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Mygdållaðr

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Mygdållaðr
mygdɒllɑðə
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Tripartite
Head direction
Final
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
2
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Mygdållaðr is a language spoken in the northern lands, where there is much plague, famine, and war. The name Mygdållaðr means "mouth release" or "mind release", because Myg can take on both meanings. Many terms for specific materials are borrowed from Theubeg because the northern tribes do not have the technology necessary for said materials. The winters are harsh and barren, while the summers are hot and filled with packs of ravenous animals picking the already scarce food supply dry.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p b t d k g
Fricative β f v θ ð s ʃ ɣ h
Affricate
Approximant j w
Trill
Flap or tap ɾ
Lateral fric.
Lateral app. l
Lateral flap

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i y ɯ
Near-close ɪ ʏ
Close-mid ø o
Mid ə
Open-mid ʌ
Near-open æ
Open ɑ ɒ

TranscriptionEdit

IPA Transcription
i i
y y
ɯ u
ɪ e
ʏ é
ø ø
o o
ʌ ó
æ æ
ɑ a
ɒ å
ə r
m m
n n
ŋ ŋ
p p
b b
t t
d d
k k
g g
β β
f f
v v
θ þ
ð ð
s s
ʃ š
ɣ ǧ
h h
j j
w w
ɾ r
l l
  • The vowel /ə/ only occurs at the end of neutral case nouns and must not be confused with the alveolar tap /ɾ/.
  • The consonant /β/ is rare and often mistaken with the consonant /v/, the distinction is only maintained in written manuscripts with the subsequent homophones replaced in day to day speech.

PhonotacticsEdit

The main syllables are V, CV, and CVS. V is any vowel, C is any consonant, and S is any stop/plosive. CV(l), CV(s), or CV(n) can only occur if the next consonant is the same, and the CV(n), CV(ng), CV(ð), and CV(r) syllables can only occur at the end of a word not counting affixes. No more than two adjacent V syllables can occur. There are three states of stress realized by pitch accent: stressed, unstressed, and rising stress. Stops can be aspirated or unaspirated depending on the speaker. Adjacent identical stops geminate, and the first of a pair of different stops cannot aspirate. The default stress pattern is the first syllable stressed and then the second unstressed, and so on. If the syllable is before a geminated consonant, it is always stressed. If there are two of such syllables adjacent to each other, the second syllable is rising stress. This pattern repeats if there are more geminate syllables. Voice, definiteness, and number prefixes are not taken into account on the stress pattern and are unstressed by default. Single V syllables without adjacent vowels also fall into this category. Conjunctions have variable stress and are the opposite of the syllable before them.

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No Yes No Yes No Yes
Nouns Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes No
Adjectives No No No No No No No Yes
Numbers Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes No
Adpositions No Yes No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

NounsEdit

Nouns use prefixes to denote voice and definiteness, and suffixes to denote case, number, and gender. The voice prefix is only attached to the subject and precedes the definiteness prefix. The definiteness prefix is y, and the prefix for marking passive voice is van. The default voice is always active. Cases that modify other words precede the modified word. The following table is a paradigm of the animate noun ataŋr, which means bear.

Case Collective Singulative Dual Plural
Neutral ataŋr ataŋ ataŋrrar ataŋrne
Ergative ataŋnir ataŋnur ataŋaran ataŋþå
Accusative ataŋi ataŋnor ataŋto ataŋnér
Absolutive ataŋtun ataŋnóþe ataŋšød ataŋjor
Genitive ataŋmå ataŋsir ataŋven ataŋþing
Dative ataŋðæ ataŋæo ataŋker ataŋéege

The following table is a paradigm of the inanimate noun koǧaðr, which means rock.

Case Collective Singulative Dual Plural
Neutral koǧaðr koǧað koǧaðrne koǧaðrbo
Ergative koǧaðfar koǧaðmi koǧaðtora koǧaðråd
Accusative koǧaðror koǧaðmut koǧaðronnun koǧaðturin
Absolutive koǧaðnan koǧaðgor koǧaðvannen koǧaðþag
Genitive koǧaðrolli koǧaðmir koǧaðtig koǧaðþoror
Dative koǧaðhud koǧaðtur koǧaðrad koǧaðuo

If the case can be implied, proper nouns usually revert to the neutral singulative case or the neutral collective case in a sentence.

