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Næniusk

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Endonym: Næniusk [ˈnæ̃.ȵʏsk]

English equivalent: Begonian

Classification: A priori

Type: Agglutinative

Morphosyntactic alignment: Tripartite

Head Direction: Final

Word order: SOV

Tonal: No

Gender: Yes (Abstract, Non-Abstract)

Conjugation: Yes

According to: Person, Number, Tense, Mood

Declension: Yes

According to: Number, Case


Some of the IPA transcriptions may not be fully accurate/up-to-date, as I keep fixing about pronounciation details.

SettingEdit

(First draft, not necessarily coherent yet LOL)

Næniusk (endonym) is the official language of Begonia, one of 33 countries of a fictional seventh 21st-century continent. Each of these countries is thought to represent now-former classmates. Those people who are in “cliques” are thought to have languages related to each other and form a genealogic family. Which is why Næniusk has the status of an isolate (*forever alone*). Many Begonian words can be considered loanwords from languages of neighboring countries, especially for completely unknown concepts for the Begonian community such as "extrovertism, friend", etc.

Begonia itself is situated in the northeast of this continent with subarctic climate, approximately 4,5 to 5 million inhabitants with two major cities and economic centres called Kargana (capital, ~480k people) and Byrnu (~550k). The country has been first settled in the late 8th century and was first mentioned some 300 years later as the result of the merging of two minor states called Kargis and Byran (hence the city names, and the development of a dual number) – nowadays there’s a mostly friendly rivalry between those two, especially visible in sport competitions. During the late Medieval age until the 17th century Begonian armed forces fought a violent war against attackers from Hattuku, which was eventually won and integrated into the country. Hattukan language stood out by having an elaborate set of ejectives and pharyngealized sounds, which influenced the Begonian language and were for a short time integrated as separate phonemes, but relatively quickly dropped – however voiceless plosives may appear geminate in writing (only ones to do so within the same morpheme along with < r >) which still points to this. Also many dialects kept pharyngealization and a bunch of other distinctive features in the region of back-then Hattuku.

(flag, coat of arms and map to be added soon)

Desired Aesthetics

Næniusk is aimed to be a fusion of North Germanic Scandinavian languages, Turkish, Basque and some own ideas. Whether that’s reality, I dunno.

Phonology Edit

ConsonantsEdit

bilabial

(labio)dental

alveolar

post-alveolar

alveolo-palatal

palatal

velar

glottal

b, p

< b, p >

 

d, t

< d, t >

 

ȡ, ȶ

< ḍ, ṭ >

 

g, k

< g, k >

 

 

ð, θ

<ð, Þ>

z, s

<z, s>

ʒ, ʃ

<ž, š>

ʑ, ɕ

<ż, ṡ>

 

x <x, ch>

h <h>

(ɦ)

 

xw<ẋ>

 

 

d͡z, t͡s

<dz, c>

d͡ʒ, t͡ʃ

<dž, č>

ȡ͡ʑ, ȶ͡ɕ

<dż, ċ>

 

 

 

m <m>

 

n <n>

 

ȵ <ň>

 

 

 

 

 

ɾ <r>

 

 

 

 

 

 

ʋ <v>

 

 

 

j <j>

 

 

 

 

l̥ ~ ɬ <ll>

l <l>

 

 

 

 

 

AllophonyEdit

Phoneme

Surrounding

Allophones

Comments

/b, d, ȡ, g/

Intervocalic

[β̞ ð̞ j+  j/ɰ]

May also be the correspondent fricatives for /b, d/. In words with more than one intervocalic lenis stop, only the last one is changed to an approximant/fricative.

V_#

[-Ø-]

 

/x/

Intervocalic

[ɣ]

Intervocalic, front vowels

[ç, ʝ]

Dialectal

[χ]

/xʷ/, /ʍ/

Dialectal

[ʋ̥], [θ], [ɕw], [ç], [ɣw], [ɧ], [χw], [ħw], [hw]

These two are in free variation. The sounds developed from [ɧ], which some speakers still use.

/n/

Preceding Obstruent with PoA X

[n] with PoA X

E.g. [ng] becomes [ŋg]; doesn’t apply if it follows a bilabial or alveolo-palatal sound.

/m, n, ȵ/

Preceding voiceless plosive/affricate

[m̥, n̥, ȵ̥]

< mp, nt, ňṭ, nk > are realized as [m̥p], [n̥t], [ȵ̥ȶ], [ŋ̊k], respectively.

/l, l̥~ɬ/

Back vowels

[l̴, l̴̥ ~ ɬˠ]

 

/(+voiced, +obstruent)/

Preceding voiceless obstruent

[(-voiced)]

Also happens vice versa.

/ɾ/

 

[r], [ʀ], [ʁ].

Free variation.

Preceding /d, t/

[r]

 

/(+coronal)/ (C1)

Preceding a coronal sound with different PoA (C2) and 1same MoA, 2different MoA

1[-Ø-]

2[(+coronal)] with PoA of C2

Back vowels (Dialectal)

[(+coronal, pharyngealized)]

Many dialects still obtain the pharyngeal fricative [ħ], and contrast it with [h]. Also many speakers pharyngealize many sounds when in the environment of back vowels: [ðʕ], [zʕ], [ʑʕ], [ʒʕ], [lʕ], [l̥ʕ], [nʕ], etc.

/g, k/

Preceding front vowels /i, y, e, ø/

[ʑ]/[ɕ]

[ki, ky, ke, kø, gi, gy, ge, gø] are represented as <kui, kuy, koe, koø, gui, guy, goe, goø>.

/(+alveolar)/

Preceding < j > or a < i(V)(C) > sequence

[(+alveolo-palatal)]

<nj, ni(V)(C)> [ȵ], <lj, li(V)(C)> [ȴ], <tj, ti(V)(C)> [ȶ], <sj, si(V)(C)> [ɕ], <zj, zi(V)(C)> [ʑ], <llj, lli(V)(C)> [ȴ̥], etc.

/h/

[ɕ]1/[ʑ]2

The former if in stressed syllable or word-initial, otherwise the latter.

/j/

Preceding /y/ or [ʏ].

[ɥ]

 

/j, ʋ/

_C, _#

[ɪ, ʊ]

/F(+coronal)(k,g)/

Preceding 1voiceless obstruent, 2voiced obstruent

1[ɰ̥~ɣ], 2[j~ɰ]

Only in unstressed position.

  • Earlier stages of Begonian used phonemic ejectives. This is still visible in modern-day writing, as voiceless plosives can appear geminate in writing within the same morpheme – this however has no effect on pronounciation. The alveolo-palatal ejective was often realized as [ç’] or sometimes [ɕ’], [x’] or [χ’], which has retained in some dialects for <ṭṭ> and < kk >.
  • Plosives and affricates tend to be aspirated if word-initial or in a stressed syllable, preaspirated if following vowels and unaspirated when in the environment of consonants or at the end of a word. There’s a more detailed description regarding aspiration further below.
  • /xʷ~ʍ/ has a variety of graphemic representations other than < >: < sk, skj, stj, tj, chj >
  • [f] and [v] only appear in loanwords and are usually replaced by /ʋ/, /ð/ and/or /θ/.
  • An epenthetic [ɦ] is added when the minimum syllable structure cannot be fulfilled.

VowelsEdit

MonophthongsEdit

 

Front

Central

Back

Close

i, y  < i, y >

ɨ < iu, ui >

u < u >

Close-Mid

e, ø < e, ø >

 

o < o >

Open-Mid

æ < æ >

 

ʌ < oi >

Open

a < a >

 

ɒ < å >


DiphthongsEdit

Additionally, Begonian employs the following diphthongs:

[aʊ̯]/[aɯ̯] <á>
[eæ̯]/[ɛæ̯] <é>
[iə̯]/ə̯] <í>
[ɔʊ̯] <ó>
[ʊu̯] <ú>
[yɵ̯]/[ʏɵ̯] <ý>

AllophonyEdit

  1. /ɨ/ has the allophone [ʉ] after sounds with a labialized quality.
  2. Nasal consonants cause the preceding vowels to be nasalized.
  3. An unrounded vowel is rounded if it directly precedes a rounded one. And vice versa.
  4. /ɒ/ is in free variation with [ɔ].
  5. The slashes indicate there are two main dialectal realizations. Some dialects reduce the diphthongs to its first vowel.
  6. /æ/ at the beginning of a word is written as <ae>.

Stressed

Unstressed

Monophthongs

Plain

_N

_C (+lab)

_C (+cor)

_C (+vel)

_/h/

 

/a/

[æ̃]

[a]

[æ]

[ɑ]

[a]

[a, ɐ] 4

/æ/

[ɛ]

[æ̠]

[æ]

[æ, œ] 4

/e/

[ɪ̃]

[e]

[ɛ]

[e]

[ɪ, ə] 2

/ø/

[ʏ̃]

[ø]

[ø]

[œ]

/i/

[ĩ]

[aɪ̯]

[i]

[e̝]

[aɪ̯]

[ɪ, i, aɪ̯] 1

/y/

[ỹ]

[y]

[y]

[ø̝]

[y]

[y]

/ɨ/

[ɨ]

[ɘ]

[ɨ]

/u/

[ũ]

[ʉ]

[u]

[o̝]

[u]

[ʏ] 3

/o/

[ʊ̃]

[ʊ̞]

[o]

[ɔ]

[ʊ] 3

/ʌ/

[ɤ̃]

[ʌ̟]

[ʌ]

[ʌ̞]

[ɑ]

[ʌ]

/ɒ/

[ɔ̃]

[ɒ̈]

[ɒ]

Diphthongs

Stressed (Plain)

Unstressed

/aʊ̯/

[ɒː]

/ɛæ̯/

[ɛː]

/ɪə̯/

[ɪː]

/ɔʊ̯/

[ɔː]

/ʊu̯/

[ʊː]

/ʏɵ̯/

[ʏː]

1Can only happen when both adjacent syllables do not contain any of the diphthongs listed above. Furthermore, this transformation does not occur if an unstressed < i > is preceded by < ku, gu > or < bb, dd, ḍḍ, gg >. If neither are true and this occurs more than once between two stressed syllables in a single word, only the first unstressed /i/ is changed to [aɪ̯].

2If there are more than one unstressed /e/ between two stressed syllables, only the first one is changed to [ı]. Unstressed /e/ in the final syllable of a trisyllabic word is changed to [ə]. In disyllabic words in can become either [ə] or [ı]. The transformation cannot occur if < e > is preceded by < ko, go > or < bb, dd, ḍḍ, gg >

3See Rule 2 above. (just replace /e/ with /ø/, and [ı] with [œ], etc.)

4Only occurs in the final syllable of a word.

Syllable structureEdit

(C)(C)[CV/VC/CVC](C); with V being either (M)M or (M)D (M ~ monophthong, D ~ dipththong)

The minimum syllable is CM or MC – and epenthetic [ɦ] is added if needed to keep up with that.

Phonotactical restrictionsEdit

Forbidden sequence

Repair mechanism

Comments

CCCC

Inserting the preceding vowel.

The position of the epenthetic vowel always lies between morpheme boundaries.

PP

FP

P ~ Plosive, F ~ Fricative

PN

FN

N ~ Nasal

MMM

M[n]MM or MM[n]M

M ~ monophtong

The position of the epenthetic [n] depends on morpheme boundaries.

How the language handles diphthong clashes is explained in 3.1.2

/b, p, m/ + /ʋ/

[(+bilabial)(V)ʋ]

V ~ Nucleus of previous syllable 

/xw/ + C

[x(C)ʷ]

For example: /xwk/ --> [xkw]

/P(+coronal)/ + /l/

[F(+coronal)] + /l/

 

/g, k/ + /x, ʍ/

[ŋɣ, ŋ̊x] / [ŋɣʷ/ŋw, ŋ̊xʷ/ŋ̊ʍ]

May also be solved by inserting the preceding vowel if in onset of stressed syllable.

The graphemic representation remains unaltered.

  • /k/ may not appear in both onset and coda with /a/ in the nucleus.
In this case, also the orthographic representation is adapted.
  • All phonemes except for [xw] and [h] can appear word-terminally.

