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Name: Mihousapeja

Type: Agglutinating

Alignment: Fluid

Head Direction: Initial

Number of genders: 2

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


SettingEdit

(Note that this is a created language. I'm developing it for a book I'm writing)

The origins of Mihousapeja are uncertain. It is believed that it was spoken by an ancient race no longer seen in the world of Kaotijus. It's kept alive by the Hithula people (which many people think is a hybrid race between the ancient extinct race and the predominant kaoti people).

Mihousapeja is known to retain certain magical powers and it is used by the Hithulian to recite incantations.

General InformationEdit

The language is basically agglutinating, even the verb conjugation has an affix for each of its characteristics (tense, aspect, mood and person). The basic order of sentence is SOV and grammatical cases are expressed by postpositioned particles.

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
Nouns Yes No Yes No No No No No
Adjectives Yes No Yes No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles Yes No Yes No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes No Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article Yes No Yes No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Mishousapeja is constituted of voiceless sounds. Voiced versions of the consonants sometimes are used, usually with emphasis intention. Nasals are naturally voiced, however it's not a forced condition

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive p
ƥ [ph]
t
ƭ [th]
k
ƙ [kh]
q [ʔ]
Fricative f s x [ʃ] h [χ]
Approximant r [ɻ] j
Trill r
Flap or tap r [ɾ]
Lateral app. l ł [ʎ]

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i
ü [y]
u
Near-close o
Close-mid e
Mid a
Open-mid
Near-open
Open

The vowels have an widely range of opening without phonetic distinction. As an example, 'e' can be anything between 'concert' and 'get'.

Romanized AlphabetEdit

This is not the natural order and distinctions of case are made using English conventions just to make the romanization more pleasant to read. For the IPA sounds, see the table above (the ones without indication follow precisely the IPA graph).

AEFHIKƘLŁMNOPƤQRSTƮUÜXÃẼĨÕŨÁÉÍÓÚ
aefhikƙlłmnopƥqrstƭuüxãẽĩõũáéíóú

One who cannot use Unicode characters might use 'ph','kh','th' and 'll' to substitute the foreign letters.

The tilde (~) means nasalization of the vowel. The acute mark (´) is barely used and means denasalization when the consonants around make the vowel naturally nasal.

The letters 'l' and 'r' are liquid and change their sounds depending on the position of syllable (rhotics). Note that there are no distinction between trill 'r' and tap 'r', so both can be used.

PhonotacticsEdit

Mihousapeja is quite vocalic. However, there are some more consonantal words (usually the dark and evil words).

The basic rule is: (C)V(V)(n,m,s,f,l,r), with '()' meaning optional phoneme. No doubled consonants or vowels are allowed and they're systematically suppressed (some sound mix might occur with vowels plus the semivowels 'j' or the dark 'l').

The initial consonant can be a cluster of consonants agreeing with the following rules:

  1. Unaspirated stops (excluding 'q') + 'x' or 's' or 'r'.
  2. 'f' or 'p' + 'l'.
  3. Non-final syllables can end with an unaspirated stop (except 'q') if the next syllable begins with a stop ('tk' and 'tp' don't exist and possible borrowed words usually suffer metathesis in these cases).

All syllables must have one or two vowels and they suffer diphthongization in any case. More than two consecutive vowels in the same word is avoided (they usually are separated with 'h' or 'q' if suppression isn't an option).

StressEdit

The stress occurs naturally at the penult (second-to-last) syllable. Exceptions are forced nasalized vowels make their syllables stressed. At long words this exception cause an effect of 'double stress' when the nasal vowel is before the third-to-last syllable.

Basic GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

GendersEdit

There are 2 genders: meisiar (animate) and meisiarie (inanimate). The meisiar gender is applicable to any living being and nothing else, as the meisiarie covers the rest. Meisiar is not used in plural unless the collection represents a single entity (only common for gods references). The meisiar gender is applied with the suffixes -e, -i or -ü, while the other has no inflection.

NumbersEdit

Mihousapeja has 2 numbers: singular and plural. Singular is the word itself. Plural has 2 forms: -ian (used for collections and as plural for meisiar gender) and -asel (used for lots of the same stuff, like in 'staples'). If gender declension is necessary (for gods), it comes after the number.

ParticlesEdit

As Mihousapeja has no case declension, postpositioned particles are used to indicate the grammatical function of words.

Morphosyntatic particles
Particle Meaning
saia (nominative) - agent; subject of voluntary action
efe (separator) - ends confusing subordinate clauses and act as a general argument separator (for use with the particle 'fas' and related)
ło of (genitive) - possession; quality
maes to (dative; oblique) - recipient; indirect object
ƥei (absolutive) - patient; direct object; subject of reflexive/involuntary action
tie how; by means of (instructive; causal-final) - answers the questions "how?" and "why?"
pae with [possess] (possessed; instrumental) - indicates a tool or method
kir with [company] (comitative) - together with something/someone
flin without (abessive; aversive) - negate the function; avoiding something (sometimes substituted to 'nie' {not})
ja (interrogative) - indicates a question; used like the Japanese 'ka'
Locative particles
Particle Meaning
pil in (locative) - used when inside/outside is indistinctive
ta inside (inessive)
kal outside (adessive)
sua above (superessive)
mia below (subessive)
fas between (intrative) - this receives two arguments, both before it (separate arguments with the particle 'efe')

The transformation from locative to lative occurs using 3 prefixes:

Locative particles
Prefix Meaning
xo- moving to
ro- moving from
lo- moving through, along or via

Particles go after the word or construction they refer to.

