Nāmaς is an Indo-European influenced, mixed a priori-posteriori language, by Waahlis.  

This page is part of the Nāmaς family of articles, which is currently changing its and name to Nāmic, as well as vocabulary and grammar. The author wishes to make clear that ther is a reason for it, which may be found further down this page. That is, the page is littered with striked words.


Dēna vēȷyanς! - Welcome!

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Nāmaς, ([ˈnaː], translates as "name, noun, meaning or thing"), or Naṃkrthāvāka [ˌnã.kr̩ˑ.ˈtʰaː.faː.xa] "Named constructed speech" - is a mixed constructed a priori/ a posteriori language. It draws inspiration from mainly the Indo-European branch, yet makes a decisive stance to preserve artificial features. For the sake of simplicity I suppose it could be called the Namian language, or whatever. Doesn't really matter.

Since there is a tendency in Nāmaς to blend characteristics of both artificial and natural languages, a rather unholy mixture has arisen, for example:

It is a fusional language, like its predecessors Latin, Sanskrit, Greek and Germanic - yet displays the highly unnatural ergative-accusativ alignment, or tripartite, - which is rarely seen outside conlanging.

Concerning the vocabulary, both words derived from Indo-European stems, as well as complete a priori words, appear; such as "dhrȳa" - tree, from Indo-European *dóru, and the word for heaven, "ıāmna" - from... me.

Other than that, other, rather unique features are included, such as:

  • Phonemic and manipulated stress.
  • Progressive metaphony.
  • Partial regressive metaphony.
  • Consonant harmony, based upon voicedness.

Plus an extremely constructed characteristic:

  • Distinguished transitivity




The following table portraits Nāmaς' phonetic inventory of consonants. All consonants, except aspirated ones, may be geminated, which is phonemic, and represented by doubling by the grapheme. The letter /h/ represents aspiration when succeding consonants, and breathy-voice when preceding vowels. "Nh", is an exception, being a velar nasal.

Phonology and Orthography
Bilabial Labiodent. Dental Retroflex Palatal Velar
aspirated unaspirated aspirated unaspirated aspirated unaspirated aspirated unaspirated
Nasal m [m] n [n̪] ṇ [ɳ] ny [ɲ] nh [ŋ]
Plosives voiced bh [bʱ] b [b] dh [d̪ʱ] d [d̪] ḍh [ɖʱ] ḍ [ɖ] ȷ [ɟ] g [g] gh [gʱ]
voiceless ph [pʰ] p [p] th [t̪ʰ] t [t̪] ṭh [ʈʰ] ṭ [ʈ] ȷ [c] k [k] kh [kʰ]
Affricatives voiced py [p͡ɸ] dy [ɖ͡ʐ] ȷy [ɟ͡ʝ]
voiceless by [b͡β] ty [ʈ͡ʂ] ky [c͡ç]
Fricatives voiced (v [v]) z [z̪] y [ʐ] hy [ç]
voiceless (v [f] ) s [s̪] ṣ [ʂ] hy [ʝ]
Trills r [r]
Approxim. voiced v [w] ḷ [ɽ] ı [j]
voiceless v [ʍ]

Please note that all retroflex consonants and the dental trill rhoticise the surrounding consonants. The pronunciation of <v> is considered dialectal.


Hence the alphabet of Nāmaς':

Aa Bb Bh Dd Ḍḍ Dh Ee Γg Γh Hh Kk Ḷḷ Mm Ṃṃ Nn Ṇṇ Oo Pp Ph Rr Ss Ṣṣ Tt Ṭṭ Uu Vv Yy Hy Zz

Please note that the letters /h/ and /ṃ/ are modifiers of adjacent vowels. See the Vowel Quality section.

The letter /ς/ is a possible alternativeto lexeme-final /s/.


In addition to the consonants above, Nāmaς suffers from severe allophony, lenition, caused when:

  • Consonants lie in medial position between two vowels.
  • Consonants lie in final position in lexemes.

The aspirated consonants become completely spirantisised, whilst the unaspirated phonemes become affricates. The exceptions are the velars, which all become fricatives. The nasal consonants, affricates, trills and approximants remain unaffected.

Please note that the phonemes without brackets are the "basic" consonants.