Legal Onset Clusters Edit

For all allowed C1C2C3 clusters is valid: C1C2 and C2C3 are allowed too.

Position

#_CC

#C_C

#CC_

P

F (-velar)

APPR, T

P (-velar)

F

APPR

F (-coronal)

T

P (-coronal)

/l/

/j/

F

P

/j/, T

P (-coronal)

/l/

P (+velar)

/ʋ/

N

/j/

/m/

/l/, T

/l/

/j/

F (+coronal)

F (+velar)

APPR, T

#_C

#C_

F

AF

AF

P, /x/, /h/, N, APPR

/m/

F (+voiced or +velar)

Legal Coda Clusters

_C#

C_#

F

P (-labial)

/s, z/

/b, p/

N

P (-labial)

/m/

/b, p/

T

/d, t, k/

APPR

P (-voice, -labial)

N

/s, z/

T

F (-alveolo-palatal, -glottal)

/ʋ/

F

/l/

F (-alveolo-palatal, -glottal)

/j/

/s, z/

T, /j/

N

/l/

/m/

Any of the three affricates and all vowels except /æ, ø, ɒ, ʌ/ can appear word-finally.

P = Plosive, F = Fricative, AF = Affricate (counts as two consonants), N = Nasal, T = Trill, APPR = Approximant

Note that there allophonic processes for certain clusters which are allowed in writing.

Stress/Prosodic FeaturesEdit

Stress is usually conveyed with a rising, or rising/falling tone, depending on the speaker:

  1. In words with three syllables or fewer, there’s always slight stress on the first syllable.
  2. In words with more than three syllables, the first and fourth syllable are being stressed.
  3. In clusters of affixes, the first syllable is being stressed, independently of where stress is placed in the root of the word:
  • SW1-SW2-SF1-SF2 would have its stress on the first and third syllable
  • SW1-SW2-SW3-SW4-SW5-SF1-SF2 on the first, fourth and sixth
  • SF1-SF2-SW1-SW2-SF1-SF2-SF3 on the first, third and fifth

(SW = syllable in the root, SF = syllable in the affix cluster.)

AspirationEdit

  1. Can only fall on /p, t, ȶ, k/ or the correspondent affricates.
  2. First /p, t, ȶ, k/ of a word is preaspirated, unless it is in the onset of a stressed syllable (which is when it it (post)aspirated) or in the coda of the last syllable (which is where there’s no aspiration at all).
  3. If any of the four mentioned sounds appear together with another consonant, aspiration is blocked altogether.
  4. Preaspiration and non-aspiration are always in alternation: < tata > would be [thata], < tatata > would be [thatahta], < natata > would be [nahtata],  < natatat > would be [nahtatat], < nanatat > would be [nanahtat], < natanatatat > would be [nahtanathatat], < tatantatatata > would be [thatantathatahta]. Bold signalizes stressed syllables.
  5. Additional < h > changes the aspiration sequence: While < natatat > would be [nahtatat], < natahtat > would be [natahtat].
  6. Preaspiration can’t fall on syllables with /h/ in the onset.

Orthography (Not Yet Developed)Edit

Romanized VersionEdit

< p, t, ṭ, k, r > can appear geminated within the same morpheme. Additionally < m, n > can appear geminated at morpheme boundaries. All other vowels and consonants are always represented with monographs.

Native Script SystemEdit

Not yet developed, but aimed to be a mix of a few hundred logographic signs, syllabary and a separate set of signs for grammatical information.

Historic DevelopmentEdit

ConsonantsEdit

 

bilabial

(labio)dental

alveolar

retroflex

velar

glottal

normal

pal.

Pl

b, p

< b, p >

 

d, t

< d, t >

dj, tj

< ḍ, ṭ >

ɖ, ʈ

< d, t >

g, k

< g, k >

 

Fr

β, ɸ

<w, f>

 

z, s

<z, s>

zj, sj

<ż, ṡ>

ʐ, ʂ

<ž, š>

x <x>

h <h>

(ɦ)

 

ɧ <ẋ>

Affr

 

 

d͡z, t͡s

<dz, c>

d͡zj, t͡sj <dż, ċ>

d͡ʐ, t͡ʂ

<dž, č>

 

 

Na

m <m>

 

n <n>

nj <ň>

 

 

 

Fl

 

 

ɾ <r>

 

 

 

 

Trill

 

 

r <rr>

rj <ř>

 

 

 

Appr

 

v <v>

 

j <j>

 

 

 

LAppr

 

 

l̥ ~ ɬ <ll>

l <l>

j ~ ɬj <ľľ>

lj <ľ>

 

 

 

Above is the phonemic inventory of Old Begonian:

  1. The palatalized alveolar series has shifted into alveolo-palatal; palatalized r, l and voiceless l were lost on the way.
  2. The retroflex series has moved to post-alveolar; the plosives were lost on the way.
  3. The bilabial fricatives have shifted over labio-dental to dental.
  4. The labio-dental voiced fricative has changed into an approximant.
  5. The coarticulated palatal-velar fricative has changed into a labialized velar fricative and/or voiceless labio-velar approximant. (free variation)
  6. The alveolar trill and flap have merged.

Furthermore, the Begonian phoneme inventory also included ejectives and pharyngealized vowels (as result of influence from another language) but they have been dropped off standard language rather quickly, however are still present in many dialects. < r > can appear geminate within the same morpheme in modern Begonian, which points to historic < rr > for /r/.

VowelsEdit

At its earliest recorded stage, Begonian employed three cardinal vowels and phonemic length contrast:

 

Front

Back

Close

i i:  < i í >

u u: < u ú >

Open

a a: < a á >

 

At this stage /i i:/ and /u u:/ had the allophones [e e:] and [o o:] respectively around velar sounds, which later on attained phonemic status:

 

Front

Back

Close

i i:  < i í >

u u: < u ú >

Close-Mid

e e: < e é >

o o: < o ó >

Open

a a: < a á >

 

/u u:/ and /o o:/ then were contrasted with its front rounded counterparts and vowel harmony developed. At the same time, long vowels started changing into its modern diphthongized versions.

 

Front

Near-Front

Near-Back

Back

Close

i y  < i y >

 

 

u < u >

Close-Mid

e ø < e ø >

(ɪə̯ ʏɵ̯ <í ý>)

(ʊu̯ < ú >)

o < o >

Open-Mid

(ɛæ̯ œæ̯ <é ǿ>)

 

 

(ɔʊ̯ < ó >)

Open

a aʊ̯ < a á >

 

 

 

/ɨ/, /ʌ/ and /ɒ/ developped as the result of coarticulation of /i/ + /u/, /i/ + /o/ and /a/ + /o/ respectively (as is reflected by orthography). /œæ̯/ went from /æ:/ to modern /æ/ - resulting into the current vowel inventory overall.

(Pro) NounsEdit

DeclensionEdit

Declension of the noun <hjem> [ɕẽm]

DECLENSION PARADIGM

singular

dual

plural

intranstive (abs.)

hjem

hjem(-hó)

hjemþa (-þa)

ergative

hjemeg (-og)

hjemhég (-hóg)

hjemþég (-þóg)

genitive

hjemín (-ún)

hjemhín (-hún)

hjemþín (-þún)

dative

hjemis (-us)

hjemhís (-hús)

hjemþís (-þús)

accusative

hjemi (-u)

hjemhéi (-hóu)

hjemþi (-þu)

instrumental

hjemæn (-oin)

hjemhæn (-hoin)

hjemþæn (-þoin)

comitative

hjemý (-ú)

hjem(-hú)

hjemþý (-þú)

essive

hjemiut

hjemhiut (-hiut)

hjemþiut

comparative

hjemix (-ux)

hjemhéx (-hóux)

hjemþix (-þux)

abessive

hjemned (-nud)

hjemhéd (-hód)

hjemþed (-þud)

adessive

hjemøst (-ost)

hjemhøst (-host)

hjemþøst (-þost)

allative

hjeména (-óna)

hjemhéna (-hóna)

hjemþéna (-þóna)

inessive

hjeméc (-óc)

hjemhéc (-hóc)

hjemþéc (-þóc)

superessive

hjemys (-us)

hjemhys (-hus)

hjemþys (-þus)

subessive

hjemæs (-ois)

hjemhæs (-hois)

hjemþæs (-þois)

apudessive

hjem

hjemháð (-hóð)

hjemþáð (-þóð)

ablative

hjemik (-uk)

hjemrhik (-huk)

hjemþik (-þuk)

perlative

hjemvát (-vút)

hjemhát (-hút)

hjemþát (-þút)

prolative

hjemvét (-vót)

hjemhét (-hót)

hjemþét (-þót)

terminative

hjemáp (-úp)

hjemháp (-húp)

hjem'þáp' (-þúp)

semblative

hjemílus (-úlus)

hjemhílus (-húlus)

hjemþílus (-þúlus)

translative

hjemuit

hjemhuit

hjemþuit

causative

hjemdag

hjemhag

hjemþag

benefactive

hjemí (-ú)

hjem(-hú)

hjemþí (-þú)

temporative

ségjabar = at 6 o’clock

  • The declension depends on whether the nucleus of the last syllable in the root is front (then the blue endings apply) or back (then the green endings apply.) If the ending contains only central vowels, no differentiation is made.
  • Benefactive is becoming increasingly archaic and can be replaced by the dative.
  • Begonian differentiates between dual and plural (more than 2). -h(é)- is the duality marker, while -þ- is the plurality marker.
  • Begonian is an ergative language – meaning that a suffix (here: -eg) has to be added to signalize that the following verb is (di)transitive.

Vowel HarmonyEdit

Front

Neutral

Back

/i, y/

/ɨ/

/u/

/e, ø/

 

/o/

/æ/

 

/

/a/

/ɒ/

If the root of the last syllable in the root contains /a/ or /ɨ/ the choice which of the two sets of endings to use is free.

Some speakers choose [a] for /a/ after front vowels and [ɑ] after back vowels.

Morphonological rulesEdit

Underlying Representation

Surface Representation

Comments

…-RM-SV-… (verbs)

…-RM-…

f.e.: koiti + -ól --> koitól

…-RM-SM-… (nouns)

1RM is one of < a, e, i, o, u, y >

2RM is one of <æ, ø, iu/ui, oi, å>

1…-SM-…

2…-RM-…

1f.e.: byna + -is --> bynis

byna + -ås --> bynås

2f.e.: bynå + is --> bynås

exception:

f.e.: bynå + i --> bynåi

(if the affix consists only of a single monophthong)

…-RM-SD-… (nouns)

1RM is one of < a, e, i, o, u, y >

2RM is one of <æ, ø, iu/ui, oi, å>

1…-SD-…

2…-RM-SD-…

1f.e.: byna + -ín --> bynín

2f.e.: bynå + ín --> bynåín

…-AM-RV-…

…-RV-…

f.e.: pe + aldri --> paldri

f.e.: pe + åldri --> påldri

1…-AD-RM-…

2…-AD-RD-…

1…-AD-(n)-RM

2…-AM-(n)-RD-…

1f.e.: pé + aldri --> penaldri

1f.e.: pé + åldri --> pénåldri

2f.e.: pé + áldri --> pénáldri

1…-RD-SM-…

1…-RM-SM-…

1f.e.: tuló + ys --> tuloys

2…-RD-SD-…

2…-RM-SD-…

2f.e.: tuló + ín --> tuloín

…-RM-SM-…

both M are one of <æ, ø, iu/ui, oi, å> each

…-RM-SM-…

(two syllables)

f.e.: bynå + øs --> bynåøs /ˈby.nɒˌøs/

…-D-D-… (both D are the same)

…-D-…

f.e.: hééna --> héna

  • RM = monophthong in the root
  • RD = diphthong in the root
  • V = encompasses both mono- and diphthongs
  • AM/AD = mono-/diphthong in an affix
  • SM/SD = mono-/diphthong in a suffix

PossessionEdit

Words like “my”, “your”, etc. are expressed in suffixes: <kåmpjuter>

 

Singular

Dual

Plural

1. Prs.

kåmpjuteret (-ot)

kåmpjuterét (-ót)

kåmpjuterit (-ut)

2. Prs.

kåmpjuteren (-on)

kåmpjuterén (-ón)

kåmpjuterin (-un)

3. Prs.

kåmpjuter(-)

kåmpjuteréň (-óň)

kåmpjuter(-)

If possession and case markers combine, possession markers precede the case markers, e.g.:

without my two computers: kåmpjuter-et-hé-ned vs.

without our (two) computer: kåmpjuter-ét-ned vs.

without our (two) two computers: kåmpjuter-ét-hé-ned

This gives two possibilities for expressing possession which have gained contrasting function:

Néreteg hågoňu énáta iþbatrak.

