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Mirskya

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Mirskya is a Slavic influenced, mixed a priori-posteriori language, by Waahlis.

IntroductionEdit

Дoбpa Пpɑvьeст! - Welcome!


This page uses IPA phonetic notation as standard.

This page uses non - standard ASII signs.

Мıpсκʀ иaɔьyκa, mırskya ȷazȷuka [mʲɨːrʲ.skʲja ˈjaːzʲ.ɯkʲja], in the latin script, more simply known by the English exonym "Mirian language", or "Mirskya". The language adheres to the family of a priori-posteriori languages, known as Neumatic languages. They all share the same basis regarding vocabulary and phonotactics, and to some extent, grammar. Mirskya is written in the Cyrillic alphabet, but will be transliterated when necessary.

Many of Mirskya's main sources of inspiration are Slavic languages, which has affected a great deal of the phonology, grammar and vocabulary. You will however find cognates to other Neumatic languages, such as Nāmic. Examples include the completely artificial word "иaмдя" (ıamdya) - war, and the "loan-word" ɔдpava (zdrava) - health, cheers.

A number of it's characteristics are not typical for natural languages, that is, they are rare. For example:

  • The language distinguishes dynamic and stative verbs.
  • It has a transitive morphosyntactic alignment.
  • Consonant harmony, based upon voicedness.
  • Diphtongisation of stressed syllables.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

This is a table of the Mirian inventory of consonants, displayed in the International Phonetic Alphabet. The transliterations into different scripts, is found under "Orthography". The consonant inventory contains a considerable amount, though spread over few places and manners of articulation.

Please note that the all the consonants may be palatalised. Except the palatal ones.

Phonology
  Bilabial Labiodental Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar
plain palatal plain palatal plain palatal plain palatal plain palatal
Nasal m n nʲ ~ ɲ ɳ ɳʲ ɲ ŋ ŋʲ
Plosives voiceless p t ʈ ʈʲ (c) k kʲ ~ c
voiced b d ɖ ɖʲ (ɟ) g gʲ ~ ɟ
Affricatives voiceless   t͡s t͡sʲ ʈ͡ʂ ʈ͡ʂʲ k͡x k͡xʲ
voiced   d͡z d͡zʲ ɖ͡ʐ ɖ͡ʐʲ g͡ɣ g͡ɣʲ
Fricatives voiceless   f s ʂ ʂʲ x
voiced   v z ʐ ʐʲ ɣ ɣʲ
Trills r
Lateral Approximant l lʲ ~ ʎ ʎ

Nota Bene

Some of the palatalised consonants, /nʲ/, /lʲ/, /kʲ/ and /gʲ/, receive palatal allophones, which are indistinguishable from their marked counterparts. The palatalisation is a consequence of consonants succeded by close vowels and diphtongs with an initial /j/, and is thus generally not marked. However, at times palatalisation occur sporadicly, thence you mark it with the Cyrillic "ь" or a Latin "ȷ" after the affected consonant.

Phonemes in brackets exist as allophones only.

OrthographyEdit

Mirskya, or мıpсκя, is a Slavic-derived language, and it would be stupid not to use a Cyrillic script. However, for the reader's comfort, I'll provide an additional transcription with all phrases. The Mirskyan Cyrillic alphabet is known by the name κypиллиxa eжәдava (kurīllīha ezhәdava). The alphabet is a heavily modified Cyrillic alphabet, with many introduced letters.

Cyrillic Orthography
Bilabial Labiodental Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar
plain palatal plain palatal plain palatal plain palatal plain palatal
Nasal м мь н њ1 5 њ нx нxь4
Plosives voiceless п пь т ть pть5 κ κь
voiced б бь д дь pдь5 г гь
Affricatives voiceless џ џь ш шь κx κxь4
voiced ц ць щ щь гx гxь4
Fricatives voiceless ф фь с сь s x
voiced v ɔ ɔь ж жь χ χь
Trills p3
Lateral Approximant л љ2 љ

Nota Bene

  1. The grapheme "њ" is a ligature of the letter "н" and the palatalisation marker "ь".
  2. The grapheme "љ" is a ligature of the letter "л" and the palatalisation marker "ь".
  3. May also be written "q" when in initial miniscule form.
  4. These are not graphemes, nor consonant clusters, but trigraphs.
  5. These are not graphemes, nor consonant clusters, but trigraphs.