Bilabial Labiodent. Dental Retroflex Palatal Velar
aspirated unaspirated aspirated unaspirated aspirated unaspirated aspirated unaspirated
Plosives voiced b d̪ʱ ɖʱ ɖ ɟ g
voiceless p t̪ʰ ʈʰ ʈ c k
Affricatives voiced b > [b͡β] d̪ > [d̪͡ð] ɖ > [ɖ͡ʐ] ɟ >[ ɟ͡ʝ]
voiceless p > [p͡ɸ] t̪ > [t̪͡θ] ʈ > [ʈ͡ʂ] c >[c͡ç]
Fricatives voiced bʱ > [β] (v) d̪ʱ, z̪ > [ð] ɖʱ > [ʐ] gʱ, g > [ɣ]
voiceless pʰ > [ɸ] (f) t̪ʰ, s̪ > [θ] ʈʰ > [ʂ] h ,kʰ, k > [x]
Approxim. voiced (v > [w] )
voiceless (f > [ʍ] )

Nota bene

There is additional allophony, regarding phonation. The pairs [c - ɟ], [ç -ʝ], [v - f], and [w - ʍ], are only represented by one grapheme each: ȷ, hy, v, and vh respectively. Their voiced counterpart is an allophone - see Consonant Assimilation.

The murmur-phonation letter /h/ receives the pronunciation [ç/x] when final in a syllable.

Thus, our conclusion is that the word vāka- voice, speach - shouldn't be pronounced [ˈwaːka], but rather [ˈʍaːxa].


In addition to these, there's a multitude of digraphs with corresponding affricates. It is important to note that the four digraphs /pt/, /vt/, /kt/, and /jt/ symbolise consonant clusters with an affricate onset. They are not affected by lenition.

Affricate clusters
Cluster Grapheme
[p͡ft] Pt
[b͡βd] Bt
[t͡ʃt] Kt
[d͡ʒd] Jt

Consonant AssimilationEdit

Nāmaς possesses a progressive consonant assimilation word-internally, based upon phonation, or voicedness.

The consequence is that a consonant, a cluster, or an affricate, is pronounced differently, depending on whether it is preceded by a voiced or voiceless consonant. There are exceptions to this rule, since the alveolar trill [r] and the retroflex tap [ɽ] do not differ between voicedness.

The nasal stops are affected quite differently, with a complete nasalisation of the preceding vowel - and loss of the stop - if the initial or first consonant is voiced. However, nasals are perceived as neutral in nature, and does therefore not affect voiceless nor voiced phonemes.

There are, however, two dialects of Nāmaς;

  • Staṇya, which means "current, dominating".
  • Ḷestra, which means "golden, posh".

The Staṇya dialect will be featured in this article, and is the main dialect that distinguishes consonant assimilaton upon voicedness.

Example Translation Staṇza Ḷestra
sandrā moon [s̪an̪.ˈt̪raː] [s̪an̪.ˈd̪ra]
dāntha tooth [ˈd̪ãːða] [ˈd̪aːn̪.t̪ʰa]
āsvyas he has [ˈaːs̪.fʂas̪] [ˈaːs̪.as̪]
nāmas name [ˈnaː.mas̪] [ˈnaː.mas̪]


The representation of Nāmaς' vowels. There are are fifteen vowel phonemes, yet only 7 graphemes, thus, it may be assumed some are allophones during certain circumstances. It is obvious that many of the vowel graphemes are recycled, since many phonemes are allophones. The background is covered in the Metaphony section.

Front Near front Central Near back Back
Close y [ʉ] ı [ɯ] u [u]
Near-Close ı [ɪ] y [ʏ] y [ʊ]
Close-Mid u [ɵ]
Mid ә/e/o [ə]
Open-Mid e [ɛ] o [œ] o [ɔ]
Open a [a] a [ɑ]


There are a limited number of diphtongs in Nāmaς, with the same amount rising as falling diphtongs. [ɪ̯] is most often equivalent to [j], and [u̯] is often just [w]. The left diftong is its front value, and the right one is the back value. All other vowel clusters are diaeresis. The main phoneme in all diphtongs may be geminated.

Rising Falling
Front Back Front Back
ıa [ɪ̯a] [ɪ̯ɑ] [aɪ̯] [ɑɪ̯]
ıe [ɪ̯ɛ] [ɪ̯ə] [ɛɪ̯] [əɪ̯]
ıu [ɪ̯ɵ] [ɪ̯u] [ɵɪ̯] [uɪ̯]
ıo [ɪ̯œ] [ɪ̯ɔ] [œɪ̯] [ɔɪ̯]
ua [u̯a] [u̯ɑ] au [au̯] [ɑu̯]
ue [u̯ɛ] [u̯ə] eu [ɛu̯] [əu̯]
uo [u̯œ] [u̯ɔ] ou [œu̯] [ɔu̯]
Diphtong AllophonyEdit

No falling diphtongs occur inter consonants, as a nucleus, nor do the falling diphtongs appear geminated in open coda position. They are transformed into geminated, or short monophtongs - and are inconsistently written as monophtongs, however it isn't compulsory. The allophony according to this schedule:

Front diphtongs on the left, back ones at the right.

