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Nāmaς is an Indo-European influenced, mixed a priori-posteriori language, by Waahlis.
|This page is part of the Nāmaς family of articles, which is currently changing its and name to Nāmic, as well as vocabulary and grammar. The author wishes to make clear that ther is a reason for it, which may be found further down this page. That is, the page is littered with striked |
Dēna vēȷyanς! - Welcome!
This page uses IPA phonetic notation as standard.
This page uses non - standard ASCII signs.Nāmaς, ([ˈnaːm.as], translates as "name, noun, meaning or thing"), or Naṃkrthāvāka [ˌnã.kr̩ˑ.ˈtʰaː.faː.xa] "Named constructed speech" - is a mixed constructed a priori/ a posteriori language. It draws inspiration from mainly the Indo-European branch, yet makes a decisive stance to preserve artificial features. For the sake of simplicity I suppose it could be called the Namian language, or whatever. Doesn't really matter.
Since there is a tendency in Nāmaς to blend characteristics of both artificial and natural languages, a rather unholy mixture has arisen, for example:
It is a fusional language, like its predecessors Latin, Sanskrit, Greek and Germanic - yet displays the highly unnatural ergative-accusativ alignment, or tripartite, - which is rarely seen outside conlanging.
Concerning the vocabulary, both words derived from Indo-European stems, as well as complete a priori words, appear; such as "dhrȳa" - tree, from Indo-European *dóru, and the word for heaven, "ıāmna" - from... me.
Other than that, other, rather unique features are included, such as:
- Phonemic and manipulated stress.
- Progressive metaphony.
- Partial regressive metaphony.
- Consonant harmony, based upon voicedness.
Plus an extremely constructed characteristic:
- Distinguished transitivity
The following table portraits Nāmaς' phonetic inventory of consonants. All consonants, except aspirated ones, may be geminated, which is phonemic, and represented by doubling by the grapheme. The letter /h/ represents aspiration when succeding consonants, and breathy-voice when preceding vowels. "Nh", is an exception, being a velar nasal.
|Nasal||m [m]||n [n̪]||ṇ [ɳ]||ny [ɲ]||nh [ŋ]|
|Plosives||voiced||bh [bʱ]||b [b]||dh [d̪ʱ]||d [d̪]||ḍh [ɖʱ]||ḍ [ɖ]||ȷ [ɟ]||g [g]||gh [gʱ]|
|voiceless||ph [pʰ]||p [p]||th [t̪ʰ]||t [t̪]||ṭh [ʈʰ]||ṭ [ʈ]||ȷ [c]||k [k]||kh [kʰ]|
|Affricatives||voiced||py [p͡ɸ]||dy [ɖ͡ʐ]||ȷy [ɟ͡ʝ]|
|voiceless||by [b͡β]||ty [ʈ͡ʂ]||ky [c͡ç]|
|Fricatives||voiced||(v [v])||z [z̪]||y [ʐ]||hy [ç]|
|voiceless||(v [f] )||s [s̪]||ṣ [ʂ]||hy [ʝ]|
|Approxim.||voiced||v [w]||ḷ [ɽ]||ı [j]|
Please note that all retroflex consonants and the dental trill rhoticise the surrounding consonants. The pronunciation of <v> is considered dialectal.
Hence the alphabet of Nāmaς':
Please note that the letters /h/ and /ṃ/ are modifiers of adjacent vowels. See the Vowel Quality section.
The letter /ς/ is a possible alternativeto lexeme-final /s/.
In addition to the consonants above, Nāmaς suffers from severe allophony, lenition, caused when:
- Consonants lie in medial position between two vowels.
- Consonants lie in final position in lexemes.
The aspirated consonants become completely spirantisised, whilst the unaspirated phonemes become affricates. The exceptions are the velars, which all become fricatives. The nasal consonants, affricates, trills and approximants remain unaffected.
