< Metin

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The noun phraseEdit

All noun phrase heads must either be case-marked or in the absolutive. Unmarked nouns cannot head a phrase.

Examples of absolutive and unabsolutive noun formsEdit

Nouns can form the unabsolutive in several ways. Some completely lose their absolutive prefix, some keep a reduced form of this prefix, and a small class of nouns, like yúus, loses their pitch accent in the unabsolutive. The (į) shown in some examples represents a reduced vowel which tends to dissapear when the preceding word ends with a vowel or sonorant and the following consonant in the root of the noun is dissimilar from the first consonant of the unabsolutive word's prefix.

tsime-ts(į)me: Person

įhhuska-huska: Shirt

m(į)héá-héá: Bridge

chacxó-chącxó: Beverage

hulaj-laj: Shoulders

útchaw-t(į)chaw: Train

yúus-yuus: Eye

sxutl'an-sx(į)tl'an: City

Compound noun phraseEdit

An unabsolutive noun phrase can be appended to an existing noun phrase with the suffixes -mi (and) or -lúz (or)

oawa tsiwio tsįnmomi

people ABS-mother-my father-my-and

Here are my mother and father

chaqéz chącxólúz?

ABS-food drink-or

(Do you want) some food or something to drink?

Verbless sentencesEdit

Copular sentencesEdit

(bhaa) ABS-NP ABS-NP

(bhaa) tsime z̨a tsimetin

ABS-person that ABS-Metin

That person is Metin.

bhaa is added to emphaisze that the first NP is the second noun phrase in exclusion to several other alternatives; eg; That person is Metin, (not Ishnna or some other ethnicity). bhaa is usually used to correct people, and can sound somewhat rude.  

d̨haa transforms a statement into a question. It is placed before the NP in question, which is moved to the front of the sentenced̨haa questions are often responded to with bhaa answers with identical word orders

d̨haa tsime z̨a tsimetin?

INQ ABS-person that ABS-metin

Is that person Metin? (One of the people the asker is referring to is Metin but the asker is uncertain which)

d̨haa tsimetin tsime z̨a

INQ ABS-Metin ABS-person that

Is that person Metin? (The person being referred to is of ambiguous ethnicity)

Negative copular sentencesEdit

Míinmi negates a copular sentence.

Míinmi tsime z̨a tsimetin

NEG ABS-person that ABS-Metin

That person isn't metin

Mínbha and mínd̨ha are the negatives of bhaa and d̨haa respectively

mínbha tsimetin tsime z̨a

NEG ABS-Metin ABS-person that

That person isn't Metin. (corrective tone)

mínd̨ha tsimetin tsime z̨a?

NEG-INQ ABS-Metin ABS-person that

Isn't that person Metin?

Evidentials in Copular SentencesEdit

The full from of the evidential (ienmi, uonmo, etc...) is placed at the beginning of the sentence.

uǫtlo tsitxen tsijueng

Hearsay ABS-Txen ABS-scientist

Txen is a scientist (so-I-hear).

The long form of the evidential prefix (ien-, uon- etc.) may also be prefixed to bha.

uǫlbha tsitxen tsijueng

Hearsay-Corrective ABS-Txen ABS-scientist

I hear Txen is a scientist. (not whatever you thought he was)

Locative sentencesEdit

Simple locative sentencesEdit

Preposition--OBL NP--ABS locative object NP

oon tsuarme z̨a sxudhááy ghe

above OBL-person that ABS-staircase that-INV-2

The staircase is above that guy. (the staircase can't be seen from where the adressee is)

Prepositional PRN--ABS locative object NP

sxutxienme sxuoomíxtl'an  muyo

ABS-forum-P GEN-Míxtl'an 

Under you is the forum of Mixtlan.

When the prepositional NP is first, the location of the object. It is the word order exculsively used when answering "where" questions. When the locative object NP is first, the identity of the noun is emphasized. This word order is typically used to point out interesting or important objects

Ellipted locative sentencesEdit

The object of a locative sentence may be ellipted.


It's behind you.

ɮí oowji

inside ABL-water

It's in the water.