DerivationsEdit

Nouns must always end with a final consonant to accommodate the suffix system. There are several derivational suffixes to change the word class or alter the meaning. The following table is a paradigm of the noun jagtirr, meaning book.

Word Derivation English
jagtir noun to adjective in the manner of a book
jagtirjud noun to characteristic adjective resembling a book
jagtirmop noun to qualitative adjective quality like that of a book
jagtiråþen noun to movement verb to open a book
jagtirtomon noun to usage verb to turn a page of a book
jagtiranir noun to prolonged action verb to study a book intensely
jagtirøðet noun to causative verb to make into a book
jagtirfogog noun to repetition verb to reread a book
jagtirholenr noun to place noun library
jagtirdødr noun to collection noun book collection
jagtirtygr noun to inhabitant noun book dweller
jagtirsaŋr noun to associated tool noun book-binding glue
jagtirfutr noun to negative noun firewood
jagtirvodr noun to augmentative noun great book
jagtirananr noun to diminutive noun bookie
jagtiršek noun to demonym adjective bookian

VerbsEdit

Verbs use ablaut usually located in the last syllable to denote tense, and have a limited number of moods indicated by prefix. The pronomial object of the verb can be expressed using a series of suffixes. Aspect is expressed by attaching either helping verbs or adjectives to elaborate on the tense. Verbs can be made transitive or intransitive by forming compound verbs. The words attached after the verb to form a compound verb serve the purpose of adpositions.

TenseEdit

There are two distinct patterns of ablaut split into back vowel endings and front vowel endings. The following table is a paradigm of front and back vowel verbs and their different tense forms. The near future and recent past tenses can be altered to nonrecent and far future tenses with the time specific negative prefix jon.

Hesternal Past

(yesterday)

Matutinal Past

(this morning)

Recent Past

(in the last few days)

Immediate Past

(just now)

Nonpast

(either present or future)

Immediate Future

(right now)

Near Future

(soon)

Crastinal Future

(tomorrow)

tyredi

(to run)

tyredu tyredå tyredó tyreduu tyredi tyredóó tyreda tyredo
boksåt

(to eat)

boksit bokset boksyt boksét boksåt boksiite boksæt boksøt

AspectEdit

The following are some common helping verbs and adjectives used to denote aspect. Other constructions can also express these aspects, but most have become archaic.

Aspect Adjective/Verb(s)
perfective or infinitive unmarked
progressive tygho

(to go on)

stative hallahor

(to continue to be)

habitual huri

(habitual)

MoodEdit

The following moods can be expressed by prefixes, although their usage has become dated and relegated to literary works. Speakers usually omit these prefixes in favor of the ending interjection.

Mood Prefix
indicative unmarked
subjunctive vån
conditional o
imperative kan
interrogative by
  • The subjunctive indicates a possiblility of the verb to happen.
  • The conditional mood forms a subclause without the need for a conjunction.

Pronoun ObjectEdit

If the object of the sentence is a pronoun, it can be expressed by attaching the appropriate suffix.

Person Animate Inanimate
First Person Singular u n/a
First Person Inclusive dir n/a
First Person Exclusive gir n/a
Second Person Singular é i
Second Person Plural kog san
Third Person Singular a ó
Third Person Plural kir natø
Fourth Person
Verb Referent jir jir
Subject Referent ða ðid
Object Referent hin hin

Compound VerbsEdit

There are several common morphemes that serve the purpose of creating an equivalent of a postpositional phrase, with the rest of the construction occurring before the verb. The ablaut pattern still applies to the original verb. Compound verbs may be further compounded to The following table is a paradigm of the verb hallo, which means to walk.