Please note that the phonemes without brackets are the "basic" consonants.
|Affricatives||voiced||b > [b͡β]||d̪ > [d̪͡ð]||ɖ > [ɖ͡ʐ]||ɟ >[ ɟ͡ʝ]|
|voiceless||p > [p͡ɸ]||t̪ > [t̪͡θ]||ʈ > [ʈ͡ʂ]||c >[c͡ç]|
|Fricatives||voiced||bʱ > [β]||(v)||d̪ʱ, z̪ > [ð]||ɖʱ > [ʐ]||gʱ, g > [ɣ]|
|voiceless||pʰ > [ɸ]||(f)||t̪ʰ, s̪ > [θ]||ʈʰ > [ʂ]||h ,kʰ, k > [x]|
|Approxim.||voiced||(v > [w] )|
|voiceless||(f > [ʍ] )|
There is additional allophony, regarding phonation. The pairs [c - ɟ], [ç -ʝ], [v - f], and [w - ʍ], are only represented by one grapheme each: ȷ, hy, v, and vh respectively. Their voiced counterpart is an allophone - see Consonant Assimilation.
The murmur-phonation letter /h/ receives the pronunciation [ç/x] when final in a syllable.
Thus, our conclusion is that the word vāka- voice, speach - shouldn't be pronounced [ˈwaːka], but rather [ˈʍaːxa].
In addition to these, there's a multitude of digraphs with corresponding affricates. It is important to note that the four digraphs /pt/, /vt/, /kt/, and /jt/ symbolise consonant clusters with an affricate onset. They are not affected by lenition.
Nāmaς possesses a progressive consonant assimilation word-internally, based upon phonation, or voicedness.
The consequence is that a consonant, a cluster, or an affricate, is pronounced differently, depending on whether it is preceded by a voiced or voiceless consonant. There are exceptions to this rule, since the alveolar trill [r] and the retroflex tap [ɽ] do not differ between voicedness.
The nasal stops are affected quite differently, with a complete nasalisation of the preceding vowel - and loss of the stop - if the initial or first consonant is voiced. However, nasals are perceived as neutral in nature, and does therefore not affect voiceless nor voiced phonemes.
There are, however, two dialects of Nāmaς;
- Staṇya, which means "current, dominating".
- Ḷestra, which means "golden, posh".
The Staṇya dialect will be featured in this article, and is the main dialect that distinguishes consonant assimilaton upon voicedness.
The representation of Nāmaς' vowels. There are are fifteen vowel phonemes, yet only 7 graphemes, thus, it may be assumed some are allophones during certain circumstances. It is obvious that many of the vowel graphemes are recycled, since many phonemes are allophones. The background is covered in the Metaphony section.
|Front||Near front||Central||Near back||Back|
|Close||y [ʉ]||ı [ɯ]||u [u]|
|Near-Close||ı [ɪ]||y [ʏ]||y [ʊ]|
|Open-Mid||e [ɛ]||o [œ]||o [ɔ]|
|Open||a [a]||a [ɑ]|
There are a limited number of diphtongs in Nāmaς, with the same amount rising as falling diphtongs. [ɪ̯] is most often equivalent to [j], and [u̯] is often just [w]. The left diftong is its front value, and the right one is the back value. All other vowel clusters are diaeresis. The main phoneme in all diphtongs may be geminated.
No falling diphtongs occur inter consonants, as a nucleus, nor do the falling diphtongs appear geminated in open coda position. They are transformed into geminated, or short monophtongs - and are inconsistently written as monophtongs, however it isn't compulsory. The allophony according to this schedule:
Front diphtongs on the left, back ones at the right.
The Naṃkrthāvāka suffers from a certain kind of vowel harmony, called progressive vowel metaphony. This urges all vowel phonemes in a lexeme to be of the same kind of the preceding one. That is: Va = type-a vowel, Vb = type-b vowel, C = consonant: VaVbVb > VaVaVa
There are tqo exception, causing the metaphony to be regressive instead; when a word is initialised by an [ɛ], or an [ә]. The [ɛ] and [ә] the gets assimilated by the succeeding consonant: VbVaVb > VaVaVa
These modified [ɛ-ә] -sounds will occurr later in text, and will be referred to as "affected" /ɛ-ә/.
