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| Mvöihłòxt |
|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
This is very much so a work in progress, so bear with me... >.>
Mvöihłòxt, [ṽɤi̭ʟ̊ɔχt̠], anglicized Vailoqt
|Nasal||m̊ m||n̟̊ n̟||n̠̊ n̠||ɲ̊ ɲ||ŋ̊ ŋ|
|Plosive||pʰ b||t̟ʰ d̟||t̠ʰ d̠||cʰ ɟ||kʰ g||ʔ|
|Fricative||f v||h̪͆||s z||ʃ ʒ||ç ʝ||x ɣ|
|Approximant||ȷ̊ j||ʍ̈ ẅ||h|
|Flap or tap||ɾ|
|Lateral fric.||ɬ̟ ɮ̟|
|Lateral app.||l̟̊ l̟||ʎ̊ ʎ||ʟ̊ ʟ|
|High-mid||e ø||ɤ o|
- in some dialects, vowels may become allophonically nasal when preceded by a nasal(ized) consonant or /!/; in these dialects, /a/ becomes [æ̃] when nasal
- /i/ and /ʉ/ become backed to [ɨ] and [u] when adjacent to a velar or uvular consonant
Mvöihłòxt utilizes numerous diphthongs. Following is a chart of possible diphthongs, with initial components on the first column and secondary components on the first row; headers are in IPA and cells are in orthography.
|M m||/m/||G g||/g/|
|HM hm||/m̊/||X x||/x/|
|P p||/pʰ/||Q q||/ɣ/|
|B b||/b/||L l||/l̟/|
|F f||/f/||HL hl||/l̟̊/|
|V v||/v/||Λ λ||/ʎ/|
|Ń ń||/n̟/||HΛ hλ||/ʎ̊/|
|HŃ hń||/n̟̊/||Ł ł||/ʟ/|
|Ŧ ŧ||/t̟ʰ/||HŁ hł||/ʟ̊/|
|Đ đ||/d̟/||R r||/ɾ/|
|Θ θ||/ɬ̟/||HR hr||/r̊/|
|Ʒ ʒ||/ɮ̟/||H h, Ḣ ḣ||/h/|
|Z z||/z/||Ħ ħ||/h̪͆/|
|HN hn||/n̠̊/||Y y||/j/|
|T t||/t̠ʰ/||HY hy||/ȷ̊/|
|D d||/d̠/||W w||/ẅ/|
|Ś ś||/ʃ/||HW hw||/ʍ̈/|
|Ź ź||/ʒ/||A a||/ä/|
|Ñ ñ||/ɲ/||Ä ä||/ə/|
|HÑ hñ||/ɲ̊/||E e||/e/|
|C c||/cʰ/||È è||/ɛ/|
|J j||/ɟ/||I i||/i/|
|Ç ç||/ç/||O o||/o/|
|Ĵ ĵ||/ʝ/||Ö ö||/ɤ/|
|Ŋ ŋ||/ŋ/||Ò ò||/ɔ/|
|HŊ hŋ||/ŋ̊/||Ø ø||/ø/|
|K k||/kʰ/||U u||/ʉ/|
- <Ḣ ḣ> may be used to distinguish the consonant /h/ from a component of a digraph if clarification is necessary.
Syllables in Mvöihłòxt are of the form (C)(C)C(Y)V(C)(C), where C is a consonant, Y is a glide, and V is a vowel or diphthong. /!/ may not occur in the coda. Initial consonant clusters can be in the form of OO, NO, SO, OL, OS, OOL, OOS, SOL, SN, NL, or SNL, where O is an obstruent, N is a nasal, L is a liquid, and S is a sibilant. Codal clusters may be in the form OO, SO, OS, LO, LS, NS, or NO. /h/, /h̪͆/ and /!/ may not form clusters.
Allophony and SandhiEdit
All consonants in a cluster must be either voiced or unvoiced (agreeing with the voicing of the first consonant of the second morpheme). When an NO cluster begins a word, it becomes reduced to either a mere nasal stop if the obstruent is a voiced plosive, or a nasalized fricative if the obstruent was a voiced fricative; otherwise the nasal is elided. When postalveolars are followed by front vowels, they become palatal, and when palatals are followed by back vowels, they become postalveolars. Voiceless plosives become fricatives intervocalically, though not if the following vowel is open. Interdental plosives become linguolabial before rounded vowels, and glottal stops following plosives form ejectives. An /h/ following a plosive affricatizes that consonant, and also devoices voiced consonants, but is then elided. In a series of two voiced plosives, the first plosive becomes a nasal. Velar fricatives become uvular when adjacent to back vowels, and voiceless plosives become deaspirated when not followed by a vowel.
Nouns decline for five cases: ergative (also called active or agentive), absolutive (also called passive or patientive), dative, genitive, and prepositional; and three numbers: singular, dual, and plural.
Verbs conjugate for four tenses: present, past, future, and general; for two aspects: perfective and imperfective; nine moods: indicative, conditional, subjunctive, desiderative, necessitative, hypothetical, imperative, jussive, and interrogative (the latter three do not have independent markers but are marked by rearranging other markers); and agree with their subject's and object's person, gender, and number.
Mvöihłòxt pronouns come in four persons: first, second, third, and fourth; three numbers: singular, dual, and plural; and 5 cases: active, passive, dative, genitive, and prepositional. Pronouns in the first and second persons do not have active or passive cases, and pronouns in the first person as well as dual and plural pronouns do not distinguish gender. Dual and plural first person pronouns do not distinguish clusivity, but there is a three-tiered T-V distinction in the second person singular.
- Ènbraθisxäeŧ Mvöihłòxcèź.
- "I [male] speak Vailoqt." IPA: [ɛn̠bɾaɬ̟isxəḙt̟ ṽɤi̭ʟ̊ɔχcʰɛʒ]