Compound Verb English Example
hallohiŋ to walk-near mahållegr hallohiŋ

to walk while near a house

hallowyn to walk-beside mahållegr hallowyn

to walk while next to a house

halloveŋ to walk-inside mahållegr halloveŋ

to walk while inside a house

hallowiden to walk-between mahållegrbo hallowiden

to walk while between houses

hallonuder to walk-location mahållegr hallonuder

to walk while at a house

hallokótton to walk-contact mahållegr hallokótton

to walk while touching a house

hallomujé to walk-below mahållegr hallomujé

to walk while under a house

hallogopten to walk-surface mahållegr hallogopten

to walk while on top of a house

hallonun to walk-away mahållegr hallonun

to walk away from a house

hallogoptennun to walk-surface-away mahållegr hallogoptennun

to walk away from on top of a house

hallovegden to walk-beginning mahållegr hallovegden

to walk beginning from a house

hallojodnå to walk-goal mahållegr hallojodnå

to walk to a house

halloseggir to walk-shelter mahållegr halloseggir

to walk into a house

hallojykke to walk-hide mahållegr hallojykke

to walk on top of/under a house

hallovojøn to walk-an ending mahållegr hallovojøn

to walk as far as a house

halloben to walk-tunnel mahållegr halloben

to walk through a house

hallomansøt to walk-ledge mahållegr hallomansøt

to walk along a house

hallotogyr to walk-use mahållegr hallotogyr

to walk by way of a house

hallopetån to walk-bridge mahållegr hallopetån

to walk across a house

hallohét to walk-hour tati yhét hallohét

to walk at the seventh hour

hallovyŋ to walk-time tat hétrbo hallovyŋ

to walk for seven hours

hallojonnek to walk-date soŋþoror yhik hallojonnek

to walk on the Day of Stars

hallomiŋ to walk-relate ykatopmen ki mahållegr hallojodnåmiŋ*

to walk to the merchant concerning a house

hallohunir to walk-fear ymahålleg hallohunir

to walk avoiding the house

hallogubød to walk-benefit ymahålleg hallogubød

to walk for the house

hallobunnór to walk-reason ymahålleg hallobunnór

to walk because of the house

hallogutti to walk-reward mahållegr hallogutti

to walk for a house

hallowodir to walk-company konunr hallowodir

to walk with a friend

hallodi to walk-piece tat hétrbo ki mahållegr hallovyŋdi*

to walk for seven hours per house

hallomin to walk-interval hikr hallomin

to walk daily

hallovathur to walk-tool fikketr hallovathur

to walk equipped with a stick

hallovuhug to walk-be possessed ymahålleg hallojodnåvuhug

to walk to the owned house

hallohug to walk-possess ymahålleg ki ykatopmen hallojodnåhug

to walk to the house owned by the merchant

halloþenir to walk-absent konunr halloþenir

to walk without a friend

hallolannað to walk-be similar fikketr hallolannað

to walk like a stick

halloǧat to walk-group mahållegr ki duripr halloguttiǧat*

to walk for a house along with a cellar

  • The conjunction ki is used to link together two or more postpositional phrases.

DerivationsEdit

Other word classes and meanings can be derived from verbs through various affixes. The following table is a paradigm of the verb tæd, meaning to burn (intransitive).

Word Derivation English
otæd verb to adjective burnable
satæd verb to participle burned
mytæd verb to transitive verb to burn (transitive)
vumytæd verb to intransitive verb to be burned (intransitive)
tædlonr verb to actvity noun act of burning
tædjønr verb to specific action noun a burning
kitædnikr verb to agent noun burner
tædsónr verb to patient noun burnee
etædvinr verb to manner noun manner of burning
atædnokr verb to ability noun ability of burning
tæddarr verb to result noun burn
tædnutr verb to object noun gunpowder
sutæd verb to negative verb unburn
fytæd verb to supine verb did to burn

CopulaEdit

The first copula is the verb y and serves the purpose of linking subject and predicate as an essential characteristic. The second copula is the verb oli and serves the purpose of linking subject and predicate as a temporary state. The second copula's first syllable can be inflected for aspect instead of being modified by aspect adjectives as follows:

Copula Aspect
oli perfective
ili progressive
óli stative
æli habitual

PostpositionsEdit

There are several postpositions borrowed from Theubeg that are attached to the noun and placed before the modified word.

Postposition Usage
móbe being as
sóbkemæzó comparable to
suknóso temporarily being as
dipo shaped as
šegin from being as
lineminæ identical to
sótóte oriented towards
nopóðo oriented backwards to
lotegpæ turning into
gepu after
pet before
wineðe during

AdjectivesEdit

The adjectives are attached before the modified word. The standard adjective order is as follows:

  1. Head Noun
  2. Noun Adjunct
  3. Proper Adjective
  4. Qualifier
  5. Intensifier
  6. Quantifier (placed in front of head noun if there is a demonstrative)
  7. Demonstrative

Example:

døn ho vær dyronšek wigmå kahekr gudin

this very small Dyronian mine bird some

some of these very small Dyronian birds of mine.

