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Mihousapeja

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Name: Mihousapeja

Type: Agglutinating

Alignment: Fluid

Head Direction: Initial

Number of genders: 2

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


SettingEdit

(Note that this is a created language. I'm developing it for a book I'm writing)

The origins of Mihousapeja are uncertain. It is believed that it was spoken by an ancient race no longer seen in the world of Kaotijus. It's kept alive by the Hithula people (which many people think is a hybrid race between the ancient extinct race and the predominant kaoti people).

Mihousapeja is known to retain certain magical powers and it is used by the Hithulian to recite incantations.

General InformationEdit

The language is basically agglutinating, even the verb conjugation has an affix for each of its characteristics (tense, aspect, mood and person). The basic order of sentence is SOV and grammatical cases are expressed by postpositioned particles.

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
Nouns Yes No Yes No No No No No
Adjectives Yes No Yes No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles Yes No Yes No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes No Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article Yes No Yes No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Mishousapeja is constituted of voiceless sounds. Voiced versions of the consonants sometimes are used, usually with emphasis intention. Nasals are naturally voiced, however it's not a forced condition

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive p
ƥ [ph]
t
ƭ [th]
k
ƙ [kh]
q [ʔ]
Fricative f s x [ʃ] h [χ]
Approximant r [ɻ] j
Trill r
Flap or tap r [ɾ]
Lateral app. l ł [ʎ]

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i
ü [y]
u
Near-close o
Close-mid e
Mid a
Open-mid
Near-open
Open

The vowels have an widely range of opening without phonetic distinction. As an example, 'e' can be anything between 'concert' and 'get'.

Romanized AlphabetEdit

This is not the natural order and distinctions of case are made using English conventions just to make the romanization more pleasant to read. For the IPA sounds, see the table above (the ones without indication follow precisely the IPA graph).

AEFHIKƘLŁMNOPƤQRSTƮUÜXÃẼĨÕŨÁÉÍÓÚ
aefhikƙlłmnopƥqrstƭuüxãẽĩõũáéíóú

One who cannot use Unicode characters might use 'ph','kh','th' and 'll' to substitute the foreign letters.

The tilde (~) means nasalization of the vowel. The acute mark (´) is barely used and means denasalization when the consonants around make the vowel naturally nasal.

The letters 'l' and 'r' are liquid and change their sounds depending on the position of syllable (rhotics). Note that there are no distinction between trill 'r' and tap 'r', so both can be used.

PhonotacticsEdit

Mihousapeja is quite vocalic. However, there are some more consonantal words (usually the dark and evil words).

The basic rule is: (C)V(V)(n,m,s,f,l,r), with '()' meaning optional phoneme. No doubled consonants or vowels are allowed and they're systematically suppressed (some sound mix might occur with vowels plus the semivowels 'j' or the dark 'l').

The initial consonant can be a cluster of consonants agreeing with the following rules:

  1. Unaspirated stops (excluding 'q') + 'x' or 's' or 'r'.
  2. 'f' or 'p' + 'l'.
  3. Non-final syllables can end with an unaspirated stop (except 'q') if the next syllable begins with a stop ('tk' and 'tp' don't exist and possible borrowed words usually suffer metathesis in these cases).

All syllables must have one or two vowels and they suffer diphthongization in any case. More than two consecutive vowels in the same word is avoided (they usually are separated with 'h' or 'q' if suppression isn't an option).

StressEdit

The stress occurs naturally at the penult (second-to-last) syllable. Exceptions are forced nasalized vowels make their syllables stressed. At long words this exception cause an effect of 'double stress' when the nasal vowel is before the third-to-last syllable.

Basic GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

GendersEdit

There are 2 genders: meisiar (animate) and meisiarie (inanimate). The meisiar gender is applicable to any living being and nothing else, as the meisiarie covers the rest. Meisiar is not used in plural unless the collection represents a single entity (only common for gods references). The meisiar gender is applied with the suffixes -e, -i or -ü, while the other has no inflection.

NumbersEdit

Mihousapeja has 2 numbers: singular and plural. Singular is the word itself. Plural has 2 forms: -ian (used for collections and as plural for meisiar gender) and -asel (used for lots of the same stuff, like in 'staples'). If gender declension is necessary (for gods), it comes after the number.