The metaphony is present, and affect for example the plural endings of many case declensions, where the coda vowel gets completely assimilated by the former. However, if the preceding vowel has the same front-back value, it's just diphtongised.
- Horse - thētosya (abs. sing.) > thētosyoı (abs. plu.)
- But not; "fire" - kēma (erg. sing.) > *kēmeı, but rather kēmaı (erg. plu.)
Nāmaς' metaphony is based upon backness, with eceptions being when /e/, /y/ and /o/ are followed by an [r], which ignores the harmony, and modifies the phoneme.
There are no less than six different vowel qualities:
- Short and geminated Oral
- Short and geminated Nasal
- Short and geminated Murmured
The vowels will be represented by a default /a/. Please note that any nasal can nasalise the preceding vowel, however in non-voiced environments, only the letter "ṃ" may.
When /h + vowel/ is preceded by a vowel, a glottal stop is inserted.
Some phonemes create new pronunciations when adjacent to eachother:
- <h> + <r> = hr [xr]
+ + vowel = suV [su̯V] <s> + + <ı> = suı [sʍı] </s>
<s>Phonotactics</s>Edit <s>Any consonant - C </s> <s>Sonorant - S </s> <s>Fricative - F </s> <s>Nasal - N </s> <s>Vowel, also diphtong when final - V </s> <s>A Namian syllable have two different maximal syllabic structures, the by far most common structure is (F)(C)(C)V(C)(F/N) initially, and (F)(C)CV(C)(F/N) medially and finally. The conclusion is that a syllable's maximal consonant cluster is FCC, that a medial and final syllable minimally must look like CV, and that all syllables must terminate in either a F, fricative, a nasal- N, or a vowel - V. Since most lexemes in Nāmaς are disyllabic, a common lexeme might look like this: FCVN.CV, like stānta - "state" [ˈstaːn.ta]. It should herefore be noted that ēkva - either, is pronounced [ˈɛː.kʍa], and not [ˈɛːk.ʍa]. </s>
<s>The second structure is very uncommon, but does occur: (C)CS(C), and sometimes (C)CVS(C), where a sonorant occupy the syllable nucleus. Most of the syllables are free, that is, without the coda. Examples include vṙkas - wolf [ˈʍr̩ˑ.kas], and ēktrva - any of them [ˈɛː.ktr̩ˑ.ʍa]. Interestingly, all syllabic sonorants are half-geminated. </s>
A pecurious detail of Nāmaς is that it is possible to manipulate the stress to convey different meanings. In Nāmaς' linguistics called stress apophony. </s>
<s>There are four diacritics in Nāmaς: </s>
<s>The acute accent, "ó", or the dot "ȯ" which marks stress on a short syllable. This is only used on open monosyllables, since they are long otherwise. </s> <s>The grave accent "ò" which may be used to replace the macron "ō". These indicate geminated stress. </s> <s>Stress must always be marked in polysyllabic words, except verbs in the infinitive, and gemination must be marked in all words. </s>
<s>In many of the pro-adverbs, a question may be abbreviated from "Shall I put it here?" Vērem dās sdıses hyāra? [ˈfɛːr.ɛm daːz ˈstis.ɛs ˈçɛː.ra] into "Here?" in English and "Hyar<u>ā?", not "Hy<u>āra?" in Namian. By moving the stress to the ultimate syllable in adverbs and nouns, you may produce an interrogative meaning.
Concerning nouns in the nominative case, all stress is irregular, and a multitude of minimal pairs exist: such as "burden" nāutoς [ˈnœːθ.œs], and "meaning" nautōς [nœˈθ.œːs]. Only in certain cases is the stress moved from one syllable to another - "snake" nāga [ˈnaː.ɣa], in the nominative, becomes in the genitive; naganēς [na.ɣa.ˈnɛːs] "snake's".
