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Mis Hio

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PhonologyEdit

The Latin transliteration of Mis Hio uses an alphabet of 16 letters: A [ɑ, a] K [k, h, ʔ] E [e, ɛ] H [h] I [i, ɪ] L [l] PL [pl, pw] M [m] N [n] O [ɔ, o] P [p] R [r] S [s] T [t] U [u, ʊ], QU [kw, kw].

Overall, the letters sound the way you would expect them to be (standard Latin pronunciation). All letters are generally pronounced the same way regardless of their placement. There are two notable exceptions:

- The letter "i" tends to form diphthongs [aɪ], [eɪ], [oɪ] and [uɪ] when it follows another vowel; other vowels are pronounced separately from each other.

- PL and QU may be pronounced either as [pl] and [kw], or as [pw] and [kw], depending on the speaker's origin.

- The letter "k", when used in the middle of a word, may be pronounced as [h] or, in some dialects, even as [ʔ]. For example: kar [kɑr] - that, but naksi [nahsi] - from (being) there.


The vowels in Mis Hio may be spelled with an accent: á, é, í, ó, ú. The accent used to indicate long vowels; in modern speech, this has no effect on pronunciation.

PhonotacticsEdit

Mis Hio consonants are divided into two groups. M, N, R, S and T can appear as final letters of a word, while K, H, L, PL, P and QU can not. Out of these, K may appear in the middle of a word, while others can be seen only as initial consonants or as a part of the initial consonant cluster, combined with the initial "s".

Thus, Mis Hio words have a one of the following structures. Here "F" stands for a final consonant, while "C" denotes any consonant and V denotes any vowel:

V VV CV CVV sCV sCVV
VF VFV CVF CVFV sCVF sCVFV
VFsV CVFsV sCVFsV
VFtV CVFtV sCVFtV
VksV CVksV sCVksV
VktV CVktV sCVktV







.

ScriptEdit

Letter HonLetter RurLetter Pit        Letter RurLetter HonLetter RurLetter RurLetter Ten


Mu ria sakti Misu Hio


Letter HonLetter Ko Letter KoLetter RurLetter RurLetter Hon Letter PitLetter HonLetter RurLetter Rur QuoaLetter Rur Letter HonLetter RurLetter PitLetter Ko Letter RurLetter HonLetter RurLetter RurLetter Ten


Ku plá panu Ku luksa koru pana lu kai Ku harsa luksi har Meru Kuo
Mer keo har snekti ku snea ku sia Kú si ní plao oi ku á mou tó pana.


Letter RurLetter RurLetter Ko Letter TenLetter Rur QuoaLetter Hon Letter RurLetter TenLetter HonLetter TenLetter Ko Letter RurLetter RurLetter Ko Letter RurLetter Rur QuoaLetter KoLetter RurLetter PitLetter Hon Letter RurLetter RurLetter TenLetter KoLetter Ko Letter RurLetter TenLetter HonLetter TenLetter Hon Letter RurLetter Rur QuoaLetter Ko Letter RurLetter RurLetter HonLetter RurLetter Rur Letter RurLetter RurLetter Ko Letter RurLetter HonLetter HonLetter KoLetter PitLetter Hon Letter RurLetter Rur QuoaLetter KoLetter RurLetter PitLetter Rur Letter RurLetter HonLetter HonLetter Ko Letter HonLetter PitLetter KoLetter Ko Letter RurLetter RurLetter KoLetter RurLetter Ten

Letter HonLetter PitLetter Ko Letter RurLetter RurLetter PitLetter RurLetter Ten Letter RurLetter HonLetter HonLetter Ko Letter RurLetter PitLetter TenLetter PitLetter RurLetter Rur QuoaLetter Rur Letter RurLetter RurLetter Ko Letter RurLetter PitLetter TenLetter PitLetter RurLetter Hon Letter RurLetter RurLetter Ko Letter PitLetter RurLetter RurLetter Hon Letter RurLetter RurLetter Ko Letter PitLetter Rur Letter TenLetter Rur Letter TenLetter Rur QuoaLetter HonLetter RurLetter Ten Letter Rur QuoraLetter TenLetter RurLetter Rur Letter RurLetter RurLetter Ko Letter Rur QuoraLetter Hon Letter HonLetter TenLetter RurLetter Ko Letter Rur QuoaLetter Ten Letter RurLetter TenLetter HonLetter TenLetter Hon

Basic GrammarEdit

Mis Hio has a very simple and regular grammar. It is guided by several basic principles that make it quite different from other languages.

Root tuples and root chainsEdit

The basic unit of a Mis Hio sentence is two root-words linked together. The link is added to the second word and expresses their relationship.

For example:

Mis Hio Structure Roots Translation
mu mia mu mi-a

mu: I
mi: go

I go.
te pluno te plun-o

te: thing
plun: play

a toy
ti sakti ti sa-kti

ti: arrive, become
sa: know

to learn

As you can see, the words are linked by adding an ending to the second word. When two words are linked like this, several rules must be followed:

- When the second word ends with the same vowel as the (first) vowel of the link, this vowel is not repeated. Instead, an accent mark is added to the vowel, e.g.: ni ká (ni ka-a) "here".

- If the link starts with a consonant, and the root ends in a vowel, -k- is inserted between the vowel and the link: Mu mikta "I will go", but Mu mirta "I will stay".

In addition, there are a couple of general observations:

- A root combination can express one notion that in other languages is usually expressed with a separate word.

- Such root combination follows the general syntactic rules of the language. In other words, Mis Hio does not throw words together to create new notions, but always combines them following the grammar of the language.


A Mis Hio phrase consists of several root tuples placed one after another. One important case is when the first root of the following two-root phrase is the same as the last root of the preceding one. In this case, this root is not repeated, and the two phrases are joined together in a root-chain.

For example,

Hi Structure Roots Translation
mu tia sakti mu tia
ti sakti

mu: I
ti: arrive, become
sa: know

I learn.

Putting root chains togetherEdit

Syntactic relationships between Mis Hio root-chains are created by repeating the same root-word in different chains. Such repetition indicates that these root-chains point at the same thing.

To illustrate this, let us take an English sentence: Yesterday my brother saw a black dog. When you translate this into Mis Hio, the structure of your sentence will look like this: brother-saw saw-dog dog-black saw-yesterday brother-mine. You then merge several of the tuples into chains to avoid repetition ("saw saw", "dog dog") and get brother-saw-dog-black saw-yesterday brother-mine.