[ˈnɛæ̯.ɾɪˌtʰe ˈhɒ.jʊˌn̠ʲu ˈɦɛæ̯.naʊ̯.ʰtɐ ˈiθ.bɐʰt.ɾɐk]

brother-(SG-1.POSS)-ERG pencil-(SG-3.POSS)-ACC NEG-give.INF AUX.(3.ERG-1.SG.DO-3.SG.IO.NONABSTR)

nera-e-t-eg hågu-o-ň-u é-áta iþ-bat-rak

= My brother wouldn’t give me his (= the brother’s) pencil.

Néreteg naiddín hågu énáta iþbatrak.

brother-(SG-1.POSS)-ERG 3-GEN pencil-ACC NEG-give.INF AUX.(3.ERG-1.SG.DO-3.SG.IO.NONABSTR)

nera-e-t-eg naidd-ín hågu-u é-áta iþ-bat-rak

= My brother wouldn’t give me his (= someone else than the brother’s) pencil.

Pronominal Pronouns Edit

 

Singular

Dual

Plural

1. Prs.

mæna

mæriň

vílþa

2. Prs.

niu

nuid1

niulen

3. Prs.

egis3

ád (abstract4)

egem

ád2 (abstract)

egeþa

ádþa (abstract)

  1. Differentiation between singular and dual only in spelling.
  2. No differentiation between singular and dual.
  3. No differentiation in gender.  
  4. "Ád" is used to refer exclusively to syntactic information like statements, questions, etc and intangible things. Tangible inanimate objects would be referred to with “egis”. (Abstract/Non-Abstract Distinction)

Begonian further gives the possibility to differentiate between inclusive and exclusive “we”: Inclusive “we”/vílþa is the standard usage, to express that the speaker himself is not included, add the postposition: “mæsvned”, which in total means as much as “We without me”.

Declension of pronominal pronouns:

Absolutive

Ergative, Genitive, ...

mæna

mæsveg, mæsvín,…

mæriň

mæsteg, mæstín,…

vílþa

mæþeg, mæþín,…

niu

tuveg, tuvín,…

nuid

tuvheeg, tuvheín,…

niulen

tuþveg, tuþvín,…

egis

naiddeg, naiddín,…

egem

naiheg, naihín,…

egeþa

naiþeg, naiþín,…

Declension of personal pronouns do not follow the vowel harmony behind the declension of open class words.

Negation is yielded by prefixing “é-“ to whichever part of the sentence should be negated (negation on the verb is unmarked); however negated personal pronouns may be irregular and have their own negated forms:

 

SG

DUAL

PL

1Prs

múk

(regular)

múþ

2Prs

(regular)

néliu

3Prs

zát

nén (abstract)

(regular)

Múkoeg vøgorakpél.

[ˈmʊu̯.ʰke ˈʋø.jʊˌɾax.pɛæ̯l]

NEG.1-ERG eat-(3.IO)-PST-SG-1

múk-eg vøgo-rak-p-é-l

= It wasn’t me, who ate it.

vs. unmarked:

Mæsveg évøgorakpél.

1-ERG NEG-eat-(3.IO)-PST-SG-1

mæsv-eg é-vøgo-rak-p-é-l

= I didn’t eat it.

Naiddeg néni ṡordpak.

[ˈnaɪ̯.də ˈnɛæ̯.ni ˈɕor.pɐk]

3-ERG NEG.3.ABSTR-ACC work_on/improve-PST-SG-3

naidd-eg nén-i ṡord-p-a-k

= It wasn’t that, what he improved.

= He didn’t improve that.

Also, Næniusk has a specific word for “Me and him/her, the person being addressed excluded” (muin) as opposed to “Me and you, the person being addressed included” (mæriň):

Muineg hárani ápy púmytparhak.

[ˈmɨ.nə ˈhaʊ̯.ɾaˌni ˈɦaʊ̯.ʰpy ˈpʰʊu̯.mys.paɾˌhak]

1.and.3-ERG film-ACC NDEF watch=like-DUAL-SG-3

muin-eg hárany-i ápy púmyt=par-h-ak

= We (me and him/her) enjoy watching films.

Relative pronouns Edit

who

ésta (ésteg, éstín, …)

which (abstract)

áti (áteg, átín, …)

Relative pronouns have to be put at the very ending of a subordinate clause (optionally initiated by the particle ak) and follow the same declension as nouns:


Jást pek ak ómi banrakpél éstæn sísk.

[ˈjaʊ̯st pʰɛkɑˈkʰɔʊ̯mi ˈbæ̃n.ɾaxˌpʰɛæ̯l ˈɛæ̯s.tæ̃n ˈsɪə̯sk]

DEM man-ABS (PART) DEM-ACC make-(3.ACC.IO)-PST-SG-1 REL-INSTR be.3.SG

jást pek-0 (ak) óm-i ban-rak-p-é-l ést-æn sísk.

= This is the man with whom I’ve made this.

Demonstrative pronounsEdit

this/that

jást (jásteg, jástín, …)

these/those (two)

jést (jésteg, jéstín, …)

these/those (more than two)

þos (jáþeg, jáþín, …)

There is no differentiation between whether the object being referred to is close to the speaker or further away. <Óm (ómeg, ómín, …)> can be used to refer to objects from previous sentences or objects that are very far away (comparable to German “jene”). Moreover, it serves as contrast:

Jást cútjevát émvátparól... hrak énóm cútjevát.

[ˈjaʊ̯st ˈt͡sʊu̯.ʰt̠ʲɪˌʋaʊ̯ˈtɛæ̯.mæ.ʋaʊ̯ʰtˌpa.ɾɔʊ̯l | hraˈkʰɛæ̯.nɔ̃ʊ̯̃m ˈt͡sʊu̯.ʰt̠ʲɪˌʋaʊ̯t]

DEM park-PERL go_about=like-SG-1 | but NEG-DEM park-PERL

jást cútje-vát émvát=par-ó-l | hrak é-óm cútje-vát

= I enjoy walking through this park... but not through that one (park).

Numbers & QuantifiersEdit

Begonian employs a base-8 number system:

1

yt

2

3

uþk

4

oxe

5

þam

6

ségja

7

żbak

8

buň

9

ytuň

10

cúň

17

ytåt

25

coåt

32

uþkåt

64

pyk

65

pykyt

128

cópyk

512

buňpyk

1024

drán

2046

códrán

8192

bæstaň

Nowadays it is usual to employ loanwords for common number terms like million (miljon), billion (miljar) or trillion (biljon). Objects are in singular number with "yt", "ytuň", "ytåt", etc., in dual number with "có", "cúň", "coåt" etc. and in plural number with any other number, including zero (akoén).

Quantifiers

temeň

few, little

timet

fewer, less; least

tihák

some, moderately many

tesym

many

cymít

more; most

vøk, hagni

every, all

hjól

none


Cardinals (suffixing “-ys”)

ytys, cóys, uþkoys, etc.

first, second, third, etc. (literally: in one, in two, etc.)

Fractionals (with “ergo” (= tail) + Perlative)

1.8

buň ergovát yt

13.35

oxåtuþk ergovát þamuň

special cases: Diminutive + Number

1/2

tixcó (DIM-two)

1/4

tixoxet (DIM-four)

3/4

uþk tixoxetþa (three DIM-four-PL)

Operations: Addition (cymít), Substraction (timet), Multiplikation (cóty), Division (cótem) + “ja” (to be)

yt yt cymít có jyan

1+1=2 (one one addition two to_be.DUAL.3)

có có cóty éþam jaþa

2+2!=5 (two two multiplication NEG-five to_be.PL.3)

DefinitenessEdit

To express indefiniteness add the particle “ápy” (optional):

The computer: /kåmpjuter/

A computer: /kåmpjuter ápy/

Ápy is used when one wants to refer to something in general (e.g. as in “I love cats (ápy).”) or in a similar matter the indefinite article is used in English, but not as frequently: The object(s) referred to need to be even “more indefinite”.*

*really no idea how to explain that one more appropriately.

The house

koen

A house/Any house/Houses (in general)

koen ápy

The one house

yt koen

Any one house

yt koen ápy

This one house

yt jást koen

VerbsEdit

Verbs can begin and end with any phoneme, as long as the phonotactical rules aren’t breached. Basically it’s not possible to tell verbs apart from nouns in isolation.

Non-Finite FormsEdit

However, there are certain prefixes speakers can employ to signalize that he is using certain non-finite forms:

e.g. for <koati> [’khʌtaɪ̯] (grow, increase – intrans.), <rizan> [’ɾizɐn] (sit)

Indicative Presens

ókoiti, érizan

Irrealis Presens

šókoiti, šérizan

Indicative Past

pókoiti, périzan

Irrealis Past

špókoiti, špérizan

Indicative Future

stókoiti, stérizan

Again, one has to differentiate two different sets of prefixes that are used depending on whether it’s surrounded by front or back vowels.

ConjugationEdit

Agglutinative ConjugationEdit

Present IndicativeEdit

Basic verb conjugation in the present  tense (indicative) works as follows:

pres ind

SINGULAR

DUAL

PLURAL

1 prs

rizanél (ól)

rizanhél (hól)

rizanvél (vól)

2 prs

rizanýr (úr)

rizanhýr (húr)

rizanvýr (vúr)

3 prs

rizan(a)k

rizanhak

rizanvak

Indicative is used whenever something is likely to happen, happens regularly, or happens at the moment. When two vowels clash, the vowel of the root wins.

Present IrrealisEdit

Conjugation in the irrealis  mode – presens:

 pres irr

SINGULAR

DUAL

PLURAL

1 prs

rizanšél (šól)

rizanšhel (šhól)

rizanšvél (švól)

2 prs

rizanšýr (šúr)

rizanšhýr (šhúr)

rizanšvýr (švúr)

3 prs

rizanšak

rizanšhak

rizanšvak

The irrealis marker is –š.

This mode is used whenever one wants to express that one hopes/fears for something to happen, or would do something, thinks something is unlikely/impossible, or he’s not entirely sure whether something is to happen, or there’s not sufficient information etc.

Which affix to employ depends on whether it is surrounded by front or back vowels.

In the dual versions, <h> is pronounced as /x/.

Immediate Past IndicativeEdit

pst immed irr

SINGULAR

DUAL

PLURAL

1 prs

rizanpél (ól)

rizanþél (þól)

rizanþvél (þvól)

2 prs

rizanpýr (úr)

rizanþýr (þúr)

rizanþvýr (þvúr)

3 prs

rizanpak

rizanþak

rizanþvak

PST.IMMEDIATE is -p- in singular and -þ- for dual and plural. For this tense, the dual number is unmarked.

Remote Past IndicativeEdit

pst remote ind

SINGULAR

DUAL

PLURAL

1 prs

(mul) mylrizan

(móþ) méþrizan

(móv) mévrizan

2 prs

(mur) myrrizan

(múþ) mýþrizan

(múv) mývrizan

3 prs

(muk) mykrizan

(móþ) méþrizan

mávrizan

Immediate/Remote Distinction Edit

Basically, immediate past is used when the the action referred to has happened not too long before and still has consequences until speaker’s time. However, the definition of “not too long” is relative: One uses the immediate past to express that one thinks something happened not too long ago, so for the sentence:

“The last big war happened (only) 1000 years ago.” 

You would want to use the immediate past, when you think 1000 years is not much time in this case – or another example:

“Dinosaurs have gone extinct (only) 65 mil. years ago.”

…whereas one uses the remote past to express something happened a long time ago in relation to the context:

“Man, it’s been over 50 years since Schalke 04 last won the German championsship.” 

--> would warrant for the usage of the remote past, even though 50-odd years is by far not as long a time span as 1000 years or 65 million years.