In verbs, the stress plays an important part in the conjugations: Stress is for example never marked in the infinitive, and always occurs on the first syllable. It also denotes the transition from present tense to the preterite, in all aspects: "We say" means kāham [ˈkaː.ʔa̤m] in Namian, while "We said" is called kahām [ ka.ˈʔa̤ːm]. The stress on all verb conjugations are always regular.
If there are two, or more, geminated syllables in one lexeme, the second one's stressed, for example pāraktīra [paː.ra.ˈt͡ʃtɪː.ra], which means "torso".
SyntacticsEdit Considering the fusional nature of the Naṃkrthāvāka, the word order's rather free. It does possess tendencies towards SOV and SVO. It sould however be noted that the word order may alter depending on transitivity. Only SOV, VSO and SVO orders will be presented here.
Transitive OrdersEdit SVO with ergative verbs is rather common, similarly to English.
| |Since focus lies on the patient, the verb phrase often moves further back.
Intransitive OrdersEdit Intransitive with SV(O) is not very common, though it does occur.
Since focus lies on the verb, VS(O) is much more common. Please not that the pronoun may be dropped, but it's not custom regarding intransitive verbs.
Noun PhraseEdit The Naṃkrthāvāka does not possess particular positions for the adpositional phrase, hence it will be prepositional for the sake of simplicity. It is quite similar to English.
|demonstratıve||adȷectıval phrase||modifier||preposıtıonal phrase||noun|
|daı||mā sāntreı||madrāsyeı||hā dāmıa||kātraı|
|"Those" pro.1.sg.erg||"very" u.adv."nice" adj.attr.fem.erg.pl||"university" mod.adj.fem.pl||"by" u.prep."house" loc.sg.neut||"students" nom.pl.fem|
|"Those very nice university students by the house"|Possessive noun phrases can be formed through a possessive pronoun, or a dative construction. However, they remain after the head noun.
|noun||postposıtıonal phrase||preposıtıonal phrase|
|"chair" nom.sg.fem||"brown"adj.attr.fem.pl "mark" nom.pl.fem "with" u.prep.||"to" u.prep."me" 1.sg.dat|
|"My chair with brown marks"|
Verb PhraseEdit In the Naṃkrthāvāka, adverbial phrases always precede the modified verb. The noun phrase, however, depends on the transitivity, and mere taste - see further up.
|adjverbial phrase||verb||noun phrase|
|mā kevtās||sıhēt||da māuram sēṭham|
|"very" u.adv."closely" adv.masc.sg||"looked" trans. pst.ipfv.1.sg||"that" u.dem."brown"attr.acc.sg.fem "chair" acc.sg.fem|
|"(He) looked closely at that brown chair"|
Pro-formsEdit Out of simplicity, a number of the proforms are represented below. It is basically the famous "table of correlatives for constructed languages". The words listed below, however, does not symbolise the entire inventory. They are all relatively irregular in form, though not always in inflection.
The pronoun rows (Masculine, Feminine, Neutral, Dual, Plural) all decline according their phonological attributes, see the "Declension" section. However, the demonstratives, which roughly correspond to the English third person, and the interrogative-relative, are irregular, and follow their own declension. The rest remain in their original form.
Both the goal and the source, adhere to the location, being the benefactive and ablative case respectively. Derivation along the columns is usually made through the relative.