(Actually in Mis Hio this sentence sounds as Mon siksa honu slia nikti hon mita si toi suno to tirsa mon muo. There is a difference in structure because the words hon slia nikti "dog" and to suno to tirsa "yesterday" are not expressed by single words in Mis Hio.)

Here are several Mis Hio examples: (the root chains are underlined and the repeating roots that link different root chains together are highlighted)

Mis Hio Structure Roots Translation
Mu sia teu tu má teu

mu si-a
si-a te-u

tu ma-a
ma te-u

mu: I
si: look, see
te: thing
tu: you
ma: eat

I see what you eat.
Te ká te pluno te nuna

te ka-a

te plun-o

te nun-a

te: thing
ka: this
plun: play
nun: new
This is a new toy.
Se puna se ká se nuta roi

se pun-a

se ka-a

se nut-a
nut ro-i

se: plant
pun: hard
ka: this
nut: old
ro: strongly,very

This tree is very old.


It is very important to remember that, when you repeat a root in a different root chain, you have to put it in the form in which it belongs in the new chain. That is, you repeat the root only, and never the ending!

For example, you may say Te loa te pluno lo roi "This is a very good toy" but it would be a grave mistake to say loa roi instead of lo roi here.

By putting the word lo "good" in its bare form you indicate that you are starting a new root chain. If you change it to loa, you imply that this describes the word that immediately precedes it (in this case, pluno), and the whole phrase takes on a different meaning (in this case it would mean "This is a toy for a good game").

Sentence structureEdit

The basic word order in Mis Hio is SVO -- subjects precede verbs and objects follow them. However, Mis Hio does not have any set sentence structure. In fact, a Mis Hio sentence is nothing more than a sequence of root chains. It is quite common to speak in very long "run-away" sentences that would gradually change the subject and seamlessly move from one thought to another.

The variable order of root chains in a Mis Hio sentence can be used to emphasize different parts of it. This allows for great variability and expressive power; you can start with any part of the sentence, and in general rearrange the parts in any order you like. For example, Mon tuo mon tatsa mú tat lai ruru seo! "Your brother hit me with a stick!" can be changed to Tat mú tat lai ruru seo mon tatsa mon tuo "I was beaten with a stick by the brother of yours", or La ruru seo mon tatsa mú mon tuo tat lai "Your brother used a stick to hit me", and so forth.

To turn a sentence into an interrogative one, you only need to change the intonation, e.g. Mu kita "I am happy" -- Tu kita? "Are you happy?"

Also note that a Mis Hio sentence does not necessarily need to have a verb-like part. A sentence simply states a number of relationships, expressed through linking root words. E g. one can say Ku meno loa "He is a good man" (literally: "He of good men"), a phrase that consists of two tuples, ku meno "he (is) of men" and men loa "man (is) good".

Similarly, a sentence like Qui mikti ní plao mi soi pao "(It is) necessary to think before doing" does not require a subject; it states the relationships between actions and leaves the question of who is doing these actions completely out.

Linking RootsEdit

Below is the list of all root links found in Mis Hio.

Link

Pattern

Meaning
-a Noun Verb-a
Noun Adjective-a
Actor is doing something, or being in a state, or is having a quality. This is the basic way to link a noun to a verb or an adjective.
-sa Noun Verb-(k)sa Actor has done something (perfective).*
-ta Noun Verb-(k)ta Actor is going to do something (prospective).**
-sia Noun Verb-(k)sia Actor could have done something, but the possibility never realized (subjunctive mood).
-tia Noun Verb-(k)tia Actor may do something, but this is uncertain and subject to conditions (conditional mood).
-u Verb Noun-u The noun is the direct object of the verb.
-ku Verb Verb-ku Introduces a related action, referenced by the main verb. The actions can happen in any order. This link is usually seen in situations where in English one could use the word "that", and is translated using a subordinate clause.
-o

Noun Noun-o

Genitive: the first noun can be a posession of the second, or be related to it in all sorts of ways. When the second word names an action, it can indicate the actor, place, time, or an object used in that action.
-i

Verb Adverb-i
Adjective Adverb-i

Introduces the adverb or adverbial modifier that describes the main verb or adjective.
-ti Verb Verb-(k)ti Introduces an action with a cause-and-effect relationship to the main verb. The second action follows the first. The first action causes or prompts the second.
-si Verb Verb-(k)si The first action follows the second and is its consequence, or the second action is a condition or prerequisite for the first.

* The link -sa indicates the perfective aspect: an action that has been completed at the reference point, and not the absolute time of action. When a story is narrated in the past, -a is usually used throughout, except for events that occurred before the time frame of the story. Similarly, -ta indicates the prospective.

** The link -ta is also used to indicate imperative, e.g. Tu mikta! "Go!" etc.

As it was mentioned before, the letter -k- is always inserted when the root words ends with a vowel and the link starts with a consonant.

Here are some examples:

Mis Hio Structure Roots Translation
Mu tia sakti misu hio

mu ti-a
ti sa-k-ti
sa mis-u
mis hi-o

mu: you
ti: come, become
sa: know
I am learning Mis Hio.
Mu sá nutku se nuta se puna se ká

mu sa-a
sa nut-ku

se nut-a

se pun-a

se ka-a

mu: I
sa: know
nut: old
se: plant
pun: hard
ka: this

I know that this tree is old.
Mu paktia karu pa aksi tou

mu pa-k-tia
pa kar-u

pa a-k-si
a to-u

mu: I
pa: do
a: have
kar: that
to: time

I'll do that if I have time.
Mu paksia karu pa kiksi

mu pa-k-sia
pa kar-u

pa ki-k-si

mu: I
pa: do
ki: can, able
kar: that

I'd do that if I could
Mu miksa pakti mi quetsi aku loru rano

mu mi-k-sa
mi pa-k-ti
mi quet-si
quet a-ku
a lor-u
lor ran-o

mu: I
mi: go
pa: do, work
quet: against
a: have
lor: bad
ran: body

I went to work even though I was sick
Mu ria kukti hon kuksia hon kó

mu ri-a
ri ku-k-ti

hon ku-k-sia

hon ko-o

mu: I
ri: wish, want
ku: (VI) be someone
hon: animal
ko: air

I wish I were a bird!

You will see more examples of link usage throughout this text.