Diphtong Allophony
Front Back
Diphtong Monophtong Diphtong Monophtong
[aɪ̯] [ɛ] [ɑɪ̯] [ə]
[ɛɪ̯] [ɪ] [əɪ̯] [ɯ]
[ɵɪ̯] [ɵ] [uɪ̯] [u]
[œɪ̯] [œ] [ɔɪ̯] [ə]
au [au̯] [œ] [ɑːu̯] [ɔ]
eu [ɛu̯] [æ] [əːu̯] [ə]
ou [œu̯] [ɵ] [ɔːu̯] [u]

Vowel MetaphonyEdit

The Naṃkrthāvāka suffers from a certain kind of vowel harmony, called progressive vowel metaphony. This urges all vowel phonemes in a lexeme to be of the same kind of the preceding one. That is: Va = type-a vowel, Vb = type-b vowel, C = consonant: VaVbVb > VaVaVa

There are tqo exception, causing the metaphony to be regressive instead; when a word is initialised by an [ɛ], or an [ә]. The [ɛ] and [ә] the gets assimilated by the succeeding consonant: VbVaVb > VaVaVa

These modified [ɛ-ә] -sounds will occurr later in text, and will be referred to as "affected" /ɛ-ә/.

The metaphony is present, and affect for example the plural endings of many case declensions, where the coda vowel gets completely assimilated by the former. However, if the preceding vowel has the same front-back value, it's just diphtongised.

  • Horse - thētosya (abs. sing.) > thētosyoı (abs. plu.)
  • But not; "fire" - kēma (erg. sing.) > *kēmeı, but rather kēmaı (erg. plu.)

Nāmaς' metaphony is based upon backness, with eceptions being when /e/, /y/ and /o/ are followed by an [r], which ignores the harmony, and modifies the phoneme.

Grapheme Aa Ee Yy Uu Oo
Front Phoneme [a] [ɛ] [ɪ] [ʏ] [ɵ] [œ]
Back Phoneme [ɑ] [ə] [ɯ] [ʊ] [u] [ɔ]
[r] Phoneme - [æ] - [ʉ] - [ə]

Vowel QualityEdit

There are no less than six different vowel qualities:

  • Short and geminated Oral
  • Short and geminated Nasal
  • Short and geminated Murmured

The vowels will be represented by a default /a/. Please note that any nasal can nasalise the preceding vowel, however in non-voiced environments, only the letter "ṃ" may.

Oral Nasal Murmured
Phoneme /a/ /aː/ /ã/ /ãː/ /a̤/ /a̤ː/
Grapheme a ā aṃ āṃ ha

Nota Bene

When /h + vowel/ is preceded by a vowel, a glottal stop is inserted.


Some phonemes create new pronunciations when adjacent to eachother:

  • <h> + <r> = hr [xr]
  • + + vowel = suV [su̯V]
  • <s> + + <ı> = suı [sʍı] </s>


This article or section requires fix up.
It will be done soon.
  • <s>Any consonant - C </s>
  • <s>Sonorant - S </s>
  • <s>Fricative - F </s>
  • <s>Nasal - N </s>
  • <s>Vowel, also diphtong when final - V </s>

<s>A Namian syllable have two different maximal syllabic structures, the by far most common structure is (F)(C)(C)V(C)(F/N) initially, and (F)(C)CV(C)(F/N) medially and finally. The conclusion is that a syllable's maximal consonant cluster is FCC, that a medial and final syllable minimally must look like CV, and that all syllables must terminate in either a F, fricative, a nasal- N, or a vowel - V. Since most lexemes in Nāmaς are disyllabic, a common lexeme might look like this: FCVN.CV, like stānta - "state" [ˈstaːn.ta]. It should herefore be noted that ēkva - either, is pronounced [ˈɛː.kʍa], and not [ˈɛːk.ʍa]. </s>

<s>The second structure is very uncommon, but does occur: (C)CS(C), and sometimes (C)CVS(C), where a sonorant occupy the syllable nucleus. Most of the syllables are free, that is, without the coda. Examples include vṙkas - wolf [ˈʍr̩ˑ.kas], and ēktrva - any of them [ˈɛː.ktr̩ˑ.ʍa]. Interestingly, all syllabic sonorants are half-geminated. </s>



This article or section requires fix up.
It will be done soon.

