amount of B
obsct. derives nouns from organ or body part nouns indicating meat derived from the processing of said organ or body part
-epfas+, -epfassa2+ - ign. Is
derives nouns from organ or body part nouns indicating meat derived from the processing of said organ or body part
-(gh)an, -ghmunnu+ - ~~ VI
derives nouns that indicate the action of a verb from the stem of said verb
Remark: in all case forms that begin with a vowel, the velar fricative only occurs anaptyctically intervocalically, but otherwise is present even after consonants when followed by a consonant
-(gh)an, -ghrunnu+ - ~~ VI
derives nouns that indicate the material produce of a verb from the stem of said verb
Remark: in all case forms that begin with a vowel, the velar fricative only occurs anaptyctically intervocalically, but otherwise is present even after consonants when followed by a consonant
-jan, -jassa+ - ~~ I
derives mass produce nouns from their basic makeup (link > chain, word > book)
-tā, -tašša - ~~ I
derives tool nouns from verb roots
-ut, -ušša - ~~ IX
derives nouns characterised by an adjective from said adjective
-jurtuqur, -jurtuqussa - ~~ II
derives agent nouns from other nouns; 'one who brings/carries X'

EthnonymyEdit

-mī, -miššą+ - ani. V
derives nouns denoting members of an ethnic or linguistic group from a noun denoting the group's language of choice or tradition
-myllī, -mylliššą+ - ani. V
derives nouns denoting inhabitants or members of a populational group who live in the vicinity of or inside the noun from which they're derived

Verb Morphosemantics & DerivationEdit

Verb derivational morphology is more closely tied to its inflectional morphology. It uses prefixes, morphosemantic aspect affixes and circumfixes that are the combination of one prefix and one morphosemantic aspect affix that, in tandem, do not express the meaning that the sum of their parts would indicate.

PrefixesEdit

to= - pref. [=ton]
a verb prefix that indicates that the action was carried out secretly or in secrecy by the agent; does not imply agency or volition
gh(i)= - pref.
an obstructive prefix that increases the valency of an intransitive or monotransitive verb without an oblique component; it transforms verbs of the form Xnom does Yverb (to Zacc/par) so that Xnom → Xdat(obl) and introduces a new argument such that Wnom ⇒ Xdat
X does Y (to Z) → W prevents X from doing Y (to Z)

Morphosemantic DerivatorsEdit

-præ- - morphs.
-pr- / -præ- / -ip- / -ipræ-
a morphosemantic affix applicable only in the nonpresent, indicates a prospective future with an expectation that the action will not, or will almost, be fulfilled -- prospective defective
-q- - morphs.
-q- / -*ẖkˤi- / -iq- / -iqi-
a morphosemantic affix indicating a volitive form; "want/ed to X". Can be stacked with other morphosemantic verb items.

CircumfixesEdit

PhrasesEdit

'dda târa - phrs. postp. [(na)dda târa]
dat aside from, besides, notwithstanding
ustúhqan - phrs. postp. [us-tú-gh-qan]
loc having assumed that, having assumed, having deduced that
loc lit. obsol. having assembled

Generic VerbsEdit

Generic verbs are used to form phrasals with nouns that have no corresponding verb; the resulting phrasals are effectively intransitive in meaning. These verbs may omit personal agreement with their nominal phrasal component.

·íq· - 1gs&1f/6cs/8a
·úq-r· / ·úkkh· / ·íqs·
trn. consciously perform/do (acc)
·îj· - 1gs&1f/6cs/8a
·ûšš· / ·ûjj· / ·îjs·
trn. achieve, accomplish (par)
·jãq· - 1gs&1f/6cs/8a
·jakkhr· / ·jákkh· / ·jass·+
trn. involuntarily/statically/habitually do (acc)

InterjectionEdit

(lā) - part. [*laẖ]
negative response, no
Remark: the particle has an alternative, , that is unstressed.

Discourse MarkersEdit

tar - part.
introduces a contrary statement, commonly also a question, that carries a tone of inagency or powerlessness
but, though
- adv.
marks for emphasis, contrarity or defiance of expectations or odds
even

ConjunctionsEdit

- conj.
and, as well as; links two NPs as one argument or constituent.
and, plus; links digits in a number
- conj.
stylistic variant of <> used to avoid repetition; often used to link larger NPs as one argument or constituent
- conj. [*vaẖ]
but, whereas; introduces a contrast, replaces expected X with actual Y
X vã Y ~ not X but Y
mygh - conj. [*mygˀ]
since, as; introduces a subordinate clause that can be translated with an active participle in English, requires the subjunctive

CopulasEdit

ūmi - part. cop.
am/is/are; copular particle that links its subject (nom) and predicate (lat) in simple copular constructions of the shape <ūmi lat nom>
ūmil -part. cop.
negative complement of ūmi
eza - part. cop.
am/is/are; copular particle involved in copular topicalisation
eril - part. cop.
negative complement of eza
qan - part. cop.
am/is/are; existential copula that asserts the presence of acc, a part of par, or the property of po1 & po2
qan XYZ
qanil - part. cop.
negative complement of qan
- part. cop.
am/is/are; copular particle that links subject (nom) with its property (lat) or an adjective (lat) in simple copular constructions of the shape <lat nom>
pēl - part. cop.
negative complement of

PrepositionsEdit

us - prep.
loc between
remark: this preposition takes either an object in either the dual or plural, or objects of any number linked by <>
anu - prep.
lat into
ase - prep.
lat across, across the surface of
aj - prep.
lat down onto
ki - prep.
loc about, concerning

PostpositionsEdit

pit - postp.
dat during, while
sar - postp.
lat through, via
=ton+ - postp.
loc below, underneath
- postp.
loc near, in the area of
ā (ghā) - postp.
par like, such as
Remark: the alternative, ghā, occurs after vowels
pēn - postp.
dat before
Remark: also an adverb
pnan - postp.
dat after
Remark: also an adverb
- postp.
loc above, atop
jurē - postp. [from a nominalisation of ]
lat up, upwards
- postp.
loc inside the belly/gut/stomach of
ux - postp.
loc in, inside of
lat into, unto
zol - postp.
lat from X moving towards the speaker

Meta-TerminologyEdit

Nimerote [from Nimeria, from Nimǽrī < Nimɛ́riẖ]
relating to or characteristic to Nimeria

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