Root polymorphismEdit

1. As you saw in the previous section, one root-word can change its roles depending on which links connect it to other roots. In fact, most of Mis Hio words have different meanings in each of these roles: Noun (used with -o, -u or followed by a verb with -a, -ta, -sa, -tia, -sia), Adjective or Intransitive Verb (used with -a, -ta, -sa, -tia, -sia, -ku, -ti, -si, or followed by a verb/adverb with -i, -ti, -si), Transitive Verb (followed by a noun with -u, -ku), Modal Verb (followed by a verb with -ti) or Adverb (used with -i). Many roots also have a special meaning when they are used with -o, -ti etc. For example:

Meanings of ki
Role Translation
Adjective able
Modal Verb can
Transitive Verb enable
Adverb likely
Noun ability, power


Meanings of ke
Role Translation
Adjective first
Adverb only
Number one
Genitive sole


Meanings of ket
Role Translation
Adjective wrong
Intransitive Verb mistake, err
Transitive Verb break
Adverb by mistake
Noun error, mistake


Meanings of ple
Role Translation
Adjective high, tall
Transitive Verb lift
Adverb -ti up
Adverb above, over
Noun top


Meanings of ti
Role Translation
Adjective future
Modal Verb come
Transitive Verb bring
Noun arrival


Since a root never appears alone but always linked to another, there is never any ambiguity in how it should be understood in each particular case.

Of course not all roots have the full range of meanings, but it's hard to find a root that does not have at least a few. Some of the meanings are highly idiomatic (e.g. the noun meaning of to: "to wait" is "time") and have to be learned by heart. Most of the time, however, the meaning of any word in this or that role is self-evident.

2. What is also common is having the same root word in different roles when it is used in different root-tuples in the same sentence. The "aggregated" meaning can sometimes be an abstract notion (adjective+noun), participle (adjective+verb), prеposition, adverbial participle (adverb+verb) or a gerund (verb+noun). Here are some examples:


Mis Hio Roots Translation Comment
Hu ká hu mao sú hu: house
ma: eat, drink
su: water
This is a bar. In hu mao, ma has the role of a noun, while in ma sú it is a transitive verb. Thus it is translated as "drinking" (literally: this is a house of drinking).
Mu naksa ruru tá na plekti lono tao

mu: I
na: put, place
rur: stick
ta: write, draw
ple: above, top
lon: surface

I have put the pen on the writing desk. In na plekti, "put up", plekti is an adverb. In the next tuple, however, it is used as a noun: ple lono "top of the desk". We translate this as "put on the desk".
Si loi si lirta morti kor mora kor pana si: look, see
lo: good
lir: stop, prevent
mor: die
kor: land
pan: all
Beauty will save the world. The word si is first used as a verb (si loi, "looking well") and then as a noun (si lirta, "the look will prevent"). The combination of meanings results in translating it as "beauty".

When translating from Mis Hio, it is always important to remember that any word with a link modifies the word that immediately precedes it. It is helpful to start the translation from the end. E.g. in Mu naksa ruru tá na plekti lono tao you start with lon tao "desk" (lit. "surface of writing"), then ple lono tao is "top of the desk"; therefore na plekti lono tao should mean "put on the desk" (lit. "place onto the top of the desk"), and so forth.

MorphologyEdit

As you have already seen in the examples, Mis Hio very often uses a root chain (or several root chains) for something that in other languages is commonly expressed with a single word.

When a root chain is used in this way, its meaning may be highly idiomatic, and it has to be learned by heart. E.g. su mina means "milk", and not "white water", although su is "water" and min is "white". One can also say su mina su hono -- "white water from animals".

Oftentimes there are several ways to say the same thing, varying in length and detail. E.g.

Mis Hio Translation Literal translation
rur tá lai sú mita pen "stick that writes with black water (liquid)"
rur tá lai sú pen "stick that writes with water (liquid)"
rur tá pen or pencil "writing stick"


Mis Hio Translation Literal translation
plas kuo plas mia plei kó airplane "vessel for people that moves high in the air"
plas mia plei kó airplane "vessel that moves high in the air"
plas mia plei airplane "vessel that moves high"

Such examples are abundant in the language. When confusion is likely, the longer version would be used whereas it is shortened when the exact meaning can be derived from context.

It is also very common to use the long version of a word the first time you use it and then switch to a shorter one in subsequent uses. E.g. you can refer to a pen as simply rur tá or even rur "stick" if it is obvious from context what stick you refer to.

I would like to stress, however, that one cannot just make up a Mis Hio phrase describing an object and expect that it would match the way Mis Hio speakers say it. If the idiom is not a part of the MIs Hio vocabulary it may not be understood or it may be understood in a wrong way. The idioms need to be learned. Fortunately, the synthetic way in which they are formed facilitates the learning process a great deal.

Negative prefixEdit

Negation is expressed in Mis Hio by adding the prefix s- to the word (if the word starts with s-, ss- turns into ess-). With nouns, s- is often translated as "no" or "not a". For example:

Mis Hio Roots Translation
Ka tea smao ka: this
te: thing (n), it is (v)
ma: food (n), eat (v)
This is not food
Tu smakta kau! tu: you
ma: eat
ka: this
Don't eat it!

Indirect objects and prepositionsEdit

There are no indirect objects, prepositions or cases in Mis Hio! Phrases that would require an indirect object in other languages are expressed in Mis Hio by using a combination of verbs and adverbs.

Indeed, when we use a preposition in English, it is easy to reconstruct the implied verb. For example, by "This is for you" you usually mean "This is for you to take", but when I say "I am reading for my daughter" I mean "I am reading for my daughter to listen" and when I open a door for a lady, it's not for her to have or listen; I open it for her to go through.

Mis Hio does away with such ambiguities. You explicitly say mu tiksa kau ti akti tu á kau: "This is for you" (literally "I brought this so you'd have it"), and mu hia tau hi tonti net tona net muo: "I am reading for my daughter" (literally "I read so that my daugher would listen") and so forth.

Similarly, the English preposition "from" may be translated by using different Mis Hio adverbs, usually linked to the main verb by -si. E.g. "take from" someone would usually be translated as har aksi: "take from posession", "come from" can be translated as ti naksi or ti niksi: "come from being somewhere / being in somewhere". English "with" can be expressed by either using the word lan "to join" or la "to use", and so forth.