A pecurious detail of Nāmaς is that it is possible to manipulate the stress to convey different meanings. In Nāmaς' linguistics called stress apophony. </s>

<s>There are four diacritics in Nāmaς: </s>

  • <s>The acute accent, "ó", or the dot "ȯ" which marks stress on a short syllable. This is only used on open monosyllables, since they are long otherwise. </s>
  • <s>The grave accent "ò" which may be used to replace the macron "ō". These indicate geminated stress. </s>

<s>Stress must always be marked in polysyllabic words, except verbs in the infinitive, and gemination must be marked in all words. </s>

<s>In many of the pro-adverbs, a question may be abbreviated from "Shall I put it here?" Vērem dās sdıses hyāra? [ˈfɛːr.ɛm daːz ˈstis.ɛs ˈçɛː.ra] into "Here?" in English and "Hyar<u>ā?", not "Hy<u>āra?" in Namian. By moving the stress to the ultimate syllable in adverbs and nouns, you may produce an interrogative meaning.

Concerning nouns in the nominative case, all stress is irregular, and a multitude of minimal pairs exist: such as "burden" nāutoς [ˈnœːθ.œs], and "meaning" nautōς [nœˈθ.œːs]. Only in certain cases is the stress moved from one syllable to another - "snake" nāga [ˈnaː.ɣa], in the nominative, becomes in the genitive; naganēς [na.ɣa.ˈnɛːs] "snake's".

In verbs, the stress plays an important part in the conjugations: Stress is for example never marked in the infinitive, and always occurs on the first syllable. It also denotes the transition from present tense to the preterite, in all aspects: "We say" means kāham [ˈkaː.ʔa̤m] in Namian, while "We said" is called kahām [ ka.ˈʔa̤ːm]. The stress on all verb conjugations are always regular.

If there are two, or more, geminated syllables in one lexeme, the second one's stressed, for example pāraktīra [paː.ra.ˈt͡ʃtɪː.ra], which means "torso".


Considering the fusional nature of the Naṃkrthāvāka, the word order's rather free. It does possess tendencies towards SOV and SVO. It sould however be noted that the word order may alter depending on transitivity. Only SOV, VSO and SVO orders will be presented here.

Transitive OrdersEdit

SVO with ergative verbs is rather common, similarly to English.

Transitive SVO (VO)
Inflectional Phrase
(noun phrase) verb phrase noun phrase
(ēga) mērthoı ma anthrās
"I" "killed" "the man" sg.acc.def

Since focus lies on the patient, the verb phrase often moves further back.

Transitive SOV (OV)
Inflectional Phrase
(noun phrase) noun phrase verb phrase
(ēga) ma anthrāς mērthoı
"I" "the man" sg.acc.def "killed"

Intransitive OrdersEdit

Intransitive with SV(O) is not very common, though it does occur.

Intransitive SVO (SV)
Inflectional Phrase
noun phrase verb phrase
ēha skrbhām
"I" "wrote" ı

Since focus lies on the verb, VS(O) is much more common. Please not that the pronoun may be dropped, but it's not custom regarding intransitive verbs.

Intransitive VSO (VS)
Inflectional Phrase
verb phrase noun phrase
skrbhām ēha
"wrote" ı "I"


Noun PhraseEdit

The Naṃkrthāvāka does not possess particular positions for the adpositional phrase, hence it will be prepositional for the sake of simplicity. It is quite similar to English.

Noun Phrase
demonstratıve adȷectıval phrase modifier preposıtıonal phrase noun
daı mā sāntreı madrāsyeı hā dāmıa kātraı
"Those" "very" u.adv."nice" "university" "by" u.prep."house" "students"
"Those very nice university students by the house"

Possessive noun phrases can be formed through a possessive pronoun, or a dative construction. However, they remain after the head noun.

Noun Phrase
noun postposıtıonal phrase preposıtıonal phrase
"chair" "brown" "mark" "with" u.prep. "to" u.prep."me"
"My chair with brown marks"
Verb PhraseEdit

In the Naṃkrthāvāka, adverbial phrases always precede the modified verb. The noun phrase, however, depends on the transitivity, and mere taste - see further up.

