Metin/Lesson 1

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Metin etiquette makes 3 primary distinctions in the social sphere based on age and social distance, reflected in the three most common greetings. The Metin always adress those older than them as superiors as a sign of deference. Strangers of the same age or younger are adressed as equals. Informal language is used with friends and family members.


raaCé ɬiú?: Hello (to a superior)

ąątCé  ɬiú?:  Hello (to an equal or stranger)

Cé?: What's up? (informal)

momo: Yo.

eSraatsoié: Goodbye (to a superior)

ioSąąttsoié: Goodbye (to an equal)

tsoié!: bye!

ioCé!: bye!

Intransitive verbs and equivalenceEdit


bhaa: to be

tsoié: to be doing fine (inransitive verb)

kliǫ: to be bored

kx'ieg: to be having fun

goon: to be sitting

láán: to be chatting, having a conversation.

tąi: to be standing

woh-: First person singular verb refix

zhi-: who? (verb prefix)

tsiid: who?

im/iem-: I know because I saw it (evidential prefix)

ǫl/uǫ-: I've heard that (evidential prefix)

Cé ... ɬiú: How is he/she?

ɬiú: how? (adverb)

ta: this

Za: that

bhei: which?

yata: here

yaZa: there

yabhei: where?

tsi-: prefix for people

tsime: person

tsibhi: woman

tsitxá: man

tsiyáang: young person

tsiDúh: an older person

'tsiceɮ', ceɮ: A tall person, tall

tsihúí, húí A short person, short

tsisxįį, sxįį:  A skinny person, skinny/lanky

tsigué, gué: A bulky person, big/large-framed (not quite the same as obese)

uukliǫ: boring

tsisuho: my friend (relational noun)

tsisuhen: his, her friend

tsigajúhoh: my student.

mįkpai: a party


Intransitive verbs

Metin sentences usually start with a verb, which is then followed by the subject noun. The verb always has a subject prefix before it unless the subject prefix is third person singular. The verb also always has an evidential prefix before it, this indicates how the speaker found out about what they are saying in the sentence. The first two we will learn are ien-, which is used for events that the speaker saw/experienced themselves, and uǫl-, which is used for knowledge the speaker gained from hearsay. When the subject of the verb is in the first person the evidential prefixes are unnecessary for obvious reasons.

wohtsoié: I'm fine

uǫltsoié: (I hear that) He/she/it is fine.

wohgoon: I'm sitting down

iengoon tsibhi: (I see that) The man is sitting down

wohláán: I'm having a conversation

ienláán tsiyáang: (I see that) The young person is having a conversation


Adjectives and other words which describe nouns come after the noun they describe. When a verb is being used as an adjective an evidential prefix is not necessary. Demonstrative adjectives (like this or that) usually come last.

tsiDúh ta: this elder

tsibhi Za: that woman

tsitxá kx'ieg : the man that is having fun

tsisuhen láán: her chatting friend

tsiyáang ceɮ ta: this tall young person

tsiDúh húí Za: that short elder.


The verb bhaa is used to indicate that two nouns are the same. Adjectives in the predicate position must be converted into nouns to be used in this kind of sentence. (céɮ to tsicéɮ, húí to tsihúí)

wobhaa tsisuhen: I am his friend

ienbhaa tsibhi Za tsiDúh: That woman is an elder

However, bhaa is frequently ommitted.

tsitxá láán tsiliiz: The chatting man is Liiz.

tsime Za tsisxįį: That person is skiiny


Verbs in question sentences do not need to have evidential prefixes, however, when speaking to an elder, t'uos- is usually prefixed before the main verb of the sentence.

Cé ɬiú tsiɮú?: How is Lyu?

t'uosCé ɬiú tsiɮú?: How is Lyu? (asking an elder)

zhigoon yata?: Who is sitting here?

t'uoszhiláán yata?: Who is sitting here? (Asking an elder)

tsiiid* tsime Za?: Who is that person?

t'uoszhibhaa* tsime Za?: Who is that person? (asking an elder)

tsiid is a noun meaning who, zhi- is a verb prefix meaning who


Names are preceded by the prefix tsi- when used within a sentence, but are not used when adressing someone.


Liiz and Lyu are at a party. Liiz is looking for his mentor Tas. Lyu is bored.

liiz: momo ɮú

ɮú: Cé liiz?

liiz: wohtsoié. Cé?

'ɮú: wohkliǫ. mįkpai' uukliǫ

liiz: ei*. yabhei tsitas?

ɮú: iengoon yaZa, láán.

liiz: mun*.

Liiz walks over to where Tas is sitting with Lyu.

liiz: raaCé ɬiú tas?

tas: wohtsoié. tsiid tsibhi ta?

liiz: u*, tsuiya* tsisuho tsiɮú.

tas: ąątCé ɮú.

Liiz: t'uoszhitąi tsiyáang húí Za?

tas: tsigajúhoh tsimuie.

'liiz: ei. ioSraatsoié'!

tas: tsoié!

ei: OK/yeah

u: oh/hmm

mun: thanks/good

tsuiya: This person. Used to introduce people, as in tsuiya tsitas: ''This is Tas.

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