To make things more drastic:

“I’ve already come home 3 hours ago (instead of, let’s say, 1 hour as expected).” 

--> would also warrant for the usage of the remote past.

Apart from a very few cases, you would never produce an ungrammtical sentence if you wrongly used the other past tense than intended, it’s just you’d express something else.

In sentences where more than one actions are being described and one happened before the other, you have to use the remote past for the former action and immediate past for the latter.

Immediate Past IrrealisEdit

pst immed irr

SINGULAR

DUAL

PLURAL

1 prs

rizanšpél (ól)

rizanšpél (þhól)

rizanšpál (úl)

2 prs

rizanšpýr (úr)

rizanšpýr (þhúr)

rizanšpár (úr)

3 prs

rizanšpak

rizanšpék (þhók)

rizanšpák (úk)

The plural marker for this tense/mood is -á-.

Remote Past IrrealisEdit

pst remote irr

SINGULAR

DUAL

PLURAL

1 prs

(šulšylrizan

(šóþšéþrizan

(móvšévrizan

2 prs

(šuršyrrizan

(šúþšýþrizan

(múvšývrizan

3 prs

(šukšykrizan

(šóþšéþrizan

'š'ávrizan

Immediate Future Edit

fut.immed

SINGULAR

DUAL

PLURAL

1 prs

rizanøč ()

rizanøče (oče)

rizan1 ()

2 prs

rizanøt (ot)

rizanut1 (ut)

rizanuren1 (uren)

3 prs

rizanø (o)

rizanød (od)

rizanøþa (oþa)

1Note that in these cases, vowel assimilation does not apply.

Also the future tense is special in that fusional endings are applied.

Distant FutureEdit

fut.dist

SINGULAR

DUAL

PLURAL

1 prs

rizanstél (stól)

rizansél (sól)

rizansál (súl)

2 prs

rizanstýr (stúr)

rizansýr (súr)

rizansár (súr)

3 prs

rizanstak

rizansak

rizansák (súk)

The rule behind the usage of the two future forms is similar to that of the past forms – if something happens soon in relation to the context, use the immediate form, otherwise use the distant form.

Irregular verbsEdit

ja (= to be) and goelja (= to have) have their own conjugation – for presens/indicative:

for pres.ind

SINGULAR

DUAL

PLURAL

1 prs

jaga/hánuga

jyan/hjan

javí/háví

2 prs

jiun/hániun

jyan/hjan

juiþí/hanþí

3 prs

sísk/hásk

jyan/hjan

jaþa/haþa

Note that a number of intransitive verbs have irregular past stems: The conjugation for these remains the same throughout, even when the past marker -p/þ- becomes redundant.

Periphrastic Conjugation

Mæsveg pekui pújemél.

1-ERG man-ACC see-SG-1

mæsv-eg pek-i pújem-é-l

= I see the man.

means the same as:

Mæsveg pekui (ó)pújem ikrak.

1-ERG man-ACC (PRES)-see.INF AUX.(1.ERG-3.ACC.IO)

mæsv-eg pek-i (ó)-pújem ik-rak

PPVA Paradigm

(Agent)

1Prs

2Prs

3Prs

non-abstr.

abstract

SG

ik-

ir-

iþ-

eþ-

DUAL

ak-

ar-

iš-

eš-

PL

ic-

ič-

is-

es-

PPVA Paradigm

(Direct Object)

1Prs

2Prs

3Prs

non-abstr.

abstract

SG

-ba(t)-

-be(t)-

-tar-

-car-

DUAL

-bå(t)-

-tår-

-cår-

PL

-be(t)-

-bé(t)-

-ter-

-cer-

PPVA Paradigm

(Indirect Object)

1Prs

2Prs

3Prs

non-abstr.

abstract

SG

-saň

-suň

-rak

-sak

DUAL

-såň

-råk

-såk

PL

-saň

-sáň

-rák

-sák

The auxiliary verbs in PPVA are always in the order Agent-Direct Object-Indirect Object:

Mæsveg pónáta iktårrak.

[ˈmæs.ʋə ˈpʰɔʊ̯.naʊ̯.ʰtɐ ˈix.tɒˌrak]

1-ERG PST-INF-give AUX.(1.SG.ERG-3.DO.DUAL-3.IO.SG.ABSTR)

mæsv-eg p-ó-áta ik-tår-rak

= I have given it to them two.

TAM

Tense/Aspect/Mood affixes are added to the non-finite part of this conjugation:

Mæsveg pekui pújem ikrak.

1-ERG man-ACC PST-see.INF AUX.(1.ERG-3.ACC.IO)

mæsv-eg pek-i -pújem ik-rak

= I saw the man.

Mæsveg pekui stópújem ikrak.

1-ERG man-ACC FUT-see.INF AUX.(1.ERG-3.ACC.IO)

mæsv-eg pek-i stó-pújem ik-rak

= I will see the man.

Mæsveg pekui pújemiv ikrak.

1-ERG man-ACC see.INF-PROG AUX.(1.ERG-3.ACC.IO)

mæsv-eg pek-i pújem-iv ik-rak

= I am seeing the man.

Note that in PPVA the immediate/remote distinction for future and past is lost.

Usage


  • The periphrastic alternative is preferred in sentences without or only with one subordinate clause, whereas the agglutinative alternative is found more frequently in more complicated sentences. Though neither way it'd be considered unacceptable.
  • Periphrastic conjugation cannot however be used in intransitive sentences.
  • PPVA endings can also be incorporated into finite verb forms for personal pronouns:

Néreňeg hjúc tiki idzixabetak.

[ˈnɛæ̯.ɾɪˌn̠ʲə ɕʊu̯t͡s ˈtʰi.kaɪ̯ ˈɦi.d͡zaɪ̯.ɣaˌbe.ʰtɐk]

sister-(SG-1.POSS)-ERG some chocolate-ACC ITER-buy-(1.DO.PL)-SG-3

néra-e-ň-eg hjúc tiki-i idz-ixa-bet-a-k

= My sister is buying us some chocolate again.

NegationEdit

In order to negate verb, just add /é(n)-/: /rizanél/ --> /érizanél, érizanýr/, ...

ImperativeEdit

There are three degrees of imperative used in colloquial speech:

Rizanšýr émbost bjékkuys.

Sit-IRR-SG-2 now place-SUPE

rizan-š-ý-r émbost bjékka-ys

= Please sit down now on this place. (most formal: Irrealis Mood)

Rizanøt émbost bjékkuys.

Sit-2.SG.FUT now place-SUPE

rizan-øt émbost bjékka-ys

= Sit down on this place now. (less formal: Future Tense)

Rizanýr émbost bjékkuys!

Sit-SG-2 now place-SUPE

rizan-ý-r émbost bjékka-ys

= Sit down on this place already! (least formal: Present Tense, Indicative Mood)

In sentences with imperatives, the verb goes first in word order.

GerundEdit

Gerund is formed by adding /-(i)lut-/ to the root of the verb and by adding the same endings as for nouns.

/rizanilut kjódza/ [’ɾizan,ilʏht ‘ɕɔʊdzɐ] (= the sitting boy, Abs.)

AspectEdit

Progressive/Atelic

-iv-/-uv-

Used when the action described has durative character (in combination with temporal adverbs), happens continuously/habitually or without specific goal/specifying that the action led to a certain result.

Iterative vs. Restitutive

idz-,  ill -

(prefix)

The former is used to express something happens frequently (can be combined with the progressive affix), the latter is used when an action reverts something into an old/former state, e.g.:

tádże = (to) treat, doctor so.

idztádże = (to) look after, take care of

illtádże = (to) heal

Ingressive/Inchoative

-ém-/-óm-

Used when an action is about to start or slowly begins to do so.

bjoga = (to) drive

bjogóma = (to) start the engine

Egressive

-ím-/-úm-

Used when an action slowly comes or is brought to an end:

bjogúma = (to) stop the car

Deliminative

tix-

Prefixed to a verb when an action is carried through only with little intensivity (identical with the diminuitive marker):

tixvøgopak = she ate (only) a little

Perfective/Imperfective

---

This distinction can be somewhat expressed through tense. Without any ado immediate past/future refer to completed actions and the remote versions to non-complete ones. The immediate tenses can be made express imperfectivity by adding the progressivity marker "-iv/-uv". The remote tenses can be made perfective through signal words like ðorúp (= until the end).

Ástjini jullapél.

bear-ACC shoot-PST-SG-1

ástjin-i julla-p-é-l

= I shot the bear (he’s dead now).

Ástjini jullapuvél.

bear-ACC shoot-PST-PROG-SG-1

ástjin-i julla-p-uv-é-l

= I was shooting at the bear (he may or may not be dead).

Voice & ValenceEdit

Begonian employs an antipassive voice:

Mæsveg halvadi pujamrakól.

[ˈmæs.ʋə ˈhæl.ʋaˌdi ˈpʰu.jãmˌɾɑ.ʰkʊːl]

1-ERG cat-ACC see-(3.ACC.IO)-PRS-IND-SG-1

mæsv-eg halvad-i pujam-rak-0-0-ó-l

= I see the cat.

or:

Mæsveg halvadi pujam iþrak.

[ˈmæs.ʋə ˈhæl.ʋaˌdi ˈpʰu.jɐ̃m ˈiθ.ɾɐk]

1-ERG cat-ACC PRS-see.INF AUX.(1.ERG-3.ACC.IO)

mæsv-eg halvad-i 0-pujam iþ-rak

= I see the cat.

becomes:

Mæna pujamjól.

[ˈmæ̃.nɐ ˈpʰu.jãmˌjɔʊ̯l]

1.ABS see-AP-PRS-IND-SG-1

mæna pujam-ja-0-0-ó-l

= I see. (literally)

The equivalent of "passive" sentences is formed by inserting the antipassive affix -ja- and deleting the patient of the active phrase. The patient can be optionally added in the causative case - and put after the verb. This poses an exception to the otherwise strict SOV order. If no specfic agent needs to be specified it can be left out and the verb of the sentence is in its correspondent non-finite form plus the antipassive marker.

There is another marker -épo- which signalizes something happens without the agent's control/volition/intention and works something like a medio-passive marker.

Increasing Valence:

There are two methods for this, which are used depending on volition:

Ak ástjini jullól ekui dágpak.

[ɑk ˈɦaʊ̯.ʍi.ni ˈju.ɬʊːˈl‿eʰ.ki ˈdaʊ̯x.pɐk]

CNJ bear-ACC shoot-SG-1 CNJ-ACC make_do-PST-SG-3

ak ástjin-i julla-ó-l ek-i dág-p-a-k

= She made me shoot the bear. (by force/without the object’s volition)

Ástjini naiddag julladagpél.

[ˈɦaʊ̯.ʍiˌni ˈnaɪ̯.dɐ ˈju.ɬaˌdɑx.pɛːl]

bear-ACC 3-CAUS shoot=make_do-PST-SG-3

ástjin-i naidd-dag julla=dag-p-é-l

= She made me shoot the bear. (with the object’s volition or consent)

EvidentialityEdit

Epistemic

ék- (prefix)

The speaker is convinced something happened.

-há-

Used when the speaker is not sure whether something happened or only has second-hand sources.

-džu-

The speaker is not entirely sure whether something happened but there are legit reasons for this assumption.

Evidentiality

ék-

Signalized when the speaker knows something, because it has been seen/heard/felt/etc. by the speaker himself or from other first-hand sources.

-byn-

Used when the speaker refers to common knowledge or assumptions; rough translation: “They say so...”; from “byna” = society

Deontic

-bå-

Signalized to express obligation.

-noid-

Signalized to express something should happen or that it would be better something happened or would be done.

-æl-

The speaker is allowed to do something, signalizes permission; from “aeltu” (can, be able to)

Begonian uses a wide array of lexical suffixes. For some verbs, both the incorporated and isolated version have to be learned.

Đexmeg pókui ápy pómrešilut ástjini jullahápak/ékjullapak.