IntensifiersEdit

Intensifier English
ho very
ma somewhat
nije not at all
jor most
muhon least
gigo too

DerivationsEdit

Other word classes and meanings can be derived from adjectives through various affixes. The following table is a paradigm of the adjective ginå, meaning honest.

Word Derivation English
ginånr* adjective to noun honesty
niginå adjective to verb to make honest
ginåy adjective to semblative adjective somewhat honest
ginånu adjective to comparative adjective more honest
ginånuu adjective to elative adjective even more honest
ginånot adjective to superlative adjective most honest
eginåki adjective to negative adjective dishonest
  • The n is only added if the adjective does not have a final consonant.

NumbersEdit

Mygdållaðr uses a base ten numeral system. Numbers can act as adjectives or nouns. The numbers can be used to count order by adding the suffix i.

Number Meaning
jøt one
li two
ša three
šyn four
u five
lóg six
tat seven
dad eight
gud nine
ten
hijo hundred
sojo thousand
meni ten thousand
mæt* hundred thousand
wit* million
  • Cognate with a Theubeg number.

Pro-formEdit

PronounsEdit

Pronouns are inflected and declined for person and gender from the pronoun mydr.

Person Animate Inanimate
First Person Singular mydr n/a
First Person Inclusive modr n/a
First Person Exclusive modwenr n/a
Second Person Singular médr midanr
Second Person Plural mérr misanr
Third Person Singular madr módr
Third Person Plural makr matønr
Fourth Person mødr mysønr
Verb Referent midðinr midðinr
Subject Referent midr myðidr
Object Referent minr minr
  • If a verb referent is used as a noun, it refers to the previous compound verb's modifying word.

Pro-verbsEdit

The three pro-verbs are:

  • to do - simot
  • to be - tolo
  • to use - togyr

Pro-adjectivesEdit

The only pro-adjective is soke, which is borrowed from Theubeg and means like so, or in this way.

CorrelativesEdit

This table contains the different interrogatives, demonstratives, and quantifiers. The correlatives can serve as irregular nouns. The ones derived from Theubeg are considered more formal.

Interrogative Proximal Medial Distal Existential Elective Universal Negatory Alternative
Determiner vit

