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Meula

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Meula
Meula
Type
Analytic
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Mixed
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Labial Alveolar Palatal Retroflex Velar Uvular
Nasal m n ɳ (ņ)
Plosive p b t d ʈ ɖ (ţ ḑ) k g q (q)
Fricative f s ʂ (ş) x (x) χ (r)
Approximant β̞ (w) j (j) ɰ (ģ)
Lateral app. l~ɾ (l) ɭ (ļ)

Affricates: ps, ts, ʈʂ (tş), ks, kx, qχ

VowelsEdit

Front Back
Close i u
Mid e o
Open a

Vowels can be long or short. Long vowels are spelled with an acute.

PhonotacticsEdit

Only /l/, the affricates, approximants and the fricatives can be in coda position. Only /l/ can only be followed by an affricate or a fricative.

Intervocalically, /l/ is pronounced /ɾ/. This consonant can only start a non-stressed syllable if it is the last of the word or preceeded by another consonant.

The voiced fricatives have mutaded when in coda (before a voiced consonant) or between vowels (in the old language):

Original In coda Intervocalic
v v (spelled w) β̞
z j j
ʑ ʐ (spelled ş) did not change
ɣ ɰ ɰ
ʁ ʁ (spelled r) did not change

But in the modern language, an intervocalic fricative is always voiced and an allophone of the voiceless. The voiced fricative have disappeared either merging to voiced ones or becoming whole new phonemes as their allophones showed on the chart.

/ɰ/ merges with a following /g/, which means that fit-ox-gets (I don't like them) has become fitoǵets.

Obs.: /v/ and /ɣ/ have become voiceless in initial position, which is why no word starts with /β̞/ or /ɰ/ except those that lost their initial vowel.

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

Nouns do not decline for number, but some words are used in the plural exclusively. There are 4 cases: Nominative, Accusative, Dative, and Prepositional, and a predicative form.

Declensions:

A hyphen means the consonant takes it affricate form, assuming it has one.

Paratheses mean the vowel is taken away.

1.: Most words ending on consonant.

2. Ending on a stop consonant and having one syllable, usually with o or u.

3. Ending on a vowel that is not a and having two or more syllables.

4. Ending on a and having two or more syllables.

5. Ending on a vowel and having one syllable.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Nominative - - s s s
Accusative ef -u f f f
Dative u u (u) (o) ú
Prepositional ej uoj j (ej) í
Predicative -e -e (-e) (-e)


There are subgroups inside the five groups of declinations for words that decline slightly differently. Some examples:

mal-
Nominative mals
Accusative malf
Dative máu
Prepositional malí
Predicative máe

All words ending on L follow this pattern.

gáuts
Nominative gáuts
Accusative gáusef
Dative gáusu
Prepositional gáusej
Predicative gáutse

Most words containing a long vowel or/and a hiatus and ending on an affricate follow this pattern.

ņapus
Nominative ņapus
Accusative ņapsef
Dative ņapsu
Prepositional ņapsej
Predicative ņapse

Most words ending on stop+vowel+fricative follow this pattern.

AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives agree to their nouns and go after them. The chart above applies to them.

AdverbsEdit

Adverbs are placed after the verb. When forming adverbs out of adjectives or nouns the preposition ta is used with the accusative case.

VerbsEdit

Verbs have polypersonal agreement. There are no intransitive verbs, motion verbs need no preposition. Verbs agree to person, number and mood. The tense is made with an auxiliar verb.

Subject

1st singular 2nd singular 3rd singular 3rd definite singular 1st plural 2nd plural 3rd plural 3rd definite plural
Indicative eps etş if a alps altş apli ar
Conditional emis etis efis ais amal atal abol aral
Potential esá eşá efá axá lasá laşá labá lará

Negative

ox ofe una awa awetş afpa or
Imperative épsó étşé - - óks éks - -

Object

1st singular

2nd singular

3rd singular

3rd definite singular

1st plural

2nd plural

3rd plural

3rd definite plural

Indicative

ka ta pi je kuǵa puǵa gets rel

Examples of verbs conjugation:

Conditional: Ketemiska mo iomifpi batá suts. (I would sit down if there were a chair.)

Potential: Bataefápi koades ta déiej. (There is probably a man in there.)

Negative: Fitóxje pso mekx bisikletef. (I don't like this bicycle.)

Imperative: Maǵadétşérel toş tuqref! (Buy the fish!)

SyntaxEdit

There is no fixed word order, although usually the structure is VSO.

VocabularyEdit


No. English
1Ipso
2you (singular)toş
3heene
4wevats
5you (plural)taks
6theyneks
7thismekx
8that
9hereta
10theredéie
11whoeņe
12whatri
13whereri als
14whenri fepla
15howri şat-
16not
17allawes
18manyfelis
19somenidalis
20fewdapeqr
21otherţaşats
22oneau
23twonine
24threegalo
25four
26fivejats
27bigmol-
28longdisets
29wideqrisets
30thickronet-
31heavyļox
32smallniux
33shortpasas
34narrowsiǵus
35thindebol-
36womankonal
37man (adult male)koade
38man (human being)
39childpjat-
40wifemulier
41husbandmaritus
42motheraba
43fatheromi
44animalmisdeu
45fishqulá
46birdputskli
47dogģasa
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name


TextsEdit

Faebifbi sar psof dekx. (I have a dog)

Faebaje sar psof şákx leti deku. (I'm afraid of dogs)

Faebaje sar psof leqajs leti deku. (I love dogs)

Faebaje sar psof salips leti deku ses psú. (I miss my dog)

Fitepsrel pso dekef. (I like dogs)

Faşdaje awes krei meuf utesetse kó kemekxe kis dignidádej kó kis delétşoj. Lasónis kó konsiénsias faebarrel sar nesef kó avojarrel sar aox pasáf neks. (All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.)

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