While preposition use and case use is often illogical and differs from language to language, the Mis Hio system is quite straightforward. It may require some getting used to, but with little time you will find it to be very natural and easy to use.

The collection of adverbs worth special mention are the adverbs for spatial and temporal relations. The word ni means "the inside" as a noun or "being inside" as an adverb, allowing to you to say, for example, man muo pluna ní lano seo reo "we play in the garden" (literally "we play inside, inside of the garden"). To means "time" as a noun, and "happening at a specific time" when used as an adverb. The words nir "outside", ple "on", "above", pler "under", so "in front", sor "behind", pli "start", plir "end" and a few others have the same pattern of use. Here are a few more examples:

Mis Hio Translation Notes
Mu tiksa nikti huo muo ti niksi huo tio sakti. I came home from school. ti nikti -- to come somwhere; ti niksi -- to come from somewhere.
Tu tikta nakti muo! Come to me! nakti muo -- literally "to my location".
Kis mú kis hí Johnu. My name is John. kis hí -- "call (by) saying"
Mu maksa toi tio nikti huo ku tia ku quena ku muo. I was eating when my friend entered the house. ma toi tio -- literally "eat at time of coming". The word to is first used as an adverb "at that time" or "when", and then as a noun, meaning "time".
Robin Hood tatsa hakti aksi man kuo á manu e ku hara lau kaso har akti man kuo á matu. Robin Hood robbed the rich and gave the money to the poor.

tatsa hakti aksi -- literally "attacked to take from posession"


har akti -- "gave to have"

Numerals and PluralEdit

Below is the list of Mis Hio numerals from 1 to 20. Keep in mind that, for example, while quu means "two" or "pair", quua means "second", and so forth. When put into genitive, keo means "sole, lone", quuo means "double" etc. So quu quuo literally means "two pairs". After studying this table you should be able to easily understand how numerals are constructed.

1 ke 11 tun e ke
2 quu 12 tun e quu
3 sas 13 tun e sas
4 quu quuo 14 tun e quu quuo
5 plis 15 tun e plis
6 plis e ke 16 tun e plis e ke
7 plis e quu 17 tun e plis e quu
8 plis e sas 18 tun e plis e sas
9 sas saso 19 tun e sas saso
10 tun 20 tun quuo
100 tun tuno 200 tun tuno quuo

Quua, besides "the second" also means "the other" and is often used in this sense.


To indicate count of something, Mis Hio speakers use expressions similar to "a pair of something". E.g. quu kuo "two people", sas huo "two houses" etc.

Similarly, to indicate plural number, one uses the word man "multitude, many". So man kuo means "people", man huo is "houses", man lano ruo tao means "books", and so forth. You may note however that quite often you will find expressions like quu teno sio "two eyes", instead of man teno sio "eyes" (lit. "many eyes") when the exact number is known. When one refers to the entire class of objects, we often see the word pan "all" in place of man; e.g. Pan kuo hua ní mano huo "People live in houses".

The plural form is never used when the same root is mentioned repeatedly.

Mis Hio Roots and Idioms Translation
Mu lua panu hono mio hon sia loi roi! mu: I
lu: love
hon mio (hon mio plei hono): horse
si lo: beautiful
ro: much, very
I love horses. They are so beautiful!

Note the use of pan hono mio "all horses" instead of man hono mio "(many) horses".

Personal pronounsEdit

Mis Hio has the following personal pronouns:

I mu we man muo, quu muo (2 of us), pan muo (all of us)
you tu you pan tuo
he ku, men they (m) man kuo, man meno
she ku, met they (f) man kuo, man meto
it te they (things) man teo

Ku means "person" and can be used both in palce of "he" or "she". When you have to undescore that you are talking about a man or a woman, you would use men and met. Man kuo is also used in impersonal sentences, e.g. Man kuo punsa plau ka nia plao "It has been decided".

Te (literally "thing") can be used to translate "it".

However, ku, men, met and te are not that frequently used in Mis Hio compared to use of personal pronouns in other languages. Instead, you would repeat a root of the word chain you reference. For example: Mu tiksa sakti nau ruro tá e mu tia takti lai ruru: "I found a pen and started writing with it". "It" in this case is translated as rur since it is the pen (rur tá) we are talking about. Similarly, when you talk about lan ruo tao "book", you may say lan if you are referring to the physical object, or ta "writing" if you mean the text of the book.

Translating interrogative and demonstrative pronounsEdit

Sentences with interrogative pronouns are usually translated to Mis Hio using the question-root ho. Ho may be used as any part of speech; depending on its use ho can express all sorts of questions. For example

Mis Hio Translation
Tu paksa hoi pa karu? How did you do that?
Tu niksa toi hoa ni karo? When have you been there?
Tu niksa hoa? Where have you been?
Tu tia niksi hoa? Where do you come from?
Ho lia mikti tu mia karti? Why do you go there?
Ho tia miksi tu mia karti? What do you go there for?

and so forth. Note that "why" was translated as ho lia -ti (literally "what leads to...?") and "what for" as ho tia -si (literally "what comes out of...").

Changing ho into ka "this" or kar "that" turns interrogative pronouns into demonstrative ones: toi hoa: "when?" --> toi ká: "now", toi kara: "then" and so forth. The words pan "all", pat "some", ne "none" and ner "any" can be used in the same fashion, e.g. toi pana "always", ní nera "anywhere" etc.

Similarly, when English uses a conjunction derived from an interrrogative pronoun, e.g. "why" or "where", it is usually translated into Mis Hio using the root ka. For example:

Mis Hio Translation
Mu sá kau tu niksa ká I know where you have been.
Mu essá kau lia mikti tu miksa karti. I don't know why you went there.

CopulaEdit

There are two verbs in Mis Hio that can be translated as "to be". One is ku: when used as a verb, this root means "to be someone". The other, te, means "to be somehting".

Both ku and te are intransitive in this meaning; to say that "A is B" you repeat the copula ("A tea B tea"). When "to be" means "to be one of ...", Mis Hio usually employs the Genitive link -o, with or without te/ku, e.g. Ku meno plea "He is a tall man", but Ka tekta lan tea lan ruo tao tuo ta loa ploi sí panu! "This is going to be your best book!"

Here are some more examples illustrating their use:

Mis Hio Translation
Ka tea pun tea pun koro pun seta mu siksa sakti nau puno si toi mó mou mo pana! This is the ruby I was searching for my whole life!
Mu kuksa toi
ku meno nuna men plora
mu lua toi
lu mau kona.
When I was a little boy I liked candy.