Used in fixed phrases: Veȷyā hāmaron? "It came from somwhere?" [ærˈ.ɛːs ˈa̤ː.ma.rœn]. Used in fixed phrases: Veȷyānth saȷāron! "They're came from everywhere!" [fɛˈ.c͡çɪːn saˈ.caː.rœn] Used in fixed phrases: Kēnem am sāȷanna ero! "I want to go everywhere!" [ˈkɛ.nɛm am saˈ.caː.nːa ə.rɔs] - By some reason. - By any reason. Used in fixed phrases: Sāmma! "By all reasons", "excuse me" [ˈsaː.mːa] Used in fixed phrases: "No reason", "You're welcome" [ˈnɛː.ma] - For some other reason.
| |A more formal form of the first person accusative is: mēga A more formal form of the second person accusative is: dāga A more formal form of the impersonal accusative is: sēga
DemonstrativesEdit Since Nāmaς does not have a third person pronoun in the English sense, its demonstratives fulfil this function instead by standing independently without a modified substantive. The demonstratives exist per gender and number. The declension is irregular, but declines relatively well according to the other declensions. The demonstratives are equivalent to English he, she and it, and will in the conjugations be called the third person.
Distal DeclensionEdit The distal, or normal declension correspond either to he, she and it, or that man, that woman, and that. It is completely irregular.
Proximal DeclensionEdit The proximal declension differ only with the proximal prefix he, in the masculine and feminine, whilst the neutral gender dual gets the prefix a. They correspond rather well with this man, this woman, and this.
InterrogativeEdit The interrogative pronouns number three, and congruate with the gender, but does not distinguish the dual number. It is rather irregular. It resembles a mixture between the first declension and the demonstratives.
ArticlesEdit The Naṃkrthāvāka makes use of plenty articles, which most often just inflect according to gender and number. The definite article of the Naṃkrthāvāka is quite undefined and varies throughout the article. The praxis varies from a generic definite article, to proximal prefixes and demonstrative pronouns
NounsEdit Nouns in Nāmaς are declined by three genders masculine, feminine and neuter. They are also declined by no less than 9 cases, and the single number, and a simple plural, except in the pronouns, which preserve the dual number.
GendersEdit The genders in Nāmaς are three in number. The genders are masculine, feminine and neuter. There is no way to predict the class of a noun, except for the fact that female and male humans and animals are included in the feminine and masculin genders, respectively. There is however, a tendency towards abstract nouns to be feminine, and objects tend to be neuter.
Nāmaς possesses nine cases, and all nouns in a clause must be declined by one, and one only. The cases are often followed by a particle, for example the instrumental and locative cases that often are preceded or replaced by such particles as sām [saːm] "with" and ım [ɪm] "in, within". The links will display the usage of each case.
Please note that the ergative-absolutive distinction is not made in the third nominal declension, nor in the comparative, cercative nor the superlative degrees of comparison of adjectives, whence they form the Nominative case.
First DeclensionEdit The characteristic of this declension are the vowel stems. Nouns decline rather similar between genders, with the exception the instrumental case, and the feminine dative. Please note that the plural of many cases, is a assimilation of the preceeding vowel, and diphtongisation.
Front First DeclensionEdit The first declension is split into two subtypes, depending on the vowel metaphony of the word. The front declension is recognised should the word be initiated with a front vowel, contain only one front vowel, or only /ɛ/'s.
The features of the front declension differs somewhat from the back one: Since the accusative and instrumental end in nasals, plural is formed through the third declension of nasal stems. Likewise is the plural of the instrumental formed through the fourth declension.
Back First DeclensionEdit There are, as mentioned, two separate subtypes of the first vowel stem declension. These are distinguished through whether the word has a back or front vowel harmony. The back declension is used should the word have a single back vowel, have an initial on, or a second one succeding an "affected" /ɛ/.
Some pecularities exist - the accusative plural normally ends in /-ɑu̯/.
Please note the /-u/ final vowel, which prohibits the locative declension. The difference between the normal declensions and the one with a preceding affected /ɛ/, is that the second vowel affects the terminating one.
Second declensionEdit Second declension always end a closed fricative coda. The second declension accusative and ablative are always indentical across genders. The accusative plural, and the feminine dative plural, is actually formed through diphtongisation > monophtongisation, [aːɪ̯] > [ɛː] , since the coda is'nt open - nor short.