Latin Orthography
Bilabial Labiodental Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar
plain palatal plain palatal plain palatal plain palatal plain palatal
Nasal m n 1 nh nhȷ 1 nh nhȷ
Plosives voiceless p t th thȷ k
voiced b d dh dhȷ g
Affricatives voiceless ts tsȷ tsh tshȷ kh khȷ
voiced dz dzȷ dzh dzhȷ gh ghȷ
Fricatives voiceless f s sh shȷ h
voiced v z zh zhȷ ch chȷ
Trills r
Lateral Approximant l 2 2

Nota Bene

  1. These are perceived as homophones, thence, not individual letters.
  2. These are perceived as homophones, thence, not individual letters

VowelsEdit

PhonologyEdit

The representation of Mirskya's vowels. The vowels are the main initialisers of palatalisation, where close/open-mid front/central vowels cause palatal consonant phonemes. The vowel phonology is based upon an expanded system of vowel reduction, caused by foremost stress, but also the position in the lexeme. The reduction follows a partly regular schedule, where phonemes are gradually centred. The reduction of vowels is not orthographically marked, and the reduced vowels are considered allophones - which is marked by brackets. Mirskya distinguishes roundedness in close front and back vowels, and open-mid front vowels.

The unrounded open back vowel /ɑ/, is an allophone of /a/, when in the surroundings of /ɔ/.

The schwa /ə/, is both a reduced vowel, and an independent letter.

Phonology
Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i y ɨ

ɯ u

Near-Close (ı) (ʊ)
Close-Mid
Central [ə]
Open-Mid ɛ œ ɔ
Near-Open (ɐ)
Open a (ɑ)

OrthographyEdit

Cyrillic AlphabetEdit

The Cyrillic representation of Mirskya's vowels, include a number of signs that aren't immediately intelligible to speakers with a Latin alphabet. Please note that this table is not consistent with other Slavic orthographies. Mirskya distinguishes roundedness in close front and back vowels, and open-mid front vowels, which is most often represented by a reversed letter. The letters in brackets are allophones of their original positions of pronounciation.

Cyrillic Orthography
Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close ɴ и ı

y u

Near-Close (ı ɴ и) (ı y u)
Close-Mid
Central ə
Open-Mid e ɘ o
Near-Open (a o)
Open a (a)
Latin AlphabetEdit

The Latin orthography is more restricted regarding the number of letters. In the Latin orthography, all roundedness is marked with a dot, doesn't matter whether on the top or down below. The letters in brackets are allophones of their original positions of pronounciation.

Latin Orthography
Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close ı ī y

u ū

Near-Close (y ı ī) (y u ū)
Close-Mid
Central ə
Open-Mid e ē o
Near-Open (a o)
Open a (a)

DiphtongsEdit

Diphtongs are an important part of Mirskya, despite the limited number, since vowels become diphongised when stressed. Also, rising diphtongs with an initial /j/ trigger palatalisation of the preceeding consonant. In Mirskya, the most common categorising is between non-allophonical - natural - diphtongs, and stressed monophtongs that become diphtongised. There are only six non-allophonical diphtongs. All the remaining vowel clusters form hiatus.

Diphtongs
Grapheme ɛ з є э ʀ/иa я/ɴa
Base phoneme i ɨ

ɛ

ə a ɔ
Phoneme [ji] [jɨ] [jɛ] [jə] [ja] [jɔ]

PalatalisationEdit

In Mirskya, a Slavic conlang, palatalisation is an essential part. It behaves similarly to natural languages' palatalisation, where close/open-mid and front/central vowels cause palatal consonant phonemes. The phenomenon spreads only to the preceding consonant, whilst the remaining stay tenuis. The exception are final consonants, where the preceding vowel may palatalise it.

Since there's a limited amount of diphtongs, and each contain a palatal approximant, it may palatalise in a similar manner. All consonants can become palatalised, however, certain palatalised consonants, /nʲ/, /lʲ/, /kʲ/ and /gʲ/, receive palatal allophones, which are indistinguishable from their marked counterparts, namely /ɲ/, /ʎ/, /c/ and /ɟ/ respectively.

GrammarEdit

StressEdit

Mirskya's system of lexical stress is different to that of for example Nāmic and English. Unlike Nāmic's, it's completely regular, however mora-based. This means that the heaviest syllables are stressed, and the if the lexeme contains several equivalent syllables, the first one is emphasised.

The morae of Mirskya are determined out of three circumstances, each of which represent one mora:

  • The existence of a syllable onset.
  • Palatalisation of the onset.
  • The existence of a syllable coda.