Locative sentences with multiple prepositional NP'sEdit

The prepositional NP's are listed in sequence from general to specific.

bhuay yerrao  bhiminz  sxuarmunz pli sxuaɬtoó  isin qoo

inside OBL-town near OBL-Munz' through OBL-garden NOM-path white

The white path is in the city, going through the garden near Munz's place.


Adjectives go after the noun they describe exclusively

mta mkxįyaon ǫ́hwaaf

ABS-thing-at.hand ABS-towel fluffy

Here's a fluffy towel.

The adjectives percieved as the most "essential" go closest to the noun, in approximately this order. The word for and, "xi", comes after the "true" essential adjectives, before numbers and demonstratives

class/substance>shape>surface features> color> beauty >age> size >xi> number > demonstrative>posessor

įįx, inmáabhai tsuiya įhhuskaye gít'iyaon ty'uy xi tsįtxen janzja. lientas.

euughh, SEEN-again-ITR-0-wear.CONT  this.person ABS-shirt-his wrinkle-2D red and Txen that.DIS, HOPE.NOT-happy

Euggh, I see this girl wearing Txen's same wrinkled up red shirt again. I hope she isn't serious. xi can be repeated after each adjective in a sequence to the effect of "both...and"

bhaa bhábhanw xi góos xi!

COP shiny and smooth and

It's both shiny and smooth!

Adjectives can be preceded by the long forms of evidential prefixes.

tsime ta áazsuh.

ABS-person at.hand seems-friend

She seems friendly

hecxǫ ooji oozáu ienfánma.

TR-0-drink ABS.water ABL-cup looks-shiny

He's drinking water from a shiny-looking cup.

Adjectives that take argumentsEdit

Adjectives that take arguments are used in constructions like "A city rich in culture" or "A dress vibrant in color". All argument taking adjectives are prefixed with uu- and demand an oblique noun phrase follow immediately after. This construction is very productive and used far more extensively than its English counterpart

sxugį́taang uumíír unwji

ABS-land abundant  OBL-water

a land with abundant water

sxutl'an uumíír uęęme tsoiu

ABS-city abundant PL-OBL-people rare

A city full of uncommon people

tsitxá uujáie chontsíx

ABS-man beautiful OBL-hair

A man with beautiful hair

Descriptive verbsEdit

Verbs can behave just like adjectives in certain cases. The verb must have no non-pronoun arguments or any adverbial phrases associated with it. The verb will have no subject prefix. 

Examples with intransitive verbsEdit

hįtl'úę́g tsimnah tas oadáánmiye

0-dine ABS-father be.happy family-0PPOS-with

The happy father has lunch with his family

wungaa ɮí sxuitl'an tiin z̨a

we-stick.out in OBL-city crowded this

We stand out in this crowded city.

Transitive verbs in these constructions take indefinite objects, giving a different meaning than their intransitive counterpart

tas: happy | etas: "makes something happy", joy-bringing

tsime tas: A happy person | tsime etas: A person who brings joy to those around them

tsime tsííl: Lost person | tsime etsííl: Forgetful person

ooji móíg: Swirling water | tsibhii emóíg: A woman twiddling with something

Complex relative clausesEdit

When the NP is the subject of both independent and dependent VPsEdit

Independent-verb subject-noun-phrase dependent-verb-phrase dependent-verb remainder-of-independent-verb-phrase

The verb in a relative clause must agree with all of its direct and indirect objects, stated explicitly with a noun phrase or not.

txaapxen tsiyáang tsijué liipxú 

3-enter ABS-youth ABS-Jué 3OBJ-see

The youth who sees Jué is coming in

Compound sentencesEdit

Expressing temporal relationships between verbsEdit

The prefix 'dí is used to identify the verbal action which came before. The exact meaning of dí varies based on the aspect of both the previus and following actions. dí implies that the previous action caused the next action. tl'ú does not make this implication.

dí affixed to a momentous verbEdit

lidíépxú tsitiys tsid̨úken hįtsun

dí-3os-sees ABS-student ABS-teacher 0-nervous

The student sees his teacher and is nervous

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