Verb Phrase
adjverbial phrase verb noun phrase
mā kevtās sıhēt da māuram sēṭham
"very" u.adv."closely" "looked" trans. "that" u.dem."brown" "chair"
"(He) looked closely at that brown chair"


Out of simplicity, a number of the proforms are represented below. It is basically the famous "table of correlatives for constructed languages". The words listed below, however, does not symbolise the entire inventory. They are all relatively irregular in form, though not always in inflection.

Nota Bene

The pronoun rows (Masculine, Feminine, Neutral, Dual, Plural) all decline according their phonological attributes, see the "Declension" section. However, the demonstratives, which roughly correspond to the English third person, and the interrogative-relative, are irregular, and follow their own declension. The rest remain in their original form.

Both the goal and the source, adhere to the location, being the benefactive and ablative case respectively. Derivation along the columns is usually made through the relative.

  1. Used in fixed phrases: Veȷyā hāmaron? "It came from somwhere?" [ærˈ.ɛːs ˈa̤ː.ma.rœn].
  2. Used in fixed phrases: Veȷyānth saȷāron! "They're came from everywhere!" [fɛˈ.c͡çɪːn saˈ.caː.rœn]
  3. Used in fixed phrases: Kēnem am sāȷanna ero! "I want to go everywhere!" [ˈkɛ.nɛm am saˈ.caː.nːa ə.rɔs]
  4. - By some reason.
  5. - By any reason.
  6. Used in fixed phrases: Sāmma! "By all reasons", "excuse me" [ˈsaː.mːa]
  7. Used in fixed phrases: "No reason", "You're welcome" [ˈnɛː.ma]
  8. - For some other reason.


This article or section requires fix up.
It will be done soon.
There are three kinds of pronouns in the language, the first person, the second, and the impersonal. Since Nāmaς actually doesn't possess a passive voice, it relies on the impersonal pronoun, which only gives an approximation of passivity. The impersonal is also merged with the reflexive pronouns, whilst the remaining persons use their accusative - the passive conjugation later formed the subjunctive conjugation. Also, the pronominal declension distinguishes the dual number. The declension is irregular. Note that the pronouns here are irregular, the rest, including those in the correlatives table, decline normally.

Pronominal DeclensionEdit

Pronominal Declension
Person  First Second Impersonal
Case Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural Singular
Ergative ēga ēvam vya tva ūvam ȷam suә
Absolutive ēha ēva aṣmā ūva ȷuṣmā suāyam
Accusative 1 evām vyam daı2 uvām ȷām suam3
- Enclitic maı nau nos ṭaı vas vam svә
Dative mēya ēvabhya āṣmabhya tvāya ūvabhya ȷūṣmabhya sēya
- Enclitic mya bya nos tya va vam saı
Instrumental mēbhyam ēvabhya āṣmabhya tūbhya ūvabhya ȷūṣmabhya sēbhyam
Locative mīa ēvaı āṣmıa tvīa ūvoı ȷūṣmıo suīa
Genitive maı ēvaı āṣmaı deı ūvoı ȷūṣmoı suāı
- Enclitic mon byon mona byon non svon
Benefactive mēnna bhyānna vyānna tvānna byānna ȷānna sēnna
Ablative mās ēvabhyas āṣmas tvās ūvavbhyas ȷūṣmas suās
  1. A more formal form of the first person accusative is: mēga
  2. A more formal form of the second person accusative is: dāga
  3. A more formal form of the impersonal accusative is: sēga


Since Nāmaς does not have a third person pronoun in the English sense, its demonstratives fulfil this function instead by standing independently without a modified substantive. The demonstratives exist per gender and number. The declension is irregular, but declines relatively well according to the other declensions. The demonstratives are equivalent to English he, she and it, and will in the conjugations be called the third person.

Distal DeclensionEdit

The distal, or normal declension correspond either to he, she and it, or that man, that woman, and that. It is completely irregular.