ParticlesEdit

As Mihousapeja has no case declension, postpositioned particles are used to indicate the grammatical function of words.

Morphosyntatic particles
Particle Meaning
saia (nominative) - agent; subject of voluntary action
efe (separator) - ends confusing subordinate clauses and act as a general argument separator (for use with the particle 'fas' and related)
ło of (genitive) - possession; quality
maes to (dative; oblique) - recipient; indirect object
ƥei (absolutive) - patient; direct object; subject of reflexive/involuntary action
tie how; by means of (instructive; causal-final) - answers the questions "how?" and "why?"
pae with [possess] (possessed; instrumental) - indicates a tool or method
kir with [company] (comitative) - together with something/someone
flin without (abessive; aversive) - negate the function; avoiding something (sometimes substituted to 'nie' {not})
ja (interrogative) - indicates a question; used like the Japanese 'ka'
Locative particles
Particle Meaning
pil in (locative) - used when inside/outside is indistinctive
ta inside (inessive)
kal outside (adessive)
sua above (superessive)
mia below (subessive)
fas between (intrative) - this receives two arguments, both before it (separate arguments with the particle 'efe')

The transformation from locative to lative occurs using 3 prefixes:

Locative particles
Prefix Meaning
xo- moving to
ro- moving from
lo- moving through, along or via

Particles go after the word or construction they refer to.

PronounsEdit

Personal PronounsEdit

The meisarie gender is not defined to the singular 1st and 2nd person, as nobody would refer to himself or to whom he's speaking in the inanimate gender. For the plural persons, the meisiar gender is never used, but they are defined (maybe some plural entity used this form at some time).

There are three forms of 'we': the inclusive (me, you and the others), exclusive (me and my group, but not you nor your group) and presential (me and you, but not our groups).

Meisiar

Meisiarie

I e -
you (s.) -
he/she/it ãli ka
we (incl.) ese moa
we (excl.) ape nus
we (pres.) aƭe hen
you (pl.) ƥü xol
they sete kasel
refl. (s.) foi

peta

refl. (pl.) foian petasel
impersonal - opus

Relative/interrogative pronounsEdit

There are variables and invariables relative pronouns and they can be used as interrogative. The variable ones decline by gender and number following the standard rule.

Invariables
ue what
lof where
ploi who
sefã when
otia why
Variables
kin which; whom; such as
mãl how much; how many; how far
łeu whose; of whom; of which








Demonstrative pronounsEdit

ĩnu this (1st person)
fĩnu that (2nd person)
sĩnu that (3rd person)





Indefinite pronounsEdit

If there are gender information then the indefinite pronoun must be declined. These pronouns are also used to represent place, time, way and reason.

everyone; everything
soü no one; nothing
lef someone; something
hue anyone; anything






ArticlesEdit

There's two articles: sã (definite) and ru (indefinite). They are declined as shown in the following table:

Meisiar Meisiarie
def.s. se
def.pl. siane sian / sãsel
ind.s. re ru
ind.pl. riane rian / rasel







VerbsEdit

Mihousapeja declines its verbs in four ways: tense, aspect, mood and person/number. Each characteristic has its own affix and they agglutinate in order to conjugate the verb. The order for the affixes is tense-aspect-mood-person, considering that's actually two forms of aspects: one representing state completeness and other representing iteration. The present-perfect-perfective-indicative conjugation is considered the natural form of the verb and has no affixes but the person one. These affixes follow the derivation rule covered in another section.

TensesEdit

There are five distinct tenses (times): hoiti (present), kenia (recent past or simple past), kentu (remote past or past from past), lemia (near future or simple future) and lemu (far future or future from future).

  • Hoiti: -Ø-
  • Kenia: -oti-
  • Kentu: -oli-
  • Lemia: -ate-
  • Lemu: -ale-

AspectsEdit

By completeness, there are the solil (perfect or retrospective) and solilie (imperfect or imperfective). Solil has no affix and solilie uses -ne-.

By iteration, there are three aspects: łeme (single action or perfective), topã (habitual action) and peki (constant action or iterative).