[ˈðɛx.mə ˈpʰɔʊ̯.ki ˈɦaʊ̯.ʰpy ˈpʰɔ̃ʊ̯̃m.ɾɪˌʃi.lʏˈtʰaʊ̯.ʍiˌni ˈju.ɬa.haʊ̯ˌpʰɑk]

Police-ERG people-ACC NDEF PST-INF-kill-GER bear-ACC shoot=maybe/for_sure-PST-SG-3

ðexme-eg pók-i ápy p-ó-omreš-ilut ástjin-i (ék)-julla-há-p-a-k

= The police supposedly/definitely shot the bear who killed people.

Halvad ápy iṡukbynvak.

[ˈhæl.ʋɐ ˈɦaʊ̯.ʰpy ˈɦi.ɕʏɣ.bỹnˌʋɑk]

cat NDEF be_evil=they_say/society-PL-3

halvad-0 ápy iṡuk-byn-v-ak

= They say cats are evil.

Ástjini jullabåpél.

[ˈɦaʊ̯.ʍiˌni ˈju.ɬaˌbɒ̈.ʰpɛːl]

bear-ACC shoot=must-PST-SG-1

ástjin-i julla=bå-p-é-l

= I had to shoot the bear.

Túveg ástjini éjullanoidpýr.

[ˈtʰʊu̯.ʋɪ ˈɦaʊ̯.ʍiˌni ˈɦɛæ̯.jʏ.ɬaˌnʌs.pʏːɾ]

2-ERG bear-ACC NEG-shoot=should-PST-SG-2

túv-eg ástjin-i é-julla=noid-p-ý-r

= You shouldn’t have shot the bear.

Túveg ástjini ékoéjulluvpýr.

[ˈtʰʊu̯.ʋɪ ˈɦaʊ̯.ʍiˌni ˈɦɛæ̯.ʰkɛːˌju.ɬʏʊ̯ˌpʰʏɵ̯ɾ]

2-ERG bear-ACC definitely=NEG-shoot-PROG-PST-SG-2

túv-eg ástjin-i ék-é-julla-uv-p-ý-r

= You were definitely not shooting 'at the bear.

= I’m sure you weren't shooting at the bear.

Reflexivity & ReciprocalityEdit

To express reflexivity use "vax, vaxeg, vaxín,..." and add it right next to the subject it’s referring to. This at the same time works as the intensifier myself, yourself, etc. and as reciprocality marker:

Mæsveg vaxi lenumítpél.

[ˈmæs.ʋə ˈʋɑ.ɣaɪ̯ ˈlɪ̃.nʏ̃ˌmɪəs.pɛːl]

1-ERG REFL-ACC be_good-INT-PST-SG-1

mæsv-eg vax-i lenu-mít-p-é-l

= I improved myself.

Mæsveg vax lenumítpél.

[ˈmæs.ʋə ʋɑx ˈlɪ̃.nʏ̃ˌmɪəs.pɛːl]

1-ERG REFL be_good-INT-PST-SG-1

mæsv-eg vax-i lenu-mít-p-é-l

= I did the improving myself.

PPVA can express reflexivity itself:

Mæsveg pélenumít iksaň.

[ˈmæs.ʋə ˈpʰɛæ̯.lɪ.nʏˌmɪə̯t ˈe̝ʰk.sɐn̠ʲ]

1-ERG PST-INF-be_good-INT AUX.(1.ERG-1.ACC.IO)

mæsv-eg p-é-lenu-mít ik-saň

= I improved myself.

Reciprocality:

Mæþeg vaxí hakþvél.

[ˈmæ.θə ˈʋɑ.ɣɪː ˈhɑk.θʋɛːl]

1.PL-ERG RECP-BENE work-PST-PL-3

mæþ-eg vax-í hak-þ-v-él

= We worked for each other.

Participles

Verbal Noun

-aň

hvem (to love)

hvemaň (love)

Hvemaň zyrnok. (= Loving is healthy)

Verbal Adjective

ik-

axtam (to write)

ikaxtam (written)

Ikaxtam émpaṭ (written story)

Adjectival

-ár/-mán

axtamár (writer, author)

 

  1. "p-é-axtam-ilut" (PST-INF-buy-GER) would denote an object which bought (intrans.) in the past.
  2. Likewise, "st-é-axtam-ilut" (FUT-INF-buy-GER) is something that will buy in the future.
  3. "st-é-ik-axtam-ilut" (FUT-INF-ADJZ-buy-GER) denotes something that is to be bought in the future.

AdjectivesEdit

There's no affix or anything of the sort to mark a word as an adjective. Adjectives precede the things they describe and don't take any endings unless they work like nouns and form the head of a phrase.

AdverbsEdit

Adverbs are formed by adding the suffix /-es (front), -os (back)/: /mésto/ (fast, adj.) --> /ésmésto/ (fast, adverb).

/-ínus/ can be added to the root of the adjective to express similarity:

/kágillt/ (king) vs. /kágilltínus/ (king-like)

/-mán/ can be added to the root of the adjective to transform it into nouns:

/vaun/ (play) --> /vaunmán/

ComparisonsEdit

/-mít-/ forms the comparative form of adjectives:

/kágilltínusmít/ (more king-like)

Vaḍunmánog hjamulu ápy mæsthéix éskágilltínusmít myllnak.

[ʋæ.j̟ʏ̃n.mɒ̃ːˌnɔ ˈɕæ̃.mʏˌlu ˈɦaʊ̯.ʰpy ˈmæst.hɪˌe̝x ˈɦɛæ̯s.kɒː.ʑiɬˌtɪə̃.nʏs.mɪːt ˈmyɬ.nɐk]

play-NMLZ-ERG ball-ACC NDEF 1-DUAL-COMP ADV-king-SEMBL-COMP throw-SG-3

vaḍun-mán-og hjamul-u ápy mæst-hé-ix és-kágillt-ínus-mít myllny-a-k

= The player throws baseballs more king-like than us two.

There’s no separate superlative form – in order to express that someone is the best at something one uses the comparative form without comparing anyone:

Vaḍunmánog hjamulu ápy éskágilltínusmít myllnak.

= The player throws baseballs the most king-like.

= The player throws baseballs very king-like. (is another possible translation)

Equal Comparison

Vaḍunmánog hjamulu ápy mæsthéiut éskágilltínusmít myllnak.

[ʋæ.j̟ʏ̃n.mɒ̃ːˌnɔ ˈɕæ̃.mʏˌlu ˈɦaʊ̯.ʰpy ˈmæst.hɪˌɨt ˈɛæ̯s.kɒː.ʑiɬˌtɪə̃.nʏs.mɪːt ˈmyɬ.nɐk]

play-NMLZ-ERG ball-ACC NDEF 1-DUAL-ESSIVE ADV-king-SEMBL-COMP throw-SG-3

vaḍun-mán-og hjamul-u ápy mæst-hé-iut és-kágillt-ínus-mít myllny-a-k

= The player throws baseballs as king-like as us two.

Verbal PhrasesEdit

Lyðet vøgo aeltél ekuix cymít aldżari ixak.

[ˈly.ðɪt ˈʋœ.ɰʊ ˈæl.tɛːˈl‿e.ʰkɨx ˈt͡sỹ.mɪːt ˈæl.d͡ʑaˌɾi ˈɦi.ɣɐk]

friend-(SG-1.POSS) eat.INF can-SG-1 CNJ-COMP more cereal-ACC buy-SG-3

lyði-e-t vøgo aelt-é-l ek-ix cymít aldżar-i ixa-a-k

= My friend buys more cereal than I can eat.

DegreesEdit

Lyðet vøgo aeltél ekuix tesym [1] / temeň (2) cymít aldżari ixak.

friend-(SG-1.POSS) eat.INF can-SG-1 CNJ-COMP many/few more cereal-ACC buy-SG-3

lyði-e-t vøgo aelt-é-l ek-ix tesym/temeň cymít aldżar-i ixa-a-k

= My friend buys much (1)/a little bit (2) more cereal than I can eat.

Adjectival PhrasesEdit

hakluňú langius

beneficiary for work

work-BENE beneficiary

danjucún ápy hakluňú langius

beneficiary for the work of teachers

teacher-GEN NDEF work-BENE beneficiary

If the phrase contains no verbs, no conjunction has to be implemented.

méž langius

beneficiary to know

know.INF beneficiary

ak danjucún ápy hakluňu méž ek langius

beneficiary to know the work of teachers

CNJ teacher-GEN NDEF work-ACC know.INF CNJ-ABS beneficiary

énæpúr bérru

glad you came

come\PST-PST-SG-2 glad

ak jást bjékkéna énæpýr ek bérru

glad you came to this place

CNJ DEM place-ALL come\PST-PST-SG-2 CNJ-ABS glad

if the AP contains more than the head and one word, the conjuction “ak... ek” has to be used.

MorphologyEdit

Inflectional Morphology (Nouns, Adjectives)Edit

Opposite (un-)

én-

Lack (-less)

nád-

Abundance (-ful)

nól-

Friendliness (-phile)

-almán

Inhabitant (-er)

-mén

Diminuitive

tix-

Augmentative

-mít

(to be added)

Derivational MorphologyEdit

Verb

Noun

-aň

hvem (love, verb) --> hvemaň (love, noun)

Adjective

éc-

hvem --> échvem (lovely)

Noun

Verb

-Ø-

hlóþa (sports) --> hlóþól (I do sports)

Adjective

-usk

Saxka (England) --> Saxkusk (English)

Adjective

Noun

-oň

ðegu (new) --> ðegoň (news, surprise)

Verb

-Ø-

ðegu --> ðegýr (you are new)

Affix sequence Edit

Other prefixes

Tense-related prefixes

Root

Lexical suffixes

Other suffixes

Tense-related suffixes

Wherever it says "other" the sequence is arbitrary (though usually listed by topic, with the most "important" affix being put as front as possible)

For forms of the synthetically formed future tense and irregularly conjugated verb “ja” and “goelja” (to be/to have) the sequence is:

Other prefixes

Tense-related prefixes

Root

Tense-related suffixes

Lexical suffixes

Other suffixes

Word-Formation Edit

The core part of the compund comes after the modifier, which comes in different cases:

Noun + Noun

hrokiut-úcja

(snow-ESS=ball)

snowball (Essive: “Ball as snow”)

jottašuk-chmát

(autumn-ABL=jacket)

autumn jacket (Ablative: “Jacket against autumn”, “Jacket saving from (the effects of) autumn)”

hlóþí-ecúň

(sport-BENE=clothes)

sport clothes (Benefactive: “Clothing for sports”)

ðólæn-vena

(milk-INSTR=bottle)

milk bottle (Instrumental: “Bottle with milk”)

Verb + Noun

ṭakaňí-bjékka

(sit-NMLZ-BENE=place)

sitting place/spot

Other combinations like Noun+Adjective or Verb+Adjective are expressed with at least two separate words.

SyntaxEdit

Begonian is a predominantly head-final/left-branching and head-marking language.

Basic word order is strictly SOV both for main and subordinate clauses. The objects themselves may be freely scrambled though.

Case stacking

Instead of adding all the endings to each word, one can choose to leave them away and instead stack them in front of or after the verb... an example:

(1) Rizanilut(eg) kjódzog ẋuivi halvadéna urizetned myllnypak.

[ˈɾi.zãˌni.lʏ.ʰtə ˈɕɔʊ̯.d͡zʊ ˈxʷʉ.ʋaɪ̯ ˈhal.ʋaˌðɛ̃æ̯̃.nɐ ˈɦu.ɾaɪ̯.zɪs.nə ˈmyl̥.nyˌpʰak]

Sit-GER-ERG boy-ERG snow-ACC cat-ALL admission-(SG-1.POSS)-ABE throw-PST-3SG.IND

Rizan-ilut-(eg) kjódz-og ẋuiv-i halvad-éna urize-e-t-ned myllny-p-ak.

 = The sitting boy threw snow at the cat without my admission.

The following sentence has the exact same meaning:

(2) Rizaniluteg kjódzog ẋuivi halvad urizet énaned pémyllny iþsak.