Similarly, mu and tu can be used as a verbs meaning "I am" and "you are". Tu is very often used in this way to form a vocative phrase, e.g. Tu tikta nakti ká, Jane tua! "Come here, Jane!".

ConjunctionsEdit

Mis Hio has only few conjunctions, the most frequently used of them being

e and
ai or
oi but, however

Conjunctions are placed by themselves between root chains. E can also be used inside chains in some steady locutions, e.g. to suno e suto: "day and night" (instead of to suno e to suto).

Degrees of adjectives and adverbsEdit

Degrees of adjectvies and adverbs are formed by using the roots plo (adverbial meaning: "more") and plor (adverbial meaning: "less").

To compare two qualities, you can either decorate one with plo and the other with plor; (e.g. Mu plea ploi tu plea plori -- "I am taller than you") or use the word "(when) looking at" (Mu plea ploi sí tú).

To form the superlative degree, use the word pani "overall", or compare with pan "all"; e.g. Mu plea ploi pan plea plori, or Mu plea ploi sí panu -- "I am the tallest".

DictionaryEdit

Root words of Mis HioEdit

Mis Hio root words tend to come in pairs of roots with opposite meaning. Roots in the same pair differ in the ending consonant, with -n and -m interchanging with -t, and -r interchanging with [Ø]

(no consonant). For example, if pen means "to push" or "press", then pet naturally means "to pull"; ple means "high" and pler means "low", and so forth. So only about one half of the roots (currently about 105) have to be truly remembered.

Roots ending with -s do not form such pairs.

Idioms of Mis HioEdit

While the repertoire of Mis Hio root words is quite limited, the ability to use each root as multiple parts of speech allows one to express a great deal with them. The rest of the vocabulary is covered by idioms, locutions and figures of speech. Mis Hio uses idioms extensively, and learning them is as important as learning the basic roots.

Some of the locutions are rather self-evident while others are more idiomatic and have to be memorized. Indeed, there is no convincing argument, for example, why he pleo means "pants" and he nó stands for "shoes", and not the other way around. It is simply because they say so in Mis Hio; the set of idioms are part of the language. It is important to understand that. On the other hand, the highly descriptive nature of Mis Hio idioms makes learning them a breeze, and mastering Mis Hio is much easier than any language in which words have to be memorized without such clues.

The attached list of Mis Hio idioms was made by translating to Mis Hio a superset of Basic English. While using this list it is important to keep in mind that word-to-word translation from English is often not the best way to express yourself in a new language (and oftentimes it simply does not work).

It should also be noted that the translations were not done by a native Mis Hio speaker (ku hia pliksi toi mera) and are therefore subject to revision. (Please use the 'talk' page to suggest additions and revisions, and point out mistakes).

Example textsEdit

The north wind and the sun
The North Wind and the Sun
Edit

The North Wind and the Sun were disputing which was the stronger, when a traveler came along wrapped in a warm cloak.

They agreed that the one who first succeeded in making the traveler take his cloak off should be considered stronger than the other.

Then the North Wind blew as hard as he could, but the more he blew the more closely did the traveler fold his cloak around him;

and at last the North Wind gave up the attempt. Then the Sun shined out warmly, and immediately the traveler took off his cloak.

And so the North Wind was obliged to confess that the Sun was the stronger of the two.


Ko pino plua e ten suno quu kuo hiksa queti hi rokku ploi ku roa ku hoa hi toi tio men tia men miso quoa men á heu plura he quoa a niri rano.

Quu kuo hia sani hi sikku kú pá herti pa pliri men hera heu plura men miso si ní plao si rokku ploi sí kú quua.

Ko pino plua ko mia kou mi roi sani rou ko kia roi oi ko mia roi ploi men pena roi ploi men miso pen heu plura pen hekti ranu meno.

E ko tira niksi plao tir toi plira tir leu pakti. Ten suna pluri sun toi kara ten suno e men hera heu plura men miso her toi quoa.

E ko quia hikti saksi ko pino plua hi rokku ploi ten roa ten suno ko roa plori.

Babel text
The Babel Text
Edit

1. Now the whole earth had one language and the same words.

Ku aksa toi ká ku koro pana a keu hio e ke lato hio.

2. And as people migrated from the east, they found a plain in the land of Shinar and settled there.

Man kuo mia hukti niksi pino pleo teno suno ku tia sakti lonu koro Shinaro e ku tia hukti nai ká.

3. And they said to one another, "Come, let us make bricks, and burn them thoroughly." And they had brick for stone, and bitumen for mortar.

E man kuo hia tonti ku keo ku hia ku quua ku tona: Man muo pakta manu puno pó pina e mu lia plukti punu plu roi. E ku lá punu pó pina la sani punu koro e la sú mira su koro su lana punu.

4. Then they said, "Come, let us build ourselves a city and a tower with its top in the heavens, and let us make a name for ourselves, lest we be dispersed over the face of the whole earth.

Man kuo hia toi kara: Man muo pakta lotti pa lanu huo e pa hú plea, ple huo ká ple nia lono plea. E man muo pakta kisu ploa mu kisa pa slatti mu lata nakti koro pana.

5. And the Lord came down to see the city and the tower, which the children of man had built.

E Ku plá panu Ku tia plerti ti sikti lanu huo e si hú plea man mero meno mer paksa hú pa lotti.

6. And the Lord said, "Behold, they are one people, and they have all one language, and this is only the beginning of what they will do. And nothing that they propose to do will now be impossible for them.

E Ku plá panu Ku hia: Si manu kuo ká, ku keo lano e ku á keu hio, e hu tea pli tea pli pao ku pá pli kea. E ku kikta pakti teu pana ku hia pakku teu.

7. Come, let us go down and there confuse their language, so that they may not understand one another's speech.

Mu tikta plerti ti karti e mu hitta hiu mano kuo hit sarti ku sara ku kea sar hiu ku hia ku quua.

8. So the Lord dispersed them from there over the face of all the earth, and they left off building the city.

E Ku plá panu Ku lata manu kuo lat naksi kara lat nakti koro pana e ku mira pakti lotti pa lanu huo.

9. Therefore its name was called Babel, because there the Lord confused the language of all the earth. And from there the Lord dispersed them over the face of all the earth.