Distal Declension
Person  Masculine Feminine Neutral
Case Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
Ergative dau daı īdh dībya deı tāı tau teı
Absolutive dāha dāhu dāhaı dīha dīhaı dīheı tēna tēnua tēnaı
Accusative dām dāva dāma dīm dīva dīma tām tāvam tamā
- Enclitic da dau dam ıḍh dım at taṃ atm
Dative dāya dābya dāyaı īhya dībya īhyaı tīa tēbya tāya
- Enclitic daı dau dıa deı dıa tabha atm
Instrumental dāṇa dāṇua dāṇaı dīṣta dīṣtua dīṣteı tēṇa tēṇua tēṇeı
Locative dṿa duābya dṿaı dṿe duēbya dṿeı tau tāva tāvaı
Genitive dāṇa duābyan dāṇaı dēṇa duēbyaṇ dēṇeı tēṇa tāvaṇ tēṇaı
- Enclitic daṇ duaṇa daṇa dīṇ duīṇ dīṇa teṇ tueṇa teṇa
Benefactive dānṭa danṭau dānṭaı dēnṭa dēnṭeu dēnṭeı tānṭha tānṭhau tānṭhaı
Ablative dāṭ dāṭa īdha īdhaı tēṭ tēṭa

Proximal DeclensionEdit

The proximal declension differ only with the proximal prefix he, in the masculine and feminine, whilst the neutral gender dual gets the prefix a. They correspond rather well with this man, this woman, and this.

Proximal Declension
Person  Masculine Feminine Neutral
Case Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
- Enclitic
- Enclitic
- Enclitic


The interrogative pronouns number three, and congruate with the gender, but does not distinguish the dual number. It is rather irregular. It resembles a mixture between the first declension and the demonstratives.

Interrogative Declension
Person  Masculine Feminine Neutral
Case Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Ergative kyō kyoı kyē kyeı kyā kyaı
Absolutive kāho kāhoı kāhe kāheı kāha kāhaı
Accusative kyōm kyōma kyēm kyēmә kyām kyāma
- Enclitic kam kama kam kama kam kama
Dative kyōmaı kyōshma kyēmaı kyēṣmә kyāmaı kyāshma
- Enclitic kaı kaṣaı kaı kaṣaı kaı kaṣaı
Instrumental kyōṇa kyōṇoı kyēstә kyēsteı kyāṇa kyāṇaı
Locative kou kōva keı kau kāva
Genitive kyoṇ kyoṇā kyeṇ kyeṇā kyaṇ kyaṇā
- Enclitic kua kuaı kua kuaı kua kuaı
Benefactive kyōṃ kyōṃa kyēnṭa kyēnṭaı kyānṭa kyānṭaı
Ablative kyōı kyēı kyāı


The Naṃkrthāvāka makes use of plenty articles, which most often just inflect according to gender and number. The definite article of the Naṃkrthāvāka is quite undefined and varies throughout the article. The praxis varies from a generic definite article, to proximal prefixes and demonstrative pronouns

Number  Singular Plural
Article Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Indefinite ēka ēna ēkaı ēnaı ēya
Definite o, ma
Proximal definite
Distal definite
Partitive hāma hāmṇa
Negative nēga


Nouns in Nāmaς are declined by three genders masculine, feminine and neuter. They are also declined by no less than 9 cases, and the single number, and a simple plural, except in the pronouns, which preserve the dual number.


The genders in Nāmaς are three in number. The genders are masculine, feminine and neuter. There is no way to predict the class of a noun, except for the fact that female and male humans and animals are included in the feminine and masculin genders, respectively. There is however, a tendency towards abstract nouns to be feminine, and objects tend to be neuter.


Nāmaς possesses nine cases, and all nouns in a clause must be declined by one, and one only. The cases are often followed by a particle, for example the instrumental and locative cases that often are preceded or replaced by such particles as sām [saːm] "with" and ım [ɪm] "in, within". The links will display the usage of each case.

  1. Absolutive
  2. Ergative
  3. Accusative
  4. Dative
  5. Instrumental
  6. Locative
  7. Genitive
  8. Benefactive
  9. Ablative

Please note that the ergative-absolutive distinction is not made in the third nominal declension, nor in the comparative, cercative nor the superlative degrees of comparison of adjectives, whence they form the Nominative case.

Nominal DeclensionEdit

This article or section requires fix up.
It will be done soon.
There are four declensions in Nāmaς, each declined separately by phonemic differences. Please note that noun endings sometimes are a consequence of vowel metaphony, and diphtongisation. Stress falls on the same syllable no matter case or number, with a few exceptions.

First DeclensionEdit

The characteristic of this declension are the vowel stems. Nouns decline rather similar between genders, with the exception the instrumental case, and the feminine dative. Please note that the plural of many cases, is a assimilation of the preceeding vowel, and diphtongisation.

Front First DeclensionEdit

The first declension is split into two subtypes, depending on the vowel metaphony of the word. The front declension is recognised should the word be initiated with a front vowel, contain only one front vowel, or only /ɛ/'s.