[ˈɾi.zãˌni.lʏ.ʰtə ˈɕɔʊ̯.d͡zʊ ˈxʷʉ.ʋaɪ̯ ˈhal.ʋɐ ˈɦu.ɾaɪ̯.zɪt ˈɦɛ̃æ̯̃.nã.nə ˈpɛ̃æ̯̃.myl̥.ny ˈɦiθ.sɐk] 

Sit-GER-ERG boy-ERG snow-ACC cat-ABS admission-(SG-1.POSS)-ABS ALL-ABE PST-INF-throw AUX.(3SG.ERG.AN-3SG.ACC)

Rizan-ilut-eg kjódz-og ẋuiv-i halvad-0 urize-e-t-0 éna-ned p-é-myllny iþ-sak.

It is important to keep the right order in the case marking clusters. The following sentence...

Rizaniluteg kjódzog ẋuivi halvad urizet nedéna pémyllny iþsak.

[ˈɾi.zãˌni.lʏ.ʰtə ˈɕɔʊ̯.d͡zʊ ˈxʷʉ.ʋaɪ̯ ˈhal.ʋɐ ˈɦu.ɾaɪ̯.zɪt ˈne.ðɛ̃æ̯̃.nɐ ˈpɛ̃æ̯̃.myl̥.ny ˈɦiθ.sɐk] 

Sit-GER-ERG boy-ERG snow-ACC cat-ABS admission-(SG-1.POSS)-ABS ABE-ALL PST-INF-throw AUX.(3SG.ERG.AN-3SG.ACC)

Rizan-ilut-eg kjódz-og ẋuiv-i halvad-0 urize-e-t-0 ned-éna p-é-myllny iþ-sak.

...would translate to: The sitting boy threw snow at my admission without the cat.

Negation

To negate a sentence prefix é- to the verb. To negate special aspects of a sentence add the é- to whichever word you want to negate:

Rizanilut(eg) kjódzog ẋuivi halvadéna urizetned émyllnypak. (= He didn't throw it.)

(É)rizanilut(eg) ékjódzog ẋuivi halvadéna urizetned émyllnypak. (= Not the boy threw it.)

Rizanilut(eg) kjódzog ẋuivi éhalvadéna urizetned émyllynpak. (= He didn't throw it to the cat.)

CorrelativesEdit

 

Conj.

Demonstrative

Quantifiers

Statement

This

That

Negative

Existential

Elective

Universal

Alternative

Adjective

ésti

jást

óm

hjól

hjúc

hjápy

vøk,hagni

nenés

Non-Abstr.

hákur

hákek

hákapy

hákmer

Abstract

áti

hággur

hággek

hággapy

hagni

nenát

Place

éstec

etest

etåm

éstecur

éstuc

éstepy

étuc

néstec

Time

émbo

émbost

ostoň

émbur

émbuc

émbupy

otoň

némbo

Modality

hékvu

hékvust

 

hékvur

hékvuc

hékvy

 

nékvu

Cause

hekuí

 

 

 

hekuíc

hekupy

 

nekuí

Vílþa ostoň synutmít mévémikiv.

[ˈʋɪə̯l.θɐ ˈos.tʊ̃n̠ʲ ˈsỹ.nʏsˌmɪə̯t ˈmɛæ̯.ʋɛæ̯.miˌkʰiʊ̯]

1.PL.ABS that.time often-INT PST.REMOTE-1-PL-go-ABL-PROG

vílþa ostoň synut-mít m-é-v-ém-ik-iv

= Back then we used to go outside more often.

Oxuň átumþét pykoxåtuþk meturþát ópmadpak hékvu smødetik ékappak.

[ˈɦɔ.ɣʏˈn̠ʲaʊ̯.ʰtʏ̃mˌθɛæ̯t ˈpʰø̝.ʰkʊ.ɣɒˌtʰuθk ˈme.ʰtʏɾˌθaʊ̯t ˈɔʊ̯ɸ.masˌpʰɑk ˈhɛæ̯k.ʋʏ ˈsmø.ðɪˌtʰe̝ˈk‿ɛæ̯.ʰkaˌpɑk]

twelve second-PL-PROL hundred metre-PL-PERL run-PST-SG-3 how head-(SG-1.POSS)-ABL NEG-appear-SG-3

oxuň átum-þ-ét pykoxåtuþk metur-þ-át ópmad-p-a-k hékvu smød-e-t-ik é-kappu-a-k

= How he ran 100 metres in 12 seconds is beyond me.

Naiddeg étiki hékuíc vøgo iþrak.

[ˈnaɪ̯.də ˈɦɛæ̯.ʰtiˌki ˈhɛæ̯.kɪːt͡s ˈʋœ.ɰʊ ˈiθ.ɾɐk]

3-ERG NEG-chocolate-ACC for_some_reason eat-INF AUX.(3.ERG-3.SG.IO)

naidd-eg é-tiki-i hékuíc vøgo iþ-rak

= He ate no chocolate for some reason.

QuestionsEdit

To form questions, pull the verb to the front and add /há/ right after it:

Finite Verb

Question Word

Subject Phrase

Dir. Object

Indir. Object

Hvemýr há (túveg) mæsvi?

[ˈhʋe.mʏɵ̯ɾ haʊ̯ ˈmæs.ʋaɪ̯]

love-SG-2 Q 1-ACC

hvem-ý-r há mæsv-i

= Do you love me?

Áto há néreňeg túvis újstus toiskvaňi?

[ˈɦau̯.ʰtʊ hau̯ ˈnɛæ̯.ɾɪ.n̠ʲə ˈtʰʊu̯.ʋis ˈʊu̯js.tʏs ˈtʰʌ.ʍaˌn̠ʲi]

give-FUT.3.SG Q brother-(SG-3.POSS)-ERG 2-DAT exercise-DAT solve-NMLZ-ACC

áta-o há nér-e-ň-eg túv-i újst-us toiskve-aň-i

= Will her brother give you the solution for the exercise?

With verbs conjugated periphrastically the word order is as follows:

Finite Verb

Question Word

Non-Finite Verb

Subject Phrase

Dir. Object

Indir. Object

Irsaň há hvem (túveg) mæsvi?

AUX.(2.ERG-1.IO) Q love.INF 1-ACC

ir-saň há hvem mæsv-i

= Do you love me?

Steiþbesak há áta néreňeg túvis újstus toiskvaňi?

AUX.(FUT-INF-3.ERG-2.SG.DO-3.SG.IO.ABSTR) Q give.INF brother-(SG-3.POSS)-ERG 2-DAT exercise-DAT solve-NMLZ-ACC

st-é-iþ-bet-sak há áta nér-e-ň-eg túv-is újst-us toiskve-aň-i

= Will her brother give you the solution for the exercise?

Questions are answered either by replying with “Vjédi” (Yes) or “Næg” (No)

Myllnypak vjédi rizanilut(eg) kjódzog ẋuivi halvadéna urizetæned?

Would imply the speakers expects a “yes” as answer.

H-Questions:

 

Interrogative

Adjective

hjat?

Non-Abstract

hák?

Abstract

hágga?

Place

hákoec?

Time

hákbo?

Modality

hákvu?

Cause

hakuí?

Finite Verb

Question Word

Subject Phrase

Dir. Object

Indir. Object

Rizanilut(eg) kjódzog ẋuivi halvadéna urizetned myllnypak -->

Myllnypak hággui rizaniluteg kjódzog halvadéna urizetned? (= What did the boy throw... ?)

Myllnypak hákbo rizaniluteg kjódzog halvadéna urizezæned? (=When did he do it?)

Myllnypak hákoéna ... ? (=Where/To whose direction did he throw it?)

Myllnypak hágganed ...? (=Without what did he throw it?)

Myllnypak hákoeg ...? (=Who threw the snow to the cat w/o my admission?)

Jullapak hákoec/hákbo/hákvu ðexmeg pókui ápy pómrešilut ástjini?

shoot-PST-SG-3 Q police-ERG people-ACC NDEF PST-INF-kill-GER bear-ACC 

julla-p-a-k hákoec/hákbo/hákvu ðexme-eg pók-i ápy p-ó-omreš-ilut ástjin-i

= Where/When/How did the police shoot the people-killing bear?

Áto hákbo néreňeg túvis újstus toiskvaňi?

give-FUT.3.SG Q brother-(SG-3.POSS)-ERG 2-DAT exercise-DAT solve-NMLZ-ACC

át-o hákbo nér-e-ň-eg túv-i újst-us toiskve-aň-i

= When will her brother give you the solution for the exercise?

Relative ClausesEdit

Relative clauses are initiated using ak and closed by ésta/áti (abstract) and directly precede the referent.

Rizanilut(eg) kjódzog ẋuivi halvadéna ak naiddeg lá sš pak ésti urizetned myllnypak.

[ˈɾi.zãˌni.lʏ.ʰtə ˈɕɔʊ̯.d͡zʊ ˈxʷʉ.ʋaɪ̯ ˈhal.ʋaˌðɛ̃æ̯̃.nɐ ak ˈnaɪ̯.də ˈlaʊ̯ʃ.pɐk ˈɛæ̯s.ti ˈɦu.ɾaɪ̯.zɪsˌˈmyl̥.nyˌpʰak] 
Sit-GER-ERG boy-ERG snow-ACC cat-ALL REL 3SG-ERG need-IRR-PST-SG-3
REL-ACC admission-(SG-1.POSS)-ABE throw-PST-SG-3
Rizan-ilut-(eg) kjódz-og ẋuiv-i halvad-éna ak naidd-eg las-š-p-a-k ést-i urize-e-t-ned myllny-p-a-k

= The sitting boy threw snow at the cat without my admission, which he would have needed.

Object relative clauses are handled by using the causative case for the relative pronoun and the suffixing the antipassive marker “ja” to the verb within the clause:

Pak choipjak éstadag óndez karmí tømak.

[ˈpʰak ˈxʌ.ʰpjɐk ˈɛæ̯s.taˌda ˈɔ̃ʊ̯̃n.dɪz ˈkʰaɾ.mɪə̃ ˈtʰø.mɐk]

pak-0 choip-ja-a-k ésta-dag óndez-0 karma-í tøm-a-k

man-ABS catch-AP-SG-3 REL-CAUS fish-ABS deity-BENE taste-SG-3

= The fish caught by the man tastes excellent.

Relative clauses that aren’t necessary for the understanding of a sentence or just serve as an aftercomment may follow its referent:

Nænimín symít brán "Byrnu" žmedak, éstéc pykségjabæstaň yt éþamuk ṭakoeménþa jaþa.

[ˈnæ̃.nĩˌmɪ̃ə̯̃n ˈsy.mɪə̯t bʀãʊ̯̃n ˈbyɾ.nʏ ˈʒme.ðɐk ˈɛæ̯s.tɛæ̯t͡s ˈpyʰk.sɛæ̯.ʑaˌbæs.tɐ̃.nyˈtɛæ̯.θaˌmuk ˈc̟a.ʰkẽ.mɛ̃æ̯̃nˌθa ˈja.θɐ]
Begonia-SG-GEN big-INT-ABS city-ABS Byrnu-ABS be_called-PRES-IND-3SG, REL-SG-INESS (64+6)*8192 one-SG-ABL eye-SG-ABL inhabitant-PL-ABS to_be.3PL.PRES
Nænim-Ø-ín sy(m)-mít-Ø brán-Ø "Byrnu"-Ø żmed-Ø-Ø-ak, ést-Ø-éc (pyk+ségja)*bæstaň yt-Ø-Ø éþam-Ø-uk ṭakoemén-þ-a jaþa

= The biggest city in Begonia is called "Byrnu", where there are about 573440 inhabitants.

Dependent Phrases

Similar to relative clauses, dependent phrases are initiated with the particle ak and closed by ek+case suffix:

Rizanilut(eg) kjódzog ak naiddeg (ómeg) ád ématšpak ekui dinjak.

[ˈɾi.zãˌni.lʏ.ʰtə ˈɕɔʊ̯.d͡zʊ ak ˈnaɪ.də aʊ̯ˈd‿ɛ̃æ̯̃.maˌʰtʃpɐk ˈeʰ.ki ˈdĩ.ȵɐk]

Sit-GER-ERG boy-ERG say-3SG, NEG-do-PST-SG-3 CNJ 3SG-ERG 3SG.INAN CNJ-ACC
 
Rizan-ilut-(eg) kjódz-og ak naidd-eg ád é-mat-p-a-k ek(u)-i dinja-k 

= The boy said, that he didn’t do it.