Ka lia kisti lanu huo kis hí Babilonu kis hitsi hiu koro pana Ku hita nai kara Ku plá panu. E Ku lata manu kuo lat naksi kara lat nakti koro pana.

A Random DialogEdit

Mis Hio English

Tu hiksa tau lan ruo tao lan ká?

Mu hiksa tau hi puni, ta miso pina plau ta sina siu rao plao!

Ta lia mikti ní plao mi manu teo mó.

Hmm... Met loa hoi met tuo?

Met sloa kai.

Did you read the book?

Certainly did, it was a fantastic adventure book!

Makes one wonder about a lot in life.

Hmm, hows it going with your wife anyway?

Not so good.

Little Red Riding HoodEdit

Mo toi pata met moa met nuna. Hat lua metu nuna lu tí arti plau, e hat meo hat lua ploi. To tio mokti har toi hat harsa akti hat meo met á heu plao met nuna he seta. Pli toi ká met mia pliksi met nuna mi nai pana mi hei plau he ká. Man kuo hua nai quora ku hia kisti metu kis kai:

- Na ká met Heo Plao He Seta He Plora met mia nai!

To pata hat pá toi pa mau lano ploro ma á kanu a ní e hat hia sakti net sá:

- Tu tikta sikti hatu meo, met Heo Seta met tua, tu mikta hakti hat há mau lano ploro e ha plasu pluta ple suo mina ple puna ple nia plaso, e tu tikta sakti akka ranu loa hat á.

Met Heo Plao He Seta met tia quakti e met mia lai nou mi sikti hatu meo.

Met mia ní lano seo puna e met tia sikti sou Hono Mita Rori hon lano seo.

- Tu mia nakti ká, met Heo Plao He Seta met tua, Hon Mita Rori hon hia sakti nau.

- Mu mia nakti hato meo muo e mu mia hakti mau lano ploro hat há plasu pluta ple suo mina ple puna ple nia plaso.

- Hat meo tuo hat hua nai quoa?

- Na quoa, - met Heo Plao He Seta met hia sorti. - Hu ní lano huo lan kara hat hua, hu sori huo ploro reu, hu kea hu poa.

- Ka loa, - Hon Mita Rori hon hia, - mu ria sikti meu meo tuo ri quui. Mu mikta nai miso ká, e tu plarta misu kara. Quu muo sikta kú hoa ku tia toi soa ploi.

Hon Mita Rori hon hia kau e mia roi mi nai miso quora ploi pani mi sani kikku mikti .

E met Heo Plao He Seta met mia plari misu quoa ploi pani. Met slea mikti roi, met mira ní miso mir toi mana, met plea seu sia loi ple hakti e met lana seu lan pakti manu lano seo sia loi. Met ara tou ar tikti nakti huo ploro reu, oi Hon Mita Rori hon tia quai ti nakti huo meo meo e hon tata planti tat heu pua mio:

Not-not!

- Ku hoa ku ná kara? - hat meo hat hia sakti.

- Mu ná ká, net mero tuo net mua, met Heo Plao He Seta met mua - Hon Mita Rori hon hia sorti, - mu tikta sikti tú, mu tia mau lano ploro ma á kanu a ní, e ti plasu pluta ple suo mina ple puna ple nia plaso.

Hat meo hat á toi kara a ranu lora e hat rá ranu ra ní lono rao. Hat sia ní plao si tikku met Heo Plao He Seta met tiksa, e hia roi:

- Tu penta quou, mer mou mer tua, he puo mio he pekta pensi!

Hon Mita Rori hon pena quou e he puo mio he tia pekti.

Hon tia plekti meo meo e hon má meu ma nikti ma stoi. Hon riksa makti ri roi ri smaksi hon sma toi saso tó suno. To sora kao hon pera heu puo per toi, hon rá plekti lono rao meo meo e hon toa tikku met Heo Plao He Seta met tia.

To quoa met tia toi e met tata plunti:

Not-not!

- Ku hoa ku ná kara? - Hon Mita Rori hon hia sakti. Oi hon á tonu hio ton nita. Met Heo Plao He Seta met tia sotti ti toi soa, oi to quua met sia toi si tikku akti tonu hio ton nita si ní plao hat á lorsi rano hat meo, e met hia sorti:

- Mu ná ká, net mero tuo net mua, met Heo Plao He Seta met mua. Mu tia akti tu á mau lano ploro ma á kanu a ní, e ti plasu pluta ple suo mina ple puna ple nia plaso.

Hon Mita Rori plana niksi só rano e hia plei ploi:

- Tu penta quou, mer mou mer tua, he puo mio he pekta pensi!

Met Heo Plao He Seta met pena quou e he puo mio he tia pekti. Met nuna met tia nikti huo plora, oi Hon Mita Rori hon sira pleri heo lono rao e hon hia:

- Net mero net tua, tu nakta mau na plekti lono mao, na plasu na plekti lono lato, e tu tikta rakti poi muo!

Met Heo Plao He Seta met tia rakti poi Hono Mita Rori e met hia sakti:

- Hat meo hat tua, tu á hoksi a quu hao plora kai?

- Mu á hau a hakti tú ha teni niro, net mero net tua.

- Hat meo hat tua, tu á hoksi a quu nuo tono nu plora kai?

- Mu á nú a tonti loi plori, net mero net tua.

- Hat meo hat tua, tu á hoksi a quu teno sio ten plora kai?

- Mu á tenu a sikti loi plori, net mero net tua.

- Hat meo hat tua, tu á hoksi a manu puno puo pun plora kai?

- Mu á punu a makti tú ma toi quora, net mero net tua!

Met Heo Plao He Seta met ara tou a hikti patu oi Hon Mita Rori hon tia plekti meto ti toi e hon má metu ma nikti.

A misu loa manu kuo mia akti ku pá punu seo mi toi ká mi poi huo mi ai lau lato punu seo a plei rano. Ku tonsa planu e ku nia roi ni huo plora e ku mora Honu Mita Rori. To sora ku lata toi lat ranu honu e met Heo Plao He Seta met nira rano, e hat meo hat nira sori meto, quu meto slata e sketa.

The Story of Goldilocks and the Three BearsEdit

To pata met moa toi met nuna kis metu kis hí Metu Quó Quea. Met mia lai no mi ní lano seo. To quora loi met sia toi si tori si hú. Met tata planti e sku hia sorti hi toi met tia nikti ti toi ti plini.