The existence of a syllable onset substitutes over one mora and contrasts with null onsets:

  • vлaдʀ vladȷa - ruler, king [ˈvlaːdʲ.ja].
  • oгњ ognȷ - fire [ˈɔʊ̯g.ɲ̩].

However, should the a onset bepalatalised in a lexeme, it would preside over non-palatalised onsets:

  • vьәpa vȷәra - faith, religion [ˈvʲe̯ә.ra].

The existence of a syllable coda reinforces the syllable weight:

  • κpaɔɴт krazıt - to start [kraˈ.zʲijtʲ].

The stress in Mirskya affects the vowel phonemes, both the unstressed, and the stressed ones. Should the syllable nucleus consist of a syllabic consonant, they remain unaffected.

Stressed vowelsEdit

Stressed vowels in Mirskya always belong to the heaviest syllable, hence a certain weight is put upon the vowel, whereby it's diphtongised, alternatively geminated.This is an allophonical process, the cause why the resulting diphtongs aren't displayed along the ordinary ones, but also - hypothetically - should the language possess dialects, the allophones would vary greatly. I've chosen to portray the to dominant variations of pronounciation - нeмшa гvopьnemtsha gvorȷ [ˈnʲɛjm.ʈ͡ʂa gvorʲ] and veстaʀ гvopь vestar gvorȷ [vʲɛjs.tar gvorʲ].

Please note that the semivowels /j/, /w/ and /ɥ/, are estimated values for non-syllabic /i, ɨ/, /u, ɯ, ɔ/ and /i, y/ respectively.

Diphtongs
Normal Heмшa

Veстap

ɴ ı [i] [ij] [ɥi]
и i [y] [ij] [ɥy]
ı y [ɨ] [jɨ] [ɨj]
y u [ɯ] [wɯ] [wɯ]
ʌ [u] [wu] [wu]
e e [ɛ] [ɛj] [ɛj]
ɘ ė [œ] [jœ] [œj]
ә ә [ә] [e̯ә] [e̯ә]
o o [ɔ] [ɔʊ̯] [ɔʊ̯]
a a [a] [aː] [aj]

For the sake of simplicity, only the нeмтшa dialect will be portrayed on this page.

Pro-formsEdit

This list gives a shallow understanding of a number of the proforms in the language. It is completely irregular, with exceptions, and is based upon the "Correlatives"-table by L.L. Zamenhof. Please the appearent array of gender on the pronominal forms, four of them, animate masculine, feminine and neuter, as well as inanimate neutral.

NounsEdit

GenderEdit

Grammatical gender possesses an important role in Mirskya, where it governs pronominal, nominal and adjectival declensions, as well as the conjugations. Mirskya encompasses a maximum of four genders, which may vary in number and importance in different inflectional paradigms. The minum of gender in any lexical catogory, is two - the animate masculine and feminine.

The system of genders is based upon the distinction of animacy. It does however possess significance in the pronominal declension of the first and second person. Nevertheless, these are the Mirskyan genders:

Gender
Animate Inanimate
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Usage The masculine gender includes naturally masculine people, as well as animals of a masculine sex. The feminine gender denotes naturally feminine humans and animals. The neuter animate is used for groups of males and females, as well as plants. The inanimate gender only marks non-living objects.
Presence
Verbs Yes Yes Yes Some
Nouns Yes Yes Yes Yes
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes Some
Adjectives Yes Yes Yes Yes
Adverbs Yes Yes Yes Yes

CaseEdit

PronounsEdit

The Mirskyan pronouns decline according to number, case and gender. The genders of Mirskya are however not all represented, and only animate gender - masculine, feminine and neuter - are used in the first and second person.

This is derived from logic and simplicity, since no inanimate things can be addressed, nor actually address... The animate neuter is not compatible with first person singular, considering no groups are formed by one person. The third person, identical to the demonstratives, is declined according to all genders.

Pronominal DeclensionEdit

Pronominal Declension
Person  First Second
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Case Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine Neuter
Transitive ʀ мьy мз мин ня тa тe
Intransitive ɔaн мaс мeсъ нɛ сьaт сeт
Accusative мɘњ мɛ мɑ мнɑ нɛм тeњ тɪнa
Dative мa мьс нoм ням нɛм тaм тɛм
Instrumental мнeс мaнɔ aстaм aстɴм нaмoс тaсть тɛстʀ
Ablative мoн мɪнє aстнo aстня нaмoн тьavән тevpьaс
Vocative ʀ мьy мз мин нɛмa тʀ тaʀ

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