In the example above, the subordinate phrase is the object of the whole sentence, so you have to add the corresponding ending /-i/ to the subordinate conjunction. If the subordinate phrase is the subject of the sentence, it is only initiated by ek. Furthermore, the subject of the subject phrase has to be repeated in the subsequent phrase:

Ek naiddeg ád ématýnpak, ád évoryk.

[ˈɦeʰk ‘naɪ̯.də ‘aʊˈd‿ɛ̃æ̯̃.maˌʰtʏ̃ɵ̯̃n.pɐk aʊ̯ˈd‿ɛæ̯.ʋʊ,ɾysk]

CNJ-ABS 3SG-ERG 3SG.INAN NEG-do-PST-3SG, 3.ABS.INAN NEG-be_true-3SG

Ek-0 naidd-eg ád é-matýn-p-ak, ád é-vory-k.

= That (Abs.) he didn’t do it, is not true.

Ekoeg naiddeg ád ématýnpak, ád naiddi palltapak.

[ˈɦeʰki ‘naɪ̯.də ‘aʊð ‘ɛ̃æ̯̃.maˌʰtʏ̃ɵ̯̃n.pɐk aʊ̯ð ˈnaɪ̯.di ˈphaɬ.taˌpʰak] 

CNJ-ERG 3SG-ERG 3SG.INAN NEG-do-PST-3SG, 3.ABS.INAN 3-ACC shock-PST-3SG

Ek(o)-eg naidd-eg ád é-matýn-p-ak, ád naidd-i pallta-p-ak

= That (Erg.) he didn’t do it, shocked her.

Participle Constructions

~ including verbal adjectives aren't allowed and have to paraphrased using a relative clause:

*Mæsvdag ikpjukui halvad váčuvak.

[ˈmæ.sʊˌda ˈix.pjʏ.ʰkɨ ˈhal.ʋɐ ˈʋaʊ̯.ʰt͡ʃʏˌʋak]

1-CAUS ADJZ-feed cat-ABS sleep-PROG-SG-3

mæsv-dag ik-pjukui halvad-0 váč-uv-a-k

= The by me fed cat is sleeping. (literally)

The asterisk denotes the sentence as grammatically unacceptable.

(Ak) pjukuipél ésti halvad váčuvak.

[ak ˈpju.ʰkɨˌpʰɛæ̯l ˈɛæ̯s.ti ˈhal.ʋɐ ˈʋaʊ̯.ʰt͡ʃʏˌʋak]

CONJ feed-PST-SG-1 REL-ACC cat-ABS sleep-PROG-SG-3

ak pjukui-p-é-l ést-i halvad-0 váč-uv-a-k

= The cat (that) I fed is sleeping.

ConjunctionsEdit

List of some of the most important subordinate conjunctions:

ek

that

-ját-

so (...that)

esmík/-mes-

after (konj.)

sápat/-sáp-

because

aetu/-aet-

provided that

løvra/-løv-

before (konj.)

arvu(mít)/-arv-

(even) if

ísap/-ís-

although

népy

whereas

vjáli

either

émbys

as soon as

néku

unless

Some conjunctions may also be incorporated into the verb under the category "other suffixes". Subordinate clauses with such verbs are initiated with ák. The isolating alternative is primarily used when there's only one subordinate clause in a sentence, otherwise the incorporating alternative is preferred.

Halvadut épjukuirakpak sápat júmak.

[ˈhal.ʋaˌduˈtʰɛæ̯.ʰpjʏ.kɨˌrax.pɐk ˈsaʊ̯.ʰpɐt ˈjʊu̯.mɐk]

cat-(PL-1.POSS)-ABS NEG-feed-(3.ACC.IO)-PST-SG-3 because be_evil-SG-3

halvad-u-t-0 é-pjukui-rak-p-a-k sápat júm-a-k

= Our cat is mad, because he didn’t feed her.

Horatiusún áčyskþa áþkovak ak ómeg, ák hrak Kornelia ómþys ésísksap, énakparsáxak.

[ˈho.ɾa.ʰt͡ɕʏˌsʊ̃ũ̯ˈnaʊ̯.ʰt͡ʃysk.θɐ ˈaʊ̯θ.kʊˌʋa.ʰkɐˈkʰɔ̃ʊ̯̃.mə aʊ̯k hrak ˈkʰor.nɪ.ʎ̟ɐ ˈɔ̃ʊ̯̃m.θyˈsɛæ̯.sɪə̯skˌsaʊ̯p ˈɦɛæ.nax.parˌsaʊ̯.ɣɐk]
Horatius-GEN dream-PL-ABS be_beautiful-PL-3 CONJ DEM-ERG CONJ but Kornelia-ABS DEM-PL-INESS NEG-be.3.SG=because NEG-dummy=like-3.PL.IO.ABSTR-SG-3
Horatius-ún áčysk-þa-0 áþko-v-ak, ak óm-eg , ák hrak Kornelia-0 óm-þ-ys é-sísk=sap é-ak=par-sák-a-k.

= Horatius' dreams are beautiful, but he does not like them because Cornelia is not in them.

Ikunún branmén ápy, ak átrusjátómþvak, ivliňín mrezondag bøskunþvak.

[ˈɦi.ʰkʏˌnʊ̃ũ̯n ˈbɾãn.mɛ̃æ̯̃ˈnaʊ̯.ʰpy ak aʊ̯ʰt.rʏsˌjaʊ̯.ʰtɔ̃ʊ̯̃m.θʋɐk ˈiʋ.laɪ̯ˌn̠ʲɪ̃ə̯̃n ˈmɾe.zʊ̃nˌda ˈbøs.kʏ̃nˌθʋak]

Ikun-gen city-nmlz-abs ndef | CNJ demonstrate=so=inch-pst-pl-3 | mayor-(pl-3.poss)-gen decision-caus be_dissatisfied-pl-pst-3

Ikun-ún bran-mén-0 ápy | ak átrus-ját-óm-þ-v-a-k | ivly-iň-ín mrezon-dag bøskun-þ-v-a-k

= The citizens of Ikun were so dissatisfied about the decision of their mayor that they started demonstrating.

Oþtes ak édvusk cysí ópmadoč néku mæsvned bjogómo.

[ˈoθ.tɪs ak ˈɛæ̯ð.ʋʏsk ˈt͡sy.sɪə̯ ˈɔʊ̯ɸ.maˌdɔʊ̯t͡ʃ nɛæ̯.ʰkʏ ˈmæ.sʊˌne ˈbjo.ɰɔʊ̯ˌmo]

oþtes-0 ak édvusk cys-í ópmad-oč néku mæsv-ned bjoga-óm-o

train-abs cnj correct time-bene run-sg-1.sg.fut unless 1-abess drive-inch-3.sg.fut

= Unless I make it in time, the train will have left off without me.

Verbal constructionsEdit

Džon ak køndecéna éṡytivi ekui žapystak.

[John-ABS CNJ test-ALL INF-learn CNJ-ACC prepare-SG-3]

Džon-0 ak køndec-éna é-ṡytivi ek-i žapyst-a-k.

= John prepares to learn for the test.

to-clauses are formed by implementing subordinate clauses. This is, unless the subclause only consists of a single non-finite form, where that can be put next to the finite form:

Džon éṡytivi žapystak.

[John-ABS INF-learn prepare-SG-3]

Džon-0 é-ṡytivi žapyst-a-k.

= John prepares to learn

Topic MarkingEdit

To stress a certain aspect of the sentence, add the particle ak next to the word in quesion:

(1) Ak mja halvadi pjukuipak ekui pédinja iþsaň.

[ak mja ˈhal.ʋaˌði ˈpju.ʰkɨˌpʰak ˈɦe.ʰki ˈpʰɛæ̯.ðɪ.ȵɐ ˈiθ.sɐ̃ȵ]

[CNJ SAME cat-ACC feed-PST-3SG CNJ-ACC PST-INF-say AUX.(3SG AN-1SG)]

Ak mja halvad-i pjukui-p-ak ek(u)-i p-é--dinja iþ-saň.

(= He told me, that he fed the cat.)

(2) Ak mja halvadi ak pjukuipak ekui pédinja iþsaň.

[CNJ SAME cat-ACC TOP feed-PST-3SG CNJ-ACC INF-PST-say AUX.(3SG AN-1SG)]

(= He told me, that it was the cat that he fed.)

(3) Ak mja halvadi pjukuipak ak ekui pédinja iþsaň.

[CNJ SAME cat-ACC feed-PST-3SG TOP CNJ-ACC INF-PST-say AUX.(3SG AN-1SG)]

(= He told me, that it was that he fed the cat.)

(1) is the unmarked situation. If a certain aspect of the subordinate clause is stressed use the “neutral” conjuncion /ak/ and place ekui after the word which forms the focus.

It is also possible to include the topic particle into the affix cluster to stress certain grammatical information:

(4) Ak mja halvadi pjukuipaxak ekui pédinja iþsaň.

[CNJ SAME cat-ACC feed-PST-TOP-3SG CNJ-ACC INF-PST-say AUX.(3SG AN-1SG)]

(= He told me, that it was that he fed the cat at some point in the past.)

Note that the surface representation in this case is < ax >, because /k/ is not allowed in both onset and coda.

CopulaeEdit

Predicative adjectives can also work like verbs, just add the correspondent verb affixes:

Jást yzlor épógyaxak.

[jaʊ̯st ˈyz.lʊɾ ˈɦɛæ̯.ʰpɔʊ̯.ʑa,xak]

DEM-ABS overview-ABS NEG-be_boring-3SG.PRES

Jást-0 yzlor-0 é-pógyak-ak

= This overview is not boring. (yeah right...)

For nouns, the verb “ja” (to be) functions as copula.

Pro-Drop

Pronouns that aren't necessary to carry across the meaning of a sentence may be dropped:

Mæsveg pózhasi évøltrapél.

1-ERG wine-ACC NEG-drink-PST-SG-1

mæsv-eg pózhas-i é-vøltra-p-é-l

= I didn’t drink wine. -->

Pózhasi évøltrapél.

wine-ACC NEG-drink-PST-SG-1

pózhas-i é-vøltra-p-é-l

General StatementsEdit

~ are handled with the corresponding non-finite verb forms:

Ak boizur éstec ikke. Émšhél hjémik.

[ak ˈbʌ.zʏr ˈɛæ̯s.tɪt͡s ˈɦi.ʰkɪ || ˈɛæ̯m.ʃxɛæ̯l ˈɕɛæ̯.mik]

CNJ live-SG-2 REL-INESS be_healthy.INF || go-IRR-DUAL-1 house-ABL

ak boizu-0-r ést-ec ikke || ém-š-h-él hjém-ik

= Where you live, one is healthy/people are healthy. Let’s go outside.

Existential clausesEdit

~ are handled with the verb “ja” (to be):

Temeň čoga ábarys ápy sísk.

[ˈtʰe.mɪ̃n̠ʲ ˈt͡ʃo.ɰɐ ˈɦaʊ̯.βaˌɾyˈsaʊ̯ʰ.py ˈsɪə̯sk]

few water-ABS desert-INESS NDEF to_be.SG.3

temeň čoga-0 ábar-ys ápy sísk

= There is only little (drinking) water in deserts.

AmbiguitiesEdit

In phrases where more than one person is being referred to, it is possible to add markers to avoid ambiguities:

Naiddegap  mæsvi palltavyk, naiddegep mæsvi épalltavyk. Jástegap / Jástegoep...

= The one person shocks me, the other doesn’t. The former / The latter ...

However one can replace “naiddegap” by “jásteg” and “naiddegep” by “ómeg” and have the problem put aside.

(1) Džonog þáp Meliseg oðkamiep ixóppak, hrak ep skænytvøkpak.

[ˈd͡ʒõ.nʊ θaʊ̯p ˈme.laɪ̯.sɪ ˈoθ.kãˌmi.ɪp ˈix.ɔʊ̯ˌpʰak hɾak ep ˈskæ̃.nyʰtˌʋøx.pɐk]

[John-ERG and-DET Melissa-ERG ticket-ACC-DET buy=want-PST-3PL, but DET be_sold out-all-PST-3PL

Džon-og(g) þá-p Melis-eg(g)-ap oðkam-i-ep ix-óp-p-ak, hrak ep skænyt-vøk-p-ak.