Lon nia quono mao lon mao sas plaso plea lono plas mao su ploro reo su nia plaso. Met Quó Quea met ria makti. Met pia sú pi ní puo pi niksa plaso kea.

"Su ploro reo su ká su plura roi!" met hia pí.

Met pia kai pi ní puo pi sú pi niksi plaso quua.

"Su ploro reo su ká su plua roi!" met hia. Met pia sú plaso sora.

"Ahhh, su ká su loa kai" met hia, e met má sú pana.

Sor maksi mau só tó suna ma saso hono lua kanu kona met puna plau pun toi sora pun quikku rakti qui rori. Met mia lai no mi nikti quono plá e met sia sasu lono rao soru. Met Quó Quea met rá soru ra plei lono kea.

"Lon rao soru lon ká lon ploa quiri!" met hia pí.

Ra kai met rá soru ra plei lono quua.

"Lon ká lon ploa quiri plo quui!" met hia toni kato lora.

Met lea lakti lonu sora pani e plora pani.

"Ahhh, lon ká lon loa kai!" met hia niri kou. Oi, lon keta latti man lato ket toi met rá toi ra plei lono! Met Quó Quea met quia rakti qui roi qui toi, e met mia plekti nikti quono rao. Met lea rakti plei lono rao lon kea, oi lon puna quiri. Met lea rakti le toi quua ra plei lono quua, oi lon puta quiri. To sora met rá toi ra plei lono sasa e lon loa kai. Met Quó Quea met tia rakti.

Ti toi met rá toi sas hono lua kanu kona hon tia nakti huo.

"Ku pata ku maksa sú ploro reo su muo" hon hana hon hia plani sana honu á katu plura.

"Ku pata ku maksa sú ploro reo su muo" hon hata hon hia.

"Ku pata ku maksa sú ploro reo su muo e ku maksa pliri!" hon hia hon nuna hi pí lori.

"Ku pata ku raksa ní lono rao soru lon muo" hon hana hon hia plani sana honu á katu plura.

"Ku pata ku raksa ní lono rao soru lon muo" hon hata hon hia.

"Ku pata ku raksa ní lono rao soru lon muo e ku ketsa lonu ket latti man lato!" hon hia hon nuna hi pí lori.

Sas hono puna plao pun sikku nai pana si ploi e sas hono tia toi ti plekti ti nikti quono rao hon hana hon hia toi hi plani sana honu á katu plura: "Ku pata ku raksa ní lono rao lon muo!"

"Ku pata ku raksa ní lono rao lon muo, ra quui" hon hata hon hia.

"Ku pata ku raksa ní lono rao lon muo, e met ná ká na quari!" hon nuna hon hia pí.

To ká Met Quó Quea rara toi e met sia sasu hono. Met hia roi: "Lir ketu!" E met mia plekti mi tati lai nou e mia toi mi niksi quono. Met mia roi mi plerti, met pea heu puo mio e met mia roi mi nikti lano seo. E met sora toi nea sor nakti huo saso hono lua kanu kona.

Featured BannerEdit

This language has been featured. Due to its quality, plausibility and usability, it has been selected as featured.

Hi ká man kuo harsa hiu har mansi. Hi loa e sana kenku, e ki lakti hiu, man kuo harsa hiu har loksi e kensi har sikti pan sia.