The features of the front declension differs somewhat from the back one: Since the accusative and instrumental end in nasals, plural is formed through the third declension of nasal stems. Likewise is the plural of the instrumental formed through the fourth declension.

First Declension
Sdē chair Kēma fire Nāra person
Gender  Masculine Feminine Neuter
Case Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Absolutive sdē sdēı kēma kēmaı nāra nāraı
Ergative sdēsya sdēsyaı kēmasya kēmasyaı nārasya nārasyaı
Accusative sdēm sdēma kēmam kēmama nāram nārama
Dative sdēya sdēyaı kēmaya kēmayaı nāraya nārayaı
Instrumental sdēṇ sdēṇa kēmasṭa kēmasṭaı nāraṇ nāraṇa
Locative sdeu sdēṿa kēmau kēmaṿa nārau nāraṿa
Genitive sdīṇa sdīṇaı kēmaṣva kēmaṣvaı nāreṇa nāreṇaı
Benefactive sdēnṭa sdēnṭaı kēmanṭa kēmanṭaı nārans nāranta
Ablative sdēṭ kēmaṭ nāraṭ
Back First DeclensionEdit

There are, as mentioned, two separate subtypes of the first vowel stem declension. These are distinguished through whether the word has a back or front vowel harmony. The back declension is used should the word have a single back vowel, have an initial on, or a second one succeding an "affected" /ɛ/.

Some pecularities exist - the accusative plural normally ends in /-ɑu̯/.

Please note the /-u/ final vowel, which prohibits the locative declension. The difference between the normal declensions and the one with a preceding affected /ɛ/, is that the second vowel affects the terminating one.

First Declension
Krṭō work Bhūva mud Dhēnu bull
Gender  Masculine Feminine Neuter
Case Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Absolutive krṭō krṭōı bhūva bhūvuı dhēnu dhēnuı
Ergative krṭōsya krṭōsyoı bhūvasua bhūvasvuı dhēnusya dhēnusyuı
Accusative krṭōm krṭōmau bhūvam bhūvamau dhēnum dhēnumau
Dative krṭōya krṭōyoı bhūvaya bhūvayuı dhēnuya dhēnuyuı
Instrumental krṭōṇa krṭōṇoı bhūvaṣa bhūvaṣuı dhēnuṇa dhēnuṇuı
Locative krṭōu krṭōva bhūvau bhūvava dhēnu dhēnuı
Genitive krṭōne krṭōnoı bhūvane bhūvanuı dhēnus
Benefactive krṭōṃ krṭōmo bhūvaṃ bhūvamo dhēnuṃ dhēnumo
Ablative krṭōna bhūṿana dhēnuna

Second declensionEdit

Second declension always end a closed fricative coda. The second declension accusative and ablative are always indentical across genders. The accusative plural, and the feminine dative plural, is actually formed through diphtongisation > monophtongisation, [aːɪ̯] > [ɛː] , since the coda is'nt open - nor short.

Second Declension
Ānthras man Jēṇus name Thēṭos horse
Gender  Masculine Feminine Neuter
Case Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Absolutive ānthras ānthraıs ȷēṇus ȷēṇuıs thēṭos thēṭoıs
Ergative ānthrasya ānthrasyaı ȷēṇusya ȷēṇusyuı thēṭosya thēṭosyoı
Accusative anthrās anthrāıs ȷeṇūs ȷeṇūıs theṭōs theṭōıs
Dative ānthrahya ānthrahyaı ȷēṇuhya ȷēṇuhyuı thēṭohya thēṭohyoı
Instrumental ānthrans ānthranta ȷēṇuns ȷēṇunta thēṭons thēṭonta
Locative ānthrau ȷēṇou thēṭou
Genitive ānthratı ānthrataı ȷēṇuta ȷēṇutuı thēṭota thēṭotoı
Benefactive ānthrassa ānthrassaı ȷēṇussa ȷēṇussuı thēṭossa thēṭossoı
Ablative anthrā ȷēnu thetō

Third DeclensionEdit

The third declension is based upon nasal stems, and have peculiar function, since it affects the other declensions, especially in the accusative

Nota bene

There is no difference inter gender in this declension, and the absolutive and ergative cases are not distinguished, and form the nominative case.

Please note that all neuter nouns with the "-ns" ending also decline by this table. This includes the supine, which is formed through this declension. It is declined identically to the neuter "-n,m,nh" ending.

It is however called the "Special Neuter", hence "s"-neuter.