Third DeclensionEdit The third declension is based upon nasal stems, and have peculiar function, since it affects the other declensions, especially in the accusative
There is no difference inter gender in this declension, and the absolutive and ergative cases are not distinguished, and form the nominative case.
Please note that all neuter nouns with the "-ns" ending also decline by this table. This includes the supine, which is formed through this declension. It is declined identically to the neuter "-n,m,nh" ending.
It is however called the "Special Neuter", hence "s"-neuter.
Fourth DeclensionEdit The fourth declension is by far the smallest, with a minority of the nouns. All of the words end in a diphtong, but not all diphtongs are present as lexeme codas. There are three possible diphtongs that may terminate a word, the rest form hiatus: -au, -eı, -aı. All will be displayed in this table. There is no difference between genders.
The ergative and absolutive cases have merged into the common nominative.
FormsEdit Nāmaς distinguishes five different adjectival forms, which are all perceived as functions of the corresponding noun in Nāmaς:
Predicative Predicative adjectives are conjuncted to the object with copulae or another verb, that is, a predicate. The adjectival predicative is indeclineable to case and number, but not gender. It can be compared.
| |Please note that the adjectival predicative above in reality is derived from the nominal predicative, declined to the accusative case.
Nominal The nominal form stands independently with a demonstrative, to represent the full object. In Nāmaς it's identical to the nominative attributive form.
Modifier The modifier form is as close to the noun as possible, in usage where the object is not only described, but modified with another noun. It is common for this form to merge wıth the modified object, in which case the objects original stress is preserved. Uncomfortably long compund words, are instinctively avoided. This form is identical to the nominative attributive singular form - and sometimes the original noun, and is dependent upon the genera.
| |Attributive Attributive adjectives differ in the sense that they congruate with the nouns regarding case, number and gender. They describe a feature of the object in a state.
Adverbial The last form describes a verb, in which manner it's conducted. It is not perceived as a lexical category in Neumatic linguistics. Please note that adverbs decline by gender and number of the verbs subject.
Adjectival DeclensionEdit The adjectival declensions are similar to the nominal ones; there are four of them, declined according to phonological features. However, they are not similar considering the vowel metaphony - adjectival āryasto becomes āryastoı, whilst the expected nominal āryasta or āryasto would become āryastaı. The inserted /o/ is a relic from the older languages, where gender played bigger role in declension.
First and Fourth DeclensionEdit The first declension adjectives, just like their nominal counterparts, have an open lexeme coda. Their predicative ending is always /-m/. The First adjectival declension has merged with the Fourth declension, causing all lexemes to loose their diphtong, thence giving them an open coda: "notoı" > "noto".
The attributive forms are identical to the nominal ones.
The predicative is the cognate noun's accusative case. The ergative attributive forms the modifiers.
Second DeclensionEdit Second declension adjectives are formed by second declension nouns, which possess fricative lexeme codas. Examples include mārnas - whole, and vēdath - intelligent.
The predicative form is the corresponding noun's accusative form with an elided fricative.
Third DeclensionEdit All third declension adjectives share the characteristic of a nasal coda, and is the smallest declension of adjectives. Please note that the third adjectival declension doesn't distinguish gender.
Consonant DeclensionEdit The fourth declension possesses a diphtong coda. It is quite similar to the corresponding nominal declension. Interestingly, a number of colours lie in the fourth declension, like sīnaı - blue, and nōtoı - black.
| |Nota Bene
The predicative form is the corresponding nouns accusative form, except regarding colours, which use their basic form.
Adjectival ComparisonEdit Comparison in Naṃkrthāvāka is not dependent on inflection solely, as it uses comparative adverbs to compare both adjectives and adverbs. Three different degrees of comparison exist, with the standard positive form excluded. The comparative form describes what the English adverb "more", or "less", would describe, likewise is the superlative the ultimate, "most/least" form. However, there is an innovation, the cercative degree of comparison, which describes features as "almost".