Sample SentencesEdit

  1. The sun shines. Ten suno ten pá sunu.
  2. The sun shone. Ten suno ten paksa sunu.
  3. The sun will shine. Ten suno ten pakta sunu.
  4. The sun is shining again. Ten suno ten pá sunu pa toi nuna.
  5. The sun will shine tomorrow. Ten suno ten pakta sunu pa toi suno to tia.
  6. The sun shines brightly. Ten suno ten pá sunu pa roi.
  7. The bright sun shines. Ten suno ten suno roa ten pá sunu.
  8. The sun is rising now. Ten suno ten mia plekti mi toi ká.
  9. All the people shouted. Pan kuo hiksa roi.
  10. Some of the people shouted. Pat kuo hiksa roi.
  11. Many of the people shouted twice. Man kuo hiksa roi hi toi quuo.
  12. Happy people often shout. Man kuo a tou loa man ku hia roi hi toi mana.
  13. The kitten jumped up. Mer hono miauo mer miksa plekti mi tati lai nou.
  14. The kitten jumped onto the table. Mer hono miauo mer miksa tati lai nou mi plekti lono mao.
  15. My little kitten walked away. Mer hono miauo mer plora mer muo mer miksa lai nou mi tirti.
  16. It's raining. Su tia plerti.
  17. The rain came down. Su tiksa plerti.
  18. The kitten is playing in the rain. Mer hono miauo mer pluna nai suo tia plerti.
  19. The rain has stopped. Su mirsa su tia plerti.
  20. Soon the rain will stop. Su mirta toi quora su tia plerti.
  21. I hope the rain stops soon. Mu sia lokti si mirti su mira su tia plerti.
  22. Once wild animals lived here. To pata man hono niro hon hua nai ká hu toi.
  23. Slowly she looked around. Met siksa niri si mí rori.
  24. Go away! Tu mikta tirti!
  25. Let's go! Man muo mikta!
  26. You should go. Tu quia mikti.
  27. I will be happy to go. Mu akta tou loa a mikti.
  28. He will arrive soon. Men tikta toi quoa.
  29. The baby's ball has rolled away. Ten pluno ten mero plora ten miksa tirti mi teni.
  30. The two boys are working together. Quu meno nuna men pá lani.
  31. This mist will probably clear away. Ko mina ko plua ko ká ko tikta kí keni ti tirti plinti.
  32. Lovely flowers are growing everywhere. Man seo sio loa se nai pana.
  33. We should eat more slowly. Man muo quia makti mí rori ploi.
  34. You have come too soon. Tu tikta toi quora quiri.
  35. You must write more neatly. Tu quia takti plini ploi.
  36. Directly opposite stands a wonderful palace. Na poi quua hu kuo plá hu rara piu hu lota nai.
  37. Henry's dog is lost. Hon hauo Henry á honu essa kau hon ná kai.
  38. My cat is black. Hon miauo hon mio hon mita.
  39. The little girl's doll is broken. Ku pluno ku meto nuna met plora ku keta.
  40. I usually sleep soundly. Mu rá puni ra toi mana.
  41. The children ran after Jack. Man mero miksa roi mi sori Jacko.
  42. I can play after school. Mu kia plunti toi sora tó kio sakti.
  43. We went to the village for a visit. Man muo miksa nakti lano huo mi sikti kú.
  44. We arrived at the river. Man muo tiksa nakti suo quoa.
  45. I have been waiting for you. Mu toksi tikti tu tia.
  46. The campers sat around the fire. Man kuo miso ku rá soru ra teni suno plura.
  47. A little girl with a kitten sat near me. Met nuna met á meru hono miauo met rá soru ra poi muo.
  48. The child waited at the door for her father. Met mera met toksa poi puo mio to tikti han tia han meto.
  49. Yesterday the oldest girl in the village lost her kitten. To suna to sora met nuna met lano huo met nuta pani met tiksa arti toi ar meru hono miauo mer meto.
  50. Were you born in this village? Tu tikta mokti ti nai lano huo lan ká?
  51. Can your brother dance well? Mon tuo mon kia mikti sí loi?
  52. Did the man leave? Men tirsa?
  53. Is your sister coming for you? Mot tua mot tia hakti tú?
  54. Can you come tomorrow? Tu kia tikti toi suno to soa?
  55. Have the neighbors gone away for the winter? Man kuo hua nai quora ku tirsa nakti quoa na toi kó plua?
  56. Does the robin sing in the rain? Hon kó hon seta hon hia planu loa hi toi suo tia plerti?
  57. Are you going with us to the concert? Tu mia lani mano muo mi sikti lanu kuo pá planu loa?
  58. Have you ever travelled in the jungle? Tu miksa toi pata mi nakti lano seo koro plura?
  59. We sailed down the river for several miles. Man muo mia plei suo quoa mi quoi pato milo.
  60. Everybody knows about hunting. Pan kuo sá hiu mato honu.
  61. On a sunny morning after the solstice we started for the mountains. So tó suno so suno to sori tó teno suno ten mira man muo pliksa mikti nakti koro plea pli toi só.
  62. Tom laughed at the monkey's tricks. Tom plansa plunsi plan paksi pluna hon pá hon sana menu.
  63. An old man with a walking stick stood beside the fence. Ku nuta ku á rur mio ku rá poi ruo lota.
  64. The squirrel's nest was hidden by drooping boughs. Hon lua reu á niru puna essi hú hono essi raksi plerti man ruro seo rur rá.
  65. The little seeds waited patiently under the snow for the warm spring sun. Man reo seo re plora re toa pleri mino suo to ai katu loa to tikti sun tia sun plura sun tó seo ploa.
  66. Many little girls with wreaths of flowers on their heads danced around the bonfire. Man meto nuna met plora met á tenu lano seo sio loi a plea plao met mia sí loi mi teni suno plura sun pluno.
  67. The cover of the basket fell to the floor. He plaso lano ruro he mikta plerti mi nakti lono nó.
  68. The first boy in the line stopped at the entrance. Men nuna men kea men ná lano kuo lan quoa men tikta mirti nai puo tio nikti.
  69. On the top of the hill in a little hut lived a wise old woman. Na pleo nuo koro met nuta met hua nai hu ní huo puno seo hu plora met sá misu.
  70. During our residence in the country we often walked in the pastures. To huo man muo hua tó hu nai koro seo mu mia lai no mi toi mana mi nai ruo seo nó.
  71. When will your guests from the city arrive? To hoa man kuo tia sikti tú ti naksi lano huo plea ku tikta tó?
  72. Near the mouth of the river, its course turns sharply towards the East. Na quora naksi puo suo quoa pin suo pin pita nai pit nakti pino pleo teno suno.
  73. Between the two lofty mountains lay a fertile valley. Por quuo nuo koro nu plea kor lona kor rea kor ná pori.
  74. The sun looked down through the branches upon the children at play. Ten suno ten sia plerti si pui manu ruro seo si manu kuo nuna ku pluna.
  75. The west wind blew across my face like a friendly caress. Ko mia poi só plao muo ko pino plero teno suno mi sani piu lai hau pi quena.
  76. The spool of thread rolled across the floor. Lan quó lan tena lan miksa teni mi pokti quua po lono nó.
  77. A box of growing plants stood in the window. Plas pó pina plas á manu seo tia plokti plas rá nai puo sio.
  78. I am very happy. Mu kita roi.
  79. These oranges are juicy. Man reo quea seti re ká re á manu suo.
  80. Sea water is salty. Su rua su kusa.
  81. The streets are full of people. Man miso lano huo mis á man kuo a quoti.
  82. Sugar tastes sweet. Kan kona kan pia koni.
  83. The fire feels hot. Sun plura sun pia plura.
  84. The little girl seemed lonely. Met plora met nuna met sana pikku kei.
  85. The little boy's father had once been a sailor. Han meno nuna men plora han kuksa meno ruro suo ku toi pata.
  86. I have lost my blanket. Mu tiksa essakti nau heo lono rao he muo.
  87. At noon we ate our lunch by the roadside. Por tó suno pan muo maksa tó ma tó suno ma poi quó mio.
  88. Jones made a knife for his little boy. Jones paksa rú tata pa akti men nuna men kuo men á.
  89. Their voices sound very happy. Pan tono hio mano kuo ton plana sani akku tou loa ku á.
  90. Is today Monday? To suno to ká to kea ní lano?
  91. Have all the leaves fallen from the tree? Pan ruo miksa plerti mi naksi seo ká?
  92. Will you be ready on time? Tu quaksa toi kena?
  93. Will you send this message for me? Tu liksa mikti hi mia hi ká li pikti loi mu pia?
  94. Are you waiting for me? Tu toa tikti mu tia?
  95. Is this the first kitten of the litter? Mer hono miauo mer ka mer kea mer lano mero?
  96. Are these shoes too big for you? He nó he ká he ploa quiri plo hekti tu hea?
  97. How wide is the River? Su quoa Su rua hoi?
  98. Listen. Tu tonta.
  99. Sit here by me. Tu rakta soru ra nai ká ra poi muo.
  100. Keep this secret until tomorrow. Tu slikta sakti kau ku pata ku sá.

ContactEdit

I would love to hear opinions and suggestions regarding Mis Hio. You can contact me at Email andrei

Thanks,

Andrei Burago (adagio_burner)

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