PronounsEdit

Personal PronounsEdit

The meisarie gender is not defined to the singular 1st and 2nd person, as nobody would refer to himself or to whom he's speaking in the inanimate gender. For the plural persons, the meisiar gender is never used, but they are defined (maybe some plural entity used this form at some time).

There are three forms of 'we': the inclusive (me, you and the others), exclusive (me and my group, but not you nor your group) and presential (me and you, but not our groups).

Meisiar

Meisiarie

I e -
you (s.) -
he/she/it ãli ka
we (incl.) ese moa
we (excl.) ape nus
we (pres.) aƭe hen
you (pl.) ƥü xol
they sete kasel
refl. (s.) foi

peta

refl. (pl.) foian petasel
impersonal - opus

Relative/interrogative pronounsEdit

There are variables and invariables relative pronouns and they can be used as interrogative. The variable ones decline by gender and number following the standard rule.

Invariables
ue what
lof where
ploi who
sefã when
otia why
Variables
kin which; whom; such as
mãl how much; how many; how far
łeu whose; of whom; of which








Demonstrative pronounsEdit

ĩnu this (1st person)
fĩnu that (2nd person)
sĩnu that (3rd person)





Indefinite pronounsEdit

If there are gender information then the indefinite pronoun must be declined. These pronouns are also used to represent place, time, way and reason.

everyone; everything
soü no one; nothing
lef someone; something
hue anyone; anything






ArticlesEdit

There's two articles: sã (definite) and ru (indefinite). They are declined as shown in the following table:

Meisiar Meisiarie
def.s. se
def.pl. siane sian / sãsel
ind.s. re ru
ind.pl. riane rian / rasel







VerbsEdit

Mihousapeja declines its verbs in four ways: tense, aspect, mood and person/number. Each characteristic has its own affix and they agglutinate in order to conjugate the verb. The order for the affixes is tense-aspect-mood-person, considering that's actually two forms of aspects: one representing state completeness and other representing iteration. The present-perfect-perfective-indicative conjugation is considered the natural form of the verb and has no affixes but the person one. These affixes follow the derivation rule covered in another section.

TensesEdit

There are five distinct tenses (times): hoiti (present), kenia (recent past or simple past), kentu (remote past or past from past), lemia (near future or simple future) and lemu (far future or future from future).

  • Hoiti: -Ø-
  • Kenia: -oti-
  • Kentu: -oli-
  • Lemia: -ate-
  • Lemu: -ale-

AspectsEdit

By completeness, there are the solil (perfect or retrospective) and solilie (imperfect or imperfective). Solil has no affix and solilie uses -ne-.

By iteration, there are three aspects: łeme (single action or perfective), topã (habitual action) and peki (constant action or iterative).

  • Łeme: -Ø-
  • Topã: -iƥü-
  • Peki: -ãme-

MoodsEdit

Four moods: oesi (certain or indicative), kieple (uncertain or subjunctive), oesinen (negative) and soqia (ordering or imperative). The soqia mood has only one form and does not decline by tense/aspect.

  • Oesi: -Ø-
  • Kieple: -uso-
  • Oesinen: -ne-
  • Soqia: -ukü-

PersonsEdit

  • I: -e
  • you(s.): -ü
  • he/she/it: -li
  • we (incl.): -ei
  • we (excl.): -pe
  • we (pres.): -the
  • you (pl.): -üle
  • they: -ete

Nominal FormsEdit

These suffixes are added to the root of the verb. Participles may decline by gender and number if needed.

  • Keiso (infinitive): -plo
  • Koeli (present part.): -iol
  • Kãsi (past part.): -olia
  • Nofel (gerund): -eisen

DictionaryEdit


No. English Mihousapeja
1Ie
2you (singular)
3heãli
4wemoa
5you (plural)xol
6theykasel
7thisĩnu
8thatsĩnu
9herefilo
10thereminil
11whoploi
12whatue
13wherelof
14whensefã
15howsune
16notnie
17all
18manyxeno
19somelef
20fewsiaja
21otheraƙura
22oneeni
23twofika
24threekipli
25fourtei
26fivenosua
27biglaoka
28longnouja
29widefarka
30thicklanfi
31heavyplüme
32smallefiti
33shortmeu
34narrowkemi
35thinxeƙi
36womanripale
37man (adult male)rupole
38man (human being)kaoti
39childxili
40wifejarane
41husbandusone
42motherare
43fatherele
44animalƙiara
45fishoxoa
46birdlilanin
47dogmeplu
48louseepejo
49snakeatsu
50wormpsuku
51treekure
52forestkuretemi
53stickpiaku
54fruitputur
55seedunel
56leaflife
57rootferã
58barkƙuple
59flowerflorã
60grasstĩmo
61ropemakos
62skinmiele
63meatfarsol
64bloodnołes
65bonekãte
66fat
67eggkon
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moonnipiti
149starxaf
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201atpil
202inpil
203withkir
204andkoli
205iftue
206becauseniate
207name


Example textEdit

E sã saia hul ƥei hułote
I the-SING NOM book ABS read-RECENTPAST-1sg
I (recently) read the book.
(Implicitly, perfect form, single action aspect and indicative mood are assumed).

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