VoiceEdit Nāmaς only possess one voice, the active. In the Indo-European language, the passive and medio-passive voices merged, only to produce an impersonal pronoun, instead of a voice.
MoodsEdit Nāmaς possesses four moods, which all verbs conjugate by, and the optative may be combinated with other moods:
TensesEdit In Nāmaς there are three tenses, which denote the temporal place. The difference between present and preterite, past tense, is simply pushed stress. All tenses are dependent on the aspects.
AspectsEdit There are four aspects in the Namian language, and please note that in combination with some moods and tenses, no conjugational forms exists. The present imperfect fits the the description "Gnomic" aspect rather than "Imperfect", and features obvious facts, as well as use for stating general occurrences.
TransitivityEdit Specifically, Nāmaς possesses an unique trait - it distinguishes transitivity, not just dynamic and stative verbs, but transitivity. The characteristic is known foremostly in Uralic languages and Siberian ones. Transitivity is, how many, and if, a verb accepts a direct object. If it doesn't, it is called an intransitive verb. This is Nāmaς' basic verb form.
"I go" - Ērem eha [ˈæːr.ɛm ˈɛː.ʔa̤ ] The transitive verbs however, can take atleast one direct object, they are formed through vowel apophony, where the first vowel of the root is altered, according to a pattern.
"I kill the man" - Mērthoı o anthrās [ˈməːr.tʰɔɪ̯ ɔ an.ˈtʰraːs] Nevertheless, the language's finesse is the fact that the absolute majority of all Nāmaς' verbs, are ambitransitive, and can stand both with and without an object. However, since the transitivity is marked morphologically on the verb it doesn't count as ambitransitive - but in Nāmaς it's perceived as the same verb. Sometimes the conjugation distinguishes the intransitive-transitive states:
"To instruct" versus "to show". "Dekaς" hēnta "Dıkeς" [ˈdɛ.ɣaz ˈʔɛ̤ːnta ˈdı.ɣɛz]
And sometimes stative-dynamic verbs:
"To be active" versus "to do". "Magaς hēnta "Megeς" [ˈma.ɣaz ˈʔɛ̤ːnta ˈmɛɣ.ɛz]
Some verbs distinguishes both of the above, depending on context:
"To know" or "to be able" versus "To know (someone)". "Vedhaς" hēnta "Vıdhıς" [ˈfɛ.θas ˈʔɛ̤ːnta ˈfıθ.ıs]
SupineEdit The Namian supine is equivalent of that of the English gerund. It is essentially the verbal noun of Nāmaς, and can be found in phrases such as:
"I like dancing" "It's important to know" - "To know is important" In Nāmaς, the supine is used to form both the verbal nouns, as well as the optative mood, and the three participles. Since the supine always terminate in "-nς", it is classed as third declension, and thus declined thereafter. The formations then come from the third declension special neuter accusative.
Please note that no matter it declines and acts like a noun, it is perceived as a verbal form, hence you use the intransitive when it is the object:
Kānem nākantam - "I like dancing" [ˈkaː.nɛm ˈnaː.kan.tam]
ParticipleEdit In Nāmaς there are three active participles, since no passive voice exists. They all decline according to normal adjective or adverb declensions, depending on context. The meaning is displayed in English with relative clauses.
InfinitiveEdit In Nāmaς no true infinite form exists, all forms are conjugated, and whereas English uses an infinitive to represent the main verb, and and conjugate the auxiliary verb, Nāmaς uses the perfective subjunctive form, conjugated accordingly. Please consider the following example:
In more colloquial language, it is possible to completely ignore any inflection of the main verb, and instead rely on the bare stem. In the above mentioned sentence, a youngster would perhaps express it: "Ēha kāhem vedh". Please note that the pure stem is "ved-", but the aspiration - and spirantisation - cannot contradict the Phonotactics.
IntransitiveEdit The indicative intransitive conjugation forms verbs to fit into factual main clauses, however, without any direct objects. For the optative mood, insert "-ant-" onto the stem.