what

døn

kokot*

this

gut

jógki*

that

fan

šoper*

yon

gudin

šunæt*

some

værin

any

fonnod

dækóp*

every

hig

no

vun

another

Animate vattig

who

døn

kokot*

this

gut

jógki*

that

fan

šoper*

yon

rathin

gudinnog

šunætnog*

someone

durat

værinnog

anyone

fonnodnog

everyone

hignog

no one

vikfir

someone else

Inanimate valur

what

den

this

gad

that

fon

yon

rotjen

gudinvær

šunætvær*

something

værinvær

anything

jakid

fonnodvær

dækópvær*

everything

higvær

nothing

vosuŋ

something else

Dual lavon

which of the pair

dønbor

this one

gutbor

that one

fanbor

yon one

bor

one

værinbor

either

lebor

both

lehig

neither

vunbor

other

Plural vaŋ

which out of many

dønbor

this one

gutbor

that one

fanbor

yon one

bor

one

gudin

some

værin

any

tugon

each

higbor

none

vun

another

Location vollip

tošó*

where

dorir

here

gafan

there

føt

yonder

vikaŋ

somewhere

huvan

anywhere

hellab

everywhere

higvollip

higtošó*

nowhere

vunvollip

elsewhere

Source voron

kale*

whence

dig

hence

gab

thence

feg

yence

vawon

somewhence

hotir

værinkale*

whence

hofiŋ

everywhence

higvoron

higkale*

nowhence

vunvoron

elsewhence

Goal vesuŋ

jóllæ*

whither

dusod

hither

gosod

thither

finsod

yither

vosig

gudinjóllæ*

somewhither

hagallin

anywhither

tugon

everywhither

higvesuŋ

higjóllæ*

nowhither

vunvesuŋ

elsewhither

Time valurvyŋ

toji*

when

dønvyŋ

now

gutvyŋ

then

fanvyŋ

yen

gudinvyŋ

sometime

værinvyŋ

anytime

fonnodvyŋ

everytime

higvyŋ

never

vunvyŋ

elsewhen

Manner vob

mæmó*

how

dub

thus

got

thereby

feb

yonderby

gudinvob

somehow

værinvob

anyhow

hobot

everyway

higvob

no way

valler

otherwise

Reason vored

suti*

why

dunned

herefore

genet

therefore

fared

yonderfore

olor

somefore

værinbed

anyfore

fonnodbed

everyfore

higbed

nofore

vunbed

elsefore

Amount viven

kekiku*

what amount

dønken

this amount

gutken

that amount

fanken

yon amount

gudinken

some amount

værinken

any amount

fonnodken

every amount

higken

no amount

vunken

another amount

  • Cognate with a Theubeg correlative.

Other common quantifiers are listed as follows:

Quantifier English
foþen many (more than ten)
mannag very many (more than fifty)
dædhe* few
gofon even
idig odd
tæsedu* quarter
sopet half
pisot double
hujon triple
la paired
le pair as a whole
  • Cognate with a Theubeg quantifier.

InterjectionsEdit

The interjection ee is the main interjection placed at the end of a sentence that conveys mood and some modality. The interjection can be omitted and the particular stress moved to the last syllable of the last word of the sentence if the meaning can be easily inferred. Other ending interjections are listed in the following table as well, although they cannot be omitted. Some obsolete stress patterns are preserved in the interjections.

Interjection Stress Usage
n/a n/a indicative
ee unstressed emphasized indicative
ee stressed subjunctive
ee half rising stressed conditional
ee falling stressed imperative
ee rising stressed interrogative
åå dipping stressed mild surprise
åå stressed surprise
åå unstressed doubt
rising stressed want
falling stressed necessary
dipping stressed unneccessary
stressed possible
unstressed impossible
vy stressed probable
vy unstressed improbable

ConjunctionsEdit

Conjunctions link clauses or words/phrases together, with the conjunction coming before the word/phrase it forms a phrase with. Conjunction phrases are mostly placed after the modified.

Conjunction Usage
veri presents rationale (word)
to lists items or ideas (word)
ror presents alternative item or idea (word or clause)
tali presents consequence (word)
wenva start time or location to end (word)
jan presents noncontrasting items or ideas (clause)
janolli forms a dependent clause with the same referent (clause)
hok presents noncontrasting negative items or ideas (clause)
gatte presents contrast or exception (clause)
šin presents consequence (clause)
ige relativizer (clause)
afur conditional (clause)
ki postpositional link (word)

SyntaxEdit

Mygdållaðr has a word order of VSO. Relative clauses are formed by relativizer conjunctions. Other conjunctions form different subclauses if necessary.

Example textEdit

The Vit Acrostic/SongEdit

vit topr munnengubød yhåb

what person.col to-ring-benefit.npst def.bell

For what man does the bell ring?

RESPONSE: ili dannegmi farólonror

prog.cop.npst death.inan.sgv.erg act-of-harvesting.col.acc

Death is harvesting.

vattig suknun bymérþå

who to-run-away.npst int.2p.an.pro.pl.erg

Who do you all run away from?

RESPONSE

valur hallohunir anån

what to-walk-fear.npst light

What does light walk avoiding?

RESPONSE

lavon hapšigwodir ymad

with-which-of-pair to-play-chess-company.npst def.3s.an

With which of the pair does he play chess?

RESPONSE

vaŋ mahållegrbo senben ysån

which-of-many house.inan.pl to-pass-tunnel.npst def.shadow

Which of many houses does the shadow pass through?

RESPONSE

(The next lines of the poem are usually not included in the song)

vollip tag ydannegmi

Where does the death dwell?

hellab tag dannegmi

Death dwells everywhere.

voron tolo hinnermi

Whence does a corpse exist?

hofiŋ tolo dannegmi

Every source death exists.

vesuŋ suk vollóŋmi

Whither do dreams run?

tugon suk dannegmi

Every goal death runs.

valurvyŋ vo yvyŋmi

When does the time end?

fonnodvyŋ y dannegmi

Every time is death.

vob kapte vasiŋmi

How does a serf work?

hobot kapte dannegmi

Every way death works.

vored suguni mérmi

Why do you struggle?

fonnodbed suguni danneg

Every reason death toils.

See alsoEdit

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