  • Łeme: -Ø-
  • Topã: -iƥü-
  • Peki: -ãme-

MoodsEdit

Four moods: oesi (certain or indicative), kieple (uncertain or subjunctive), oesinen (negative) and soqia (ordering or imperative). The soqia mood has only one form and does not decline by tense/aspect.

  • Oesi: -Ø-
  • Kieple: -uso-
  • Oesinen: -ne-
  • Soqia: -ukü-

PersonsEdit

  • I: -e
  • you(s.): -ü
  • he/she/it: -li
  • we (incl.): -ei
  • we (excl.): -pe
  • we (pres.): -the
  • you (pl.): -üle
  • they: -ete

Nominal FormsEdit

These suffixes are added to the root of the verb. Participles may decline by gender and number if needed.

  • Keiso (infinitive): -plo
  • Koeli (present part.): -iol
  • Kãsi (past part.): -olia
  • Nofel (gerund): -eisen

DictionaryEdit


No. English Mihousapeja
1Ie
2you (singular)
3heãli
4wemoa
5you (plural)xol
6theykasel
7thisĩnu
8thatsĩnu
9herefilo
10thereminil
11whoploi
12whatue
13wherelof
14whensefã
15howsune
16notnie
17all
18manyxeno
19somelef
20fewsiaja
21otheraƙura
22oneeni
23twofika
24threekipli
25fourtei
26fivenosua
27biglaoka
28longnouja
29widefarka
30thicklanfi
31heavyplüme
32smallefiti
33shortmeu
34narrowkemi
35thinxeƙi
36womanripale
37man (adult male)rupole
38man (human being)kaoti
39childxili
40wifejarane
41husbandusone
42motherare
43fatherele
44animalƙiara
45fishoxoa
46birdlilanin
47dogmeplu
48louseepejo
49snakeatsu
50wormpsuku
51treekure
52forestkuretemi
53stickpiaku
54fruitputur
55seedunel
56leaflife
57rootferã
58barkƙuple
59flowerflorã
60grasstĩmo
61ropemakos
62skinmiele
63meatfarsol
64bloodnołes
65bonekãte
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggkon
68hornContionary_Wiki
69tailContionary_Wiki
70featherContionary_Wiki
71hairContionary_Wiki
72headContionary_Wiki
73earContionary_Wiki
74eyeContionary_Wiki
75noseContionary_Wiki
76mouthContionary_Wiki
77toothContionary_Wiki
78tongueContionary_Wiki
79fingernailContionary_Wiki
80footContionary_Wiki
81legContionary_Wiki
82kneeContionary_Wiki
83handContionary_Wiki
84wingContionary_Wiki
85bellyContionary_Wiki
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckContionary_Wiki
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastContionary_Wiki
90heartContionary_Wiki
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkContionary_Wiki
93eatContionary_Wiki
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seeContionary_Wiki
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowContionary_Wiki
104thinkContionary_Wiki
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearContionary_Wiki
107sleepContionary_Wiki
108liveContionary_Wiki
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killContionary_Wiki
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comeContionary_Wiki
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140sayContionary_Wiki
141singContionary_Wiki
142playContionary_Wiki
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunContionary_Wiki
148moonnipiti
149starxaf
150waterContionary_Wiki
151rainContionary_Wiki
152riverContionary_Wiki
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seaContionary_Wiki
155saltContionary_Wiki
156stoneContionary_Wiki
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthContionary_Wiki
160cloudContionary_Wiki
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skyContionary_Wiki
163windContionary_Wiki
164snowContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_Wiki
167fireContionary_Wiki
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountainContionary_Wiki
172redContionary_Wiki
173greenContionary_Wiki
174yellowContionary_Wiki
175whiteContionary_Wiki
176blackContionary_Wiki
177nightContionary_Wiki
178dayContionary_Wiki
179yearContionary_Wiki
180warmContionary_Wiki
181coldContionary_Wiki
182fullContionary_Wiki
183newContionary_Wiki
184oldContionary_Wiki
185goodContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctContionary_Wiki
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atpil
202inpil
203withkir
204andkoli
205iftue
206becauseniate
207nameContionary_Wiki


Example textEdit

E sã saia hul ƥei hułote
I the-SING NOM book ABS read-RECENTPAST-1sg
I (recently) read the book.
(Implicitly, perfect form, single action aspect and indicative mood are assumed).

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