The subjunctive intransitive formations of the verb, form hypothetical actions in dependent clauses, and bound actions in the main clauses - with no direct objects involved. There is no distinction between the perfect and imperfect aspects in the subjunctive.
Please note that all "-r" endings depende on whether the verb is transitive or not, as well as if it has an intitial back or front vowel. Front intransitive gives: -ar, back intransitive gives: - or, whilst you get an -ir and -er with front and back transitive verbs, respectively.
Interestingly, the subjunctive also happens to be the remaining of the passive voice - without the uses.
The transitive indicative is used to form main clauses with factual content, with a direct object. The transitive stem is constructed through vowel apophony in the stem. The apophony is identical to that of the monophtongisation of diphtongs, in the "Diphtongs" section.
The subjunctive intransitive formations of the verb, form hypothetical actions in dependent clauses, and bound actions in the main clauses - with at least one direct object. There is no distinction between the perfect and imperfect aspects in the subjunctive.
Interestingly, the subjunctive also happens to be the remaining of the passive voice - without the uses.
|vıd - to know; to be able to; can|
|1 The present imperfective is rather a present gnomic.|
|2 The aspiration of subjunctives only occur when the stem consonant occurs intervocally.|
Other than these conjugations, Nāmaς possesses a number of irregular conjugations. Considering the fact that is an artificial language, there ought to be more than a "number". These irregular conjugations have so far been mapped:
- Eos - the copula "to be"
- "Daha" Conjugation
- Daha - to be generous - to give
- Kaha - to utter - to talk
- Seha - to understand - to see
- "Kara" Conjugation
- Kara- to be active - to do
- Skarbha - to be a writer - to write
- Sarṇa - to hear - to listen to
- "Vaga" Conjugation
- Vaga - to speak - to say
- Vega - to go, travel, come
- Yaga - to pray - to hallow
- Arga - to be in the lead - to lead, bring
Nāmaς has a relatively free word order, thus it would be incorrect to call the words "prepositions", or "postpositions". There is a tendency towards placing an adposition before the modified nouns, though it isn't compulsory.
Adpositions in Nāmaς are declineable, but decline not to case, but rather gender, person - and number. There are two forms of the adpositions - the independent form:
- Ērem na vyīa - I walk on the street [ˈæː.rɛm na ˈfʂɪː.a]
And the bound form, which replace and decline with the person:
- Is hāmem - You're next to me [ɪs ˈa̤ː.mɛm]
Please note that the dependent form at times include an additional consonant, should the independent form terminate in a vowel. This form is used in the first person and impersonal declension.
There is no first or second person neuter singular. The plural neuter refers to mixed collectives of men and women.
|By, next to|
All the objects of the adpositions must decline by case - should they not have been declined, the meaning could turn ambiguous:
"Haı na vya", can, when declined accordingly, mean both:
- Haı na vyīa - It is on the street. [a̤i̯ na fʂɪː.a]
- Haı na vya - It is the street's. [a̤i̯ na fʂa]
Compound words, in all lexical categories alike (except adpositions), form according to set number of rules, depending on the nature of the compound.
|Human rights set out in the Declaration. The following reproduces the articles of the Declaration which set out the specific human rights that are recognized in the Declaration. Article 1All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.|
Dēktraı na mēnsyaı dathāntam ım Deklarateīa.
Ahēs sākvanta kātaprodukta o ārtiklaı na Deklaratenēς, dya dāthıs o dēktrama mēnsyema spekıvīkema, am sēn ādvedhantam im Deklarateīa.
Anglican Books of Common Prayer Standard of 1662
o Skṙbhaṇa sām Nāımaζ Standarḍam na 2012-01-10
A number of appendices gives a quick reach to Nāmaς in depth.
VocabularyEdit Here is a small introduction to the Naṃkrthāvāka vocabulary. Hopefully, it will be added to the Contitionary.