John and Melissa(-ap) wanted to buy concert tickets(-ep), but they(-ep) were all sold out.

-ep signifies in this case, that the subject of the subclause is not identical with the one in the main phrase.

Let’s add a second sentence:

(2) They instead went to the people in the bar.

What is “they” referring to? In Begonian, one can add “-ap” to clearify, that John and Melissa are the subject of the sentence, and “-ep” for the tickets to be the subject. Since there are no separate pronomina for masculine/feminine, these markers come in handy very often.

Another example:

ðoloido ṡvun þá doidzne

MILK-INSTR tea and coffee

There’s milk in the tea but not in the coffee.

ṡvun þá ðoloido doidzne

tea and MILK-INSTR coffee

There’s no milk in the tea but in the coffee.

ðoloido ṡvun þáp doidzne

MILK-INSTR tea and-PART coffee

There’s milk in both the tea and in the coffee.

ikuixa ṡvun þá ðoloido doidzne

NMLZ-buy tea and MILK-INSTR coffee

The tea is bought and the coffee contains milk.

ikuixa (þá) ðoloido ṡvun þá doidzne

NMLZ-buy (and) MILK-INSTR tea and coffee

The tea is bought and contains milk and the coffee is neither.

ikuixa þáp ðoloido ṡvun þáp doidzne

NMLZ-buy and-PART MILK-INSTR tea and-PART coffee

Both the tea and coffee contain milk and are bought.

There is no obligation to use “-ap” and “-ep” for markers, one could use whatever s/he wants, as long as everything remains pragmatical.

Tuveg texí póruned tádzivúr.

2-ERG child-BENE car-ABESS look_after-PROG-SG-2

tuv-eg tex-í póru-ned tádze-iv-ú-r

= [You’re looking after a child] without a car.

“Póruned” modifies the verb: He does the looking after without a car.

Tuveg póruned texí tádzivúr.

2-ERG car-ABESS child-BENE look_after-PROG-SG-2

tuv-eg póru-ned tex-í tádze-iv-ú-r

= You’re looking [after a child without a car].

“Póruned” is in the same phrase as “texí” and thus modifies that.

Tuveg [1] texí [2] póruned [3] tádzivúr. (járap)

2-ERG car-ABESS child-BENE look_after-PROG-SG-2

tuv-eg [1] tex-í [2] póru-ned [3] tádze-iv-ú-r

= You’re looking after a child without a car today.

When further complicated, f.e. with a temporal adverb “járap” (today):


  1. He is looking after the child on that day (but after others on other days)
  2. He is looking after the child, but for this specific day without a car.
  3. He is looking after the child on that day. (but may do something else on other days)

Switch ReferenceEdit

Also, one has the possibility to add the postposition “nén” to signify, that an object of one part of a sentence is not identical with that of the other

“I am working a book, he’s working on a book “nén”:

Jálkamaňæde ónókjola kuymne iktarsak, toňix naiddinén hjeména pryhaṭpél.

[ˈjaʊ̯lkãmɐ̃ˌɲ̟æ̃ð̞ə ˈɔʊ̯nɔʊ̯ɕʊˌla ˈkʰỹmnə 'ix.taˌsɐk ˈtʰõɲ̟aɪ̯x̟ ˈnaɪ̯dĩnɛ̃æ̯̃n ˈhjẽmɛ̃æ̯̃nɐ ˈpɾyhaɕpɛæ̯l]

[Mathematics-INSTR INF-teach try AUX.(1SG-3SG.AN.DO-3SG.INAN.IO), then 3SG-ACC-DIFF home-ALL drive-PST-1SG]

Jálkamaň-æde ó-nókjola kuymne ik-tar-sak, toňix naidd-i-nén hjem-éna pryhaṭ-p-eli.

= I tried to teach him mathematics, later I drove him (another ‘him’) home.

The opposite is also possible with the postposition “mja”:

Jálkamaňæde ónókjola kuymne iktarsak, toňix naiddimja hjeména pryhaṭpél.

[ˈjaʊ̯lkãmɐ̃ˌɲ̟æ̃ð̞ə ˈɔʊ̯nɔʊ̯ɕʊˌla ˈkʰỹmnə 'ix.taˌsɐk ˈtʰõɲ̟aɪ̯x̟ ˈnaɪ̯dĩmjɐ ˈhjẽmɛ̃æ̯̃nɐ ˈpɾyhaɕpɛæ̯l]

[Mathematics-INSTR INF-teach try AUX.(1SG-3SG.AN.DO-3SG.INAN.IO), then 3SG-ACC-SAME home-ALL drive-PST-1SG]

= I tried to teach him mathematics, later I drove him (the same ‘him’) home.

If the subject of the main and subordinate phrase is identical, one can use /óm, ómeg, .../ in the subordinate phrase aswell:

Jálkamaňæde ónókjola kuymne iktarsak, toňix ómi hjeména pryhaṭpél.

Dialectal RealizationsEdit

PhonologyEdit

Dialects may or may not:

  1. Alveolo-palatal series shifts into true palatal. This never happens without also backing the velar series a bit, most frequently in the environment of back vowels.
  2. Preaspirated consonants are dropped and instead the preceding vowel is devoiced.
  3. Coda devoicing.
  4. Syncope of unpronounced syllables with [ə] or [ɐ].
  5. <h(liquid, nasal)> is pronounced as [(liquid, nasal) unvoiced], examples: < hr > [ɾ̥], < hm > [m̥], etc.
  6. Dropping nasals after vowels and just nasalizing those preceding vowels instead.
  7. Pharyngealization between back vowels.
  8. Replacing /h/ with its pharyngeal counterpart [ħ] when /h/ appears together with another consonant in onset/coda.
  9. Diphthongs lose their second component + compensatory lengthening:

[aʊ̯]/[aɯ̯] <á>

ː]

[eæ̯]/[ɛæ̯] <é>

[ɛː]

[iə̯]/[ɪə̯] <í>

[ɪː]

[ɔʊ̯] <ó>

[ɔː]

[ʊu̯] <ú>

[ʊː]

[yɵ̯]/[ʏɵ̯] <ý>

[ʏː]

Among other also these shifts:

[aʊ̯l]/[aɯ̯l] <ál>

ː]

[eæ̯l]/[ɛæ̯l] <él>

[œː]

[iə̯l]/[ɪə̯l] <íl>

[ʏː]

GrammarEdit

  1. The dual-affix -h- is pronounced [χ].
  2. Polypersonal verb agreement is used much more frequently.

LexiconEdit

  1. næma (standard) vs. tjók (dialectal): house
  2. køṡum (standard) vs. eþóm (dialectal): school

Sample textsEdit

Pók ápy sydvøxak þá étuloin þáp murkoin ápy ésøppym dåmínpak. Naiddeg chlahi þá tuxruňu míčur iþråk þá hjórrapaňois vaxu bynimnoidak.

[ˈpʰɔʊ̯ˈkaʊ̯ʰpy ˈsyd.ʋœˌxak θaʊ̯ ˈɦɛæ̯.tʏˌlʌ̃n θaʊ̯p ˈmuɾ.kʌ̃ˈnaʊ̯ʰpy ˈɦɛæ̯.sœ.ʰpỹm ˈdɒ̃.mɪə̯nˌpʰak || ˈnaɪ̯.də ˈxla.haɪ̯ θaʊ̯ ˈtʰux.ɾʏ̃ˌȵu ˈmɪə̯.ʰt͡ʃʏɾ ˈiθ.rɒk θaʊ̯ ˈɕɔʊ̯.ra.ʰpãˌȵʌs ˈʋa.ɣʏ ˈbỹ.naɪ̯mˌnʌ.dɐk] 

human NDEF be_free=all-SG-3 and dignity-INSTR and-INCL right-INSTR NDEF ADV-equal be_born-PST-SG-3 || 3-ERG knowledge-ACC and reason-ACC be_gifted_at.INF AUX.(3.ERG-3.ACC.IO.DUAL) and fraternity-SUBESS REFL-ACC treat=should-SG-3

 pók ápy sydd=vøx-a-k þá étul-oin þá-p murk-oin ápy és-øppym dåmín-p-a-k || Naidd-eg chlah-i þá tuxruň-u míčur iþ-råk þá hjórrapaň-ois vax-u bynim=noid-a-k.

= All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

1. Émbost hagni táronménþa jás hméňæn ápy þá yt hmindeňæn hmakþvak.

[ˈɛ̃æ̯̃m.bʊst ˈhaɣ.naɪ̯ ˈtʰaʊ̯.ɾʊ̃n.mɛ̃æ̯̃n̪ˌθa jaʊ̯s ˈhmɛæ̯.næˈnaʊ̯.ʰpy θaʊ̯ yt ˈhmĩn.dɪˌn̠ʲæ̃n ˈhmak.θʋɐk]

now all earth-NMLZ-PL-ABS same word-INSTR NDEF and one language-INSTR speak-PST-PL-3

émbost hagni táron-mén-þ-a jás hméň-æn ápy þá yt hmindeň-æn hmak-þ-v-ak

= Now the whole earth had one language and the same words.

2. Þá Šinarún hjoxeméc lórai pok ápy sujåkaňik íkmitivak émbo gžúpak þá etest hjemiutak.

[θaʊ̯ ˈʃi.naˌɾʊ̃ũ̯n ˈɕo.ɣɪˌmɛæ̯t͡s ˈlɔʊ̯.ɾaɪ̯ pʰoˈkaʊ̯.ʰpy ˈsu.jɒ.ʰkaˌn̠ʲik ˈɪə̯x.miˌtʰi.ʋɐk ˈɛ̃æ̯̃m.bʊ ˈgʒʊu̯.ʰpɐk θaʊ̯ ˈɦe.ʰtɪst ˈɕe.mɨˌtʰak] 

and Shinar-GEN land-INESS plain-ACC human-ABS NDEF right-NMLZ-ABL migrate-PROG-SG-3 when find/PST-PST-SG-3 and that.place home-TRANSL-VERB-SG-3

þá Šinar-ún hjoxem-éc lórai-i pok-0 ápy sujåk-aň-ik íkmit-iv-a-k émbo gžú-p-a-k þá etest hjem-iuti-0-a-k

= And as people migrated from the east, they found a plain in the land of Shinar and settled there.

3. Þá “Sømšpél, šébén icrak moittyi ápy þá šóxvapp icrak ðorúp”, vaxu dinjapak. Þá moittyi aṭxetæn hýgoec þá hálkvi pyjasoin hýgoec hánuk.

[θaʊ̯ ˈʃø̃m.ʃpɛæ̯l ˈʃɛæ̯.βɛ̃æ̯̃n ˈit͡s.ɾɐk ˈmʌ.ʰtyˌɦi ˈɦaʊ̯.ʰpy θaʊ̯ ˈʃɔʊ̯x.ʋɐp ˈit͡s.ɾɐk ˈðo.ɾʊu̯p ˈʋa.ɣʏ ˈdi.n̠ʲaˌpʰak || θaʊ̯ ˈmʌ.ʰtyˌɦi ˈat̠ʲ.x̟ɪˌtʰæ̃n ˈhʏɵ̯.get͡s θaʊ̯ ˈhaʊ̯l̴.ʍaɪ̯ ˈpᶣa.sʌ̃n ˈhʏɵ̯.get͡s ˈhaʊ̯.nʏk]

and "think-IRR-PL-1, IRR-INF-make AUX.(1.PL.ERG-3.IO.ACC) brick-ACC NDEF and IRR-INF-burn AUX.(1.PL.ERG-3.IO.ACC) end-TERM" RECP-ACC say-PST-SG-3 || and brick-ACC stone-INSTR instead and bitumen-ACC mortar-INSTR instead have.PST.SG.3

þá “Søm-š-p-él, š-é-bén ic-rak moittý-i ápy þá š-ó-chvapp ic-rak ðor-úp”, vax-u dinja-p-a-k || þá moittý-i aṭxet-æn hýgoec þá hálkve-i pyjas-oin hýgoec hánuk.

= And they said to one another, "Come, let us make bricks, and burn them thoroughly." And they had brick for stone, and bitumen for mortar.

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