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Modern Ghulghadian

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Modern Ghulghadian
Ulane
Type
Isolating
Alignment
Head direction
Final
Tonal
No
Declensions
No
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive p b t d  k g
Fricative f v s z  x h
Affricate tʃ dʒ
Approximant j
Flap or tap ɾ
Lateral app. l

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
Close ɯ u
Open-mid œ ɜ ɔ 
Open ä

1. /ä/, /ɜ/, and /ɔ/ are considered strong vowels. These vowels can be combined into diphthongs, and triphthongs, as well as four vowel combinations. 

2. /i/, and /u/ are considered weak vowels and are used to link strong vowels together. 

DiphthongsEdit

i- u- a- e- o-
ia ua ay ey oy
ie ue au eu ou
iu uo oa
io

1. The letter 'y' is used after the vowel to represent the vowel /i/. 

2. The letter i is used before the vowel to represent the vowel /i/.

3. A diphthong is counted as one syllable.

TriphthongsEdit

Triphthongs can be formed by adding a /i/ or /u/ in between two strong vowels. Examples of this are 'aye', 'ayo', 'aya', 'ayu', 'eye', etc. 

Other Vowel CombinationsEdit

The most number of vowels that can appear together is four vowels. Example of this is "ieye" /iɜjɜ/. 

AlphabetEdit

PhonotacticsEdit

The general syllable structure of Modern Ghulghadian is CCVVVVC. A syllable can begin with the following consonant clusters:

-r -l -h
p- pr pl -
t- tr tl th
k- kr kl -
b- br bl -
d- dr dl -
g- gr gl -

A syllable can end with and plosive. Syllable coda plosives are unreleased. A syllable can also end with a nasal, but the end of a word can never end in an /n/, unless it is a loan word. A syllable can also end in /s, l/.

Vowel HarmonyEdit

In Classical Ghulghadian, there was strong vowel harmony of front vowels and back vowels. The vowel harmony rules no longer apply to Modern Ghulghadian words, but it is good to know the rules. 

Front

/ɜ, oeɯ, i/

Back

/a, ɔ, u, ɪ/

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Nouns No No No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes No Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

NounsEdit

Nouns do not have any grammatical gender, number, case, or articles. Number must be interpreted from context. This is similar to languages like Chinese, Japanese and Vietnamese. If number is important, it can be indicated by adding a quantity. For example the noun gam can mean country, countries, a country, some countries, the country, the countries. 

PronounsEdit

In Modern Ghulghadian, there are many pronouns that can be used in different situations for some pronouns there are honorific versions.


VocabularyEdit


No. English
1I
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name


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