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Mlozgá

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[[]]
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Type
fusional
Alignment
nominative-accusative
Head direction
head-final
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
yes
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Mlozgá /mɫɔzɡaː/ is spoken by approximately 300,000 people in the southernmost portion of the Aralát Island chain on the planet Ejnül, ca. 10,000 CE. For centuries it experienced a decline in speakers, losing out to the more influential Yékis language spoken to the north. However, Mlozgá has started to make something of a comeback in the past few decades, and there is reason to be optimistic about this language's future.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Plosive p b t d c ɟ k g (ʔ)
Fricative f v s z ʃ ʒ ç (ʝ) x (ɣ) ʁ h
Affricate ts dz tʃ dʒ
Approximant j
Trill r̥ r
Lateral app. l ɫ

[ʔ] is an occasional realization of /ʁ/. /ʝ/ and /ɣ/ are dialectal. In the standard language, /ʝ/ has merged with /j/, and /ɣ/ has shifted to /ʁ/.

/m/, /n/, /ɲ/, /ŋ/, /r̥/, /r/, /l/, and /ɫ/ can all function as syllabic nuclei in their own right.

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
Close i, i: ʉ u, u:
Close-mid e o
Mid (ə)
Open-mid ɛ, ɛ: ɔ, ɔ:
Open a, a:

diphthongs: /ɛi̯/ /ou̯/ /æɛ̯/ /ɑɔ̯/ /i̯ɛ/ /u̯ɔ/ /øʏ̯/

Alphabet and OrthographyEdit

The alphabet is as follows: Aa Áá Bb Cc Čč Dd Ďď Ee Éé Ëë Ff Gg Hh Ii Íí Jj Kk Ll Ľľ Mm Nn Ňň Oo Óó Öö Pp (Qq) Rr Řř Ss Šš Śś Tt Ťť Uu Úú Vv (Ww) (Xx) Yy Ýý Zz Žž Źź

Q, w, and x occur only in words of foreign origin.

The following digraphs are also utilized: ch, dz, dž, gh, ng.

Orthography:

a - /a/

á - /a:/

b - /b/

c - /ts͡/

č - /tʃ͡/

d - /d/

ď - /ɟ/

e - /ɛ/, [ə] ([ə] in unstressed syllables)

é - /ɛ:/

ë - /e/

f - /f/

g - /g/

h - /h/

i - /i/

í - /i:/

j - /j/

k - /k/

l - /ɫ/

ľ - /l/

m - /m/

n - /n/

ň - /ɲ/

o - /ɔ/

ó - /ɔ:/

ö - /o/

p - /p/

r - /r/

ř - /r̥/

s - /s/

š - /ʃ/

ś - /ç/

t - /t/

ť - /c/

u - /u/

ú - /u:/

v - /v/

y - /ʉ/

ý - /øʏ̯/ (Historically this represented a long /ʉ:/, which has since become diphthongized)

z - /z/

ž - /ʒ/

ź - /j/ (Historically this represented an independent phoneme /ʝ/, and is still pronounced as such in some dialects)

Digraphs:

ch - /x/

dz - /dz͡/

dž - /dʒ͡/

gh - /ʁ/ (occasionally realized as a glottal stop. Historically though, this digraph represented /ɣ/, and is still pronounced in this manner in some dialects)

ng - /ŋ/

Representation of diphthongs:

ei - /ɛi̯/

ou - /ou̯/

ae - /æɛ̯/

ao - /ɑɔ̯/

ie - /i̯ɛ/

uo - /u̯ɔ/

ý - /øʏ̯/ (also see ý above)

PhonotacticsEdit

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Nouns Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Numbers Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Participles Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

NounsEdit

There are 8 grammatical cases: nominative, accusative, dative, benefactive, genitive, instrumental, locative, lative. Nouns decline for two numbers: singular and plural.

Each noun belongs to one of five noun classes (aka genders): 1. Animate, 2. Plants, 3. Wind/Water/Meteorological phenomena, 4. Inanimate Static (e.g. rock), 5. Miscellaneous.

There are seven declensions: animate (vowel stem), animate (consonant stem), plants (vowel stem), wind etc. (vowel stem), static (vowel stem), miscellaneous (vowel stem), and general inanimate (consonant stems).

VerbsEdit

Verbs conjugate for person/ number/ noun class of the subject, person/ number/ noun class of the direct object (if transitive with animate subject), tense (present, past, perfect, pluperfect), voice (active, passive), mood (indicative, subjunctive, imperative). There is no construction for continuous action. Aspect may be indicated by means of adverbs.

SyntaxEdit

VocabularyEdit

Ngafe [ˈŋafə] - person (noun class 1; 1st declension)

Example textEdit

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