| Name: Mucáfa
Type: language isolate
Number of genders: 3
Mucáfa is spoken by the abandoned humans on the barely hospitable Earth in the 26th century, after being left behind by the richer population, which now lives in space. After three centuries of isolation, the language has evolved into one that barely resembles any other language that has ever existed. About 58% of the world's population speaks Mucáfa, while an isolated 30% speak a changing form of Chinese and another 11% speak post-Diaspora colloquial English. 1% of peoples still suggested to exist and speak forms Spanish and Arabic have not been discovered yet.
|Plosives||p b||t d||c ɟ||k g|
|Trills||ʙ̥ ʙ||r̥ r|
the alphabet is a modified Latin alphabet; previously Mucáfa had a complex character system that has been forgotten for hundreds of years.
|IPA value||alphabet symbol||IPA value||alphabet symbol|
An acute accent over a vowel means that it is accented. A circumflex accent is used for the R-colored vowels. Otherwise the stress is on the first syllable. Stress remains on the same syllable no matter how a word is declined.
Word structure is (C)(C)V(C), with all voiceless fricative-plosives, e.g. /st/ or /fk/ or fricative-nasal, e.g. /sn/ or /xm/ sequences, excluding combinations of palatals and non-palatals (e.g. /ɕp/ is not valid) acceptable for the first two consonants. A syllable may not end in a palatal consonant, an approximant other than /ɹ/, or a voiceless trill. If the vowel is rhotic, then the structure is (C)(C)V. Only back vowels and /a/ may be followed with the alveolar approximant /r/; if a situation arises in which /e/, /i/, or /ɪ/ is inflected into a position before <r>, the spelling shall remain the same, but the vowel shall be r-colored.
Each noun is assigned one of 4 genders: Living (such as "plant": Laqa), Sapient (such as "human": Arvyn), Inanimate (such as "corpse": Veye), and Imaginary (such as "magic": Kesly). Each gender has its own vowel combination for the last two syllables. This distinction is lost in the genitive and locative cases.
Mucáfa nouns decline according to case and number. There are 4 cases in Mucáfa: Nominative, Accusative, Dative, Genitive, Locative. All Mucáfa nouns have at least two syllables, which plays a crucial role in its case declension. The last two vowels of the word, which are determined by the 4 genders, are declined. Here are the following possibilities, with the genders shown in the first column:
|Laqa (living , -a-a)||Laqå (-a-å)||Leqa (-e-a)||Låqoy (-a-oy)||Layqa (-ay-a)|
|Arvyn (sapient, -a-y)||Arvun (-a-u)||Ervyn (-e-y)||Arvoyn(-a-oy)||Arhvyn (-ay-y)|
|Veye (inanimate, -e-e)||Veyo (-e-o)||Viye (-i-e)||Veyoy (-e-oy)||Vayye (-ay-e)|
|Kesly (imaginary, -e-y)||Keslu (-e-u)||Kisly (-i-y)||Kesloy (-e-oy)||Kaysly (-ay-y)|
Singular nouns that end in consonants are made plural by adding <-a> to the end. Singular nouns that end in vowels are made plural by adding <-qi>. The plural endings are unaffected by case declension.
Almost all adjectives have at least two syllables, just like nouns. They may be placed before or after the nouns they describe; placing adjectives after emphasizes the adjective, placing adjectives before emphasizes the noun. The last two vowels of an adjective match the last two vowels of the noun it describes for singular nouns; for plural nouns, the plural ending is ignored. The only exceptions are the following unchanging adjectives; these do not decline, and must come before the noun: