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Morlagoan

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Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Nouns No Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No Yes Yes No No No No No
Numbers No Yes No No No No No No
Participles No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No Yes No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No
Morlagoan
Mórlagost
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Nominative-accusative
Head direction
Initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
None
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


SettingEdit

Morlagoan is one of the four official languages of the United Islands of Morlago. It is an a priori conlang, with influences from Chinese, English and Spanish in its lexicon.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-
dental
Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar Labio-
velar
Glottal
Plosive p b t d k g
Affricate t͡s t͡ʃ d͡ʒ
Fricative f v s z ʃ ʒ x h
Nasal m n ɲ
Tap / flap ɾ
Approximant l j w

Note:

  • ʃ ʒ may be palatalized to ɕ ʑ before front vowels, especially before i and u
  • n becomes ŋ before k g
  • some dialects contrast ɾ (tap) with r (trill)
  • word-initial voiceless plosives are aspirated

Voiced vs. unvoicedEdit

Morlagoan consonants are divided into two groups: voiced and unvoiced. This distinction is not the same as the voiced-voiceless distinction in linguistics, and so they are also called dark and light, or hard and soft. This distinction plays a role in Morlagoan grammar, most importantly in determining case and definiteness of nouns (explaned below).

Voiced b d g j jh l m n ny q v w y z
Unvoiced p t k x ch - - - - h f Ø s c

As you can see, there are a few voiced consonants that have no unvoiced counterparts, and both s and c voice to z. W is the voiced counterpart of the null initial, i.e. syllable beginning with a

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
Close i y u
Mid e ø ə o
Open a

The exact pronunciation of the mid vowels can vary from close-mid to open-mid. For most speakers, they change according to the phonological context of the vowel as this variety does not constitute ambiguity or confusion with the other vowels.

Pronunciation and OrthographyEdit

Morlagoan uses the Latin alphabet, with the addition of three digraphs ch, ny and jh.

VowelsEdit

Letter Name IPA of Name IPA of Pronunciation Example IPA English approximation
A a aye /'aje/ /a/ atún many /a'tun/ father
E e eke /'eke/ /e/ etöj star /'etøʒ/ bed
Ë ë ëná /ə'na/ /ə/ payë days /'pajə/ ago
I i isa /'isa/ /i/ hizok to drink /'hizok/ be
O o o /o/ /o/ mottal sun /'mot:al/ hot
U u u /u/ /u/ normally uga evening /'uga/ moo
/w/ in a vowel cluster puas wood /'pwas/ wine
Ü ü ü /y/ /y/ eftükru year /ef'tykru/ none; French tu

ConsonantsEdit

Letter Name IPA of Name IPA of Pronunciation Example IPA English approximation
B b /b/
C c /t͡s/ cot book /'t͡sot/ cats; Japanese tsuki
Ch ch /t͡ʃ/ choga to leave /'t͡ʃoga/ chin
D d /d/ dehak to know /'dehak/ dear
F f /f/ friana moon /'fɾi'ana/ fire
G g /g/ gosa beautiful /'gosa/ good
H h /h/ normally hizuk to drink /'hizuk/ home
silent word-finally muah hot /'mwa/ -
J j /ʒ/ jamare to call /ʒa'maɾe/ vision
Jh jh /d͡ʒ/
K k /k/
L l /l/ luç light /luʃ/ lake
M m /m/ mel water /'mel/ mat
N n /n/ noche night /not͡ʃe/ no
Ny ny /ɲ/ nyagrë although /'ɲagɾə/ canyon; Spanish uña
P p /p/ pórec pig /'poɾek/ spin
Q q /x/

qabanuk

to sacrifice

/xa'banuk/ loch
R r /ɾ/ rúa road /'ɾu.a/ mirror (Scottish English)
S s /s/ normally sayém four /sa'jem/ sin
/ʃ/ in a cluster shin
T t /t/ teisin kingdom /'teisin/ stick
V v /v/ vúltëma knife /'vultəma/ vain
W w /w/ woho owl /'woʔo/ went
X x /ʃ/ xauti last /'ʃauti/ shin
Y y /j/ yais only /'jais/ yes
Z z /z/ beza beast /'beza/ zoo

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

Morlagoan nouns decline according to case, number and definiteness, but not gender. There are five cases in Morlagoan: nominative, accusative, dative, genitive and instrumental.

DeclensionsEdit

All regular Morlagoan nouns follow the same declension pattern. Using friana (moon) and genchak (meeting) as examples:

Case Change Friana Genchak
Nominative none friana genchak
Accusative +(ë)n frianan genchakën
Dative initial unvoiced friana kgenchak
Genitive +(ë)r frianar genchakër
Instrumental +(ë)s frianas

genchakës

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