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Missa

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IntroductionEdit

Missa is a constructed language that took approximately a year to develop. It is highly agglutinative and, throughout its development, has developed a class-based diglossia; the lower-class version is presented here. The page on this site is highly based on the Wikipedia artcle for Turkish grammar [1].

SuffixesEdit

A suffix (é) is attached to a stem (ot). This stem may be a root (ot), or it may be further analyzable (e.g., otta(i)-). Missa suffixes, as Turkish suffixes, fall into two main types:

  • constructive suffixes (mónde trel'ěnteza) which are not noun cases or verbal inflections, and
  • inflexional suffixes (pelm trel'ěnteza), which (naturally) are.


Spelling and PhonologyEdit

AlphabetEdit

  • a b c d e é ě g i j k l m n ń o ó p r s š t u v y z '

These are as in the IPA, with the following exceptions:

  • Consonant Differences : [c] represents /ts/; [ń] is a velar nesal; [š] is a devoiced postalveolar fricative; [-u-] is a labial approximant (or similar); ['] represents palatalization or /j/ after a consonant (e.g. [trel'] ~ [trelj].)
  • Vowel Differences: [e] is /ɛ/, [o] is /ɔ/ (with their accented forms being /e o/, respectively), and [ě]/[y] being representative of schwa.

The differentiation in Missa being orthographic [ě] and [y] is that [y] is used in pure roots; while [ě] is used for the schwa that developed from the developmental simplification of such initial consonant clusters as [tm].

GenderEdit

  • While Missa does not have gender for common nouns, gender is distinguished in 3rd person pronouns (as in English). However, Missa has highly productive suffixes to mark specific genders, being -el (feminine) and -ék (masculine). The genderized epicine pronoun contrasts as an obviate to the (inherently privative) normally gendered third person gendered pronouns, ak (m.) and (f.)

PersonEdit

  • (Missa has 3 persons (1st, 2nd, and 3rd), and as stated above, the 4th person in some clauses is represented by suffixing a gender-marking suffix to the epicine 3rd person pronoun.

Parts of speechEdit

  • Missa has 8 parts of speech (drepsa gellikvo "parts of talking"):
  1. noun (móm "noun");
  2. pronoun(móm milvo "noun of person");
  3. adjective (mómzavo gapsl'on"Thing that talks about (nouns)");
  4. verb (oton "action");
  5. adverb ((otonsa) gapsl'on "Thing that talks about (actions))";
  6. conjunction (ukliginon "Thing that makes others come together");
  7. Grammatical particle (umsepl'on "The (inherently) known");
  8. interjection (dóš "Shout" ).
  • Missa does not inflect its adjectives or adverbs; and the majority of these are themselves derived from nouns or verbs, respectively.
  • Because Missa does not use the present tense of the verb "to be", the word de "it" followed by a noun can make a complete sentence:
  1. ket "dog";
  2. de ket "It's a dog."
  • However, in dictionaries, Missa gives two "cases" of its nouns, Nominative and Vocative; as it is the vocative that shows the true root a noun:
  1. štlum "porch, patio";
  2. štlubu "Porch! Patio!"
  • Dictionaries give verbs in their simple root form (as the 'infinitive' is highly archaic in all variants of Missa), however, some may give the verb in "root, I (root)" form:
  1. mel "(to) run";
  2. mel, melé "(to) run; I run".
  • As explained above, adjectives and adverbs are often formed from similar nouns and verbs, respectively:
  • Adjectives are commonly formed from nouns by suffixing a former participial suffix, which with time has worn to become a simple adjective suffix for both nouns and verbs:
  1. cel "Rust";
  2. celle "rust-colored, rusty."
  • Adverbs, however, are usually only formed from verbs or adjectives with the suffix -pte:
  1. tyk "Good";
  2. tykpte "well".
  • Other common suffixes include -on, which creates a simple noun from a verb (or even adjective on occasion):
  1. ńek "young";
  2. ńekon "something or someone who/that is young".
  • Missa quite often in adjectival constructions has the root adjective take the suffix -vo, which follows the noun it modifies; however, an adjective derived via -le does not take -vo and comes before the noun :
  1. Dek "cat" and til "red", dek tilvo "red cat" (literally cat of red); but
  2. Rénsle dek "smiling cat" (without -vo and preceding.)
  • The suffix that makes an adjective or adverb (or rarely verbal transitive meaning) emphatic is -ke:
  1. malk "Green";
  2. malkke "very green".

NounsEdit

Nouns do not have inherent gender(see above, however, for genderizing suffixes), two numbers (single, plural) with the ability to suffix 2-9 for dual-nonal, and many different case suffixes (Nominative, Vocative, Genitive, Dative, Allative, Ablative, Comitative/Instrumental, etc.)

PluralityEdit

Missa nouns have two 'normal' numbers: singular (no marking) and plural (The suffix -za). However, many nouns can take the number two through nine as a direct suffix, meaning "of a group of (NUMBER) (NOUN)", e.g. zón-di "eight mice". A noun suffixed with a number to denote a group of that amount does not take a plural suffix -za.


NumbersEdit

  • I was asked to provide a numerical system for Missa, and thus, here it is. Missa's numerical system is relatively similar to that of Chinese: it is a base ten system which constructs numbers rather efficiently, without requiring agreement with nouns in case, number, or gender:
  1. ot "two" ; ontit "twenty (two-ten)" ; ottelntek "two-hundred (two-hundred)"; ottelntehontidot rolmilellesa "two hundred and twenty two princesses".
    • Note that numbers, like most nouns, tend to have different stems (but this is not always the case.)
  • The numbers 0 - 10 are as follows in Missa:
  1. ulas, stem ulas- "zero"
  2. mej, stem mej- "one"
  3. ot, stem od- "two"
  4. all, stem ald- "three"
  5. lum, stem luv- "four"
  6. pem, stem pev- "five"
  7. skes, stem skez- "six"
  8. empes, stem empez- "seven"
  9. di, stem di(j)- "eight"
  10. mém, stem mém- "nine"
  11. mit, stem mid- "ten"
  • The numbers 10 - 100, by tens, are as follows in Missa:
  1. mit, stem mid- "ten"
  2. ontit, stem ontid- "twenty"
  3. alndit, stem alndid- "thirty"
  4. luvvit, stem luvvid- "fourty"
  5. pevvit, stem pevvid- "fifty"
  6. skensit, stem skensid- "sixty"
  7. empensit, stem empensid- "seventy"
  8. dimit, stem dimid- "eighty"
  9. mémmit, stem mémmid- "ninety"
  10. telntek, stem telnte(h)- "one hundred"

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