Third Declension
Sȳon dog Jtām experience Ktans hand
Gender  Masculine Feminine s-Neuter
Case Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Absolutive sȳon syōna ȷtām ȷtāma ktans ktāna
Ergative sȳon sȳona ȷtām ȷtāma ktāns ktānta
Accusative sȳona sȳonaı ȷtāma ȷtāmaı ktānta ktāntaı
Dative sȳonyı sȳonyeı ȷtānyı ȷtānyeı ktānya ktānyaı
Instrumental sȳoṇa sȳoṇa ȷtāṇa ȷtāṇaı ktans ktāns
Locative sȳonau ȷtāmau ktānas ktanās
Genitive sȳonıs syonīs ȷtāmıs ȷtamīs ktan ktān
Benefactive sȳonaṃ sȳonama ȷtāmaṃ ȷtāmama ktānna ktānnaı
Ablative sȳons sȳonta ȷtāns ȷtānta ktānta ktāntaı

Fourth DeclensionEdit

The fourth declension is by far the smallest, with a minority of the nouns. All of the words end in a diphtong, but not all diphtongs are present as lexeme codas. There are three possible diphtongs that may terminate a word, the rest form hiatus: -au, -eı, -aı. All will be displayed in this table. There is no difference between genders.

The ergative and absolutive cases have merged into the common nominative.

Fourth Declension
Nau boat Sārau sorrow Skōḷeı school Sīnaı velvet
Gender  Masculine Feminine Neuter Neuter
Case Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative nau nāva sārau sārava skōḷeı skōḷeya sīnaı sīnaya
Accusative nāva nāvam sārava sāravam skōḷeya skōḷeyam sīnaya sīnayam
Dative nāva nāvaı sārava sāravaı skōḷeya skōḷeyaı sīnaya sīnayaı
Instrumental nāuṇa nāuṇaı sārauṇa sārauṇaı skōḷeıṇa skōḷeıṇaı sīnaıṇa sīnaıṇaı
Locative nau nāu sārau sarāu skōḷeı skoḷēı sīnaı sınāı
Genitive Uses the dative construction
Benefactive nāve nāvaı sārave sāravaı skōḷeye skōḷeyaı sīnaye sīnayaı
Ablative nāvaṭ sāravaṭ skōḷeyaṭ sīnayaṭ



Nāmaς distinguishes five different adjectival forms, which are all perceived as functions of the corresponding noun in Nāmaς:

  • Predicative

Predicative adjectives are conjuncted to the object with copulae or another verb, that is, a predicate. The adjectival predicative is indeclineable to case and number, but not gender. It can be compared.

Dāha dēhyes karyēm
He appears nice
[ˈdaː.ʔa̤] [ˈdɛː.ʝɛz] [kar.ˈʃɛːm]
Eoı sınaȷēm
(I) am blue
[ɔɪ̯] [sɪ.na.ˈcɛːm]

Please note that the adjectival predicative above in reality is derived from the nominal predicative, declined to the accusative case.

  • Nominal

The nominal form stands independently with a demonstrative, to represent the full object. In Nāmaς it's identical to the nominative attributive form.

Heı nāvaı asvyēṣeς ēumam
The young will inherit (the) Earth
[ɛ̤ɪ̯] [ˈnaː.ʍaı̯] [as.ˈfʂɛː.ʂɛs] [ˈɛu̯.mam]
  • Modifier

The modifier form is as close to the noun as possible, in usage where the object is not only described, but modified with another noun. It is common for this form to merge wıth the modified object, in which case the objects original stress is preserved. Uncomfortably long compund words, are instinctively avoided. This form is identical to the nominative attributive singular form - and sometimes the original noun, and is dependent upon the genera.

Ēna  lēuta dhrȳa
A stone tree
[ˈɛː.na] [ˈɻɛːu̯.ta ] [ˈdʰrʏː.a]
Ēna leutadhrȳa
A stone(-)tree
[ˈɛː.na] [ɻɛu̯.ta.ˈdʰrʏː.a]
  • Attributive

Attributive adjectives differ in the sense that they congruate with the nouns regarding case, number and gender. They describe a feature of the object in a state.

Dātaı hedēbyam adh kāryaı ānthrakya
Give these two to [the] nice man
[ˈdaː.tʰaɪ̯] [ɛ̤.ˈdɛː.b͡βã] [að] [ ˈkaːr.ʂaı̯] [ˈaːn.tʰra.c͡ça]
  • Adverbial

The last form describes a verb, in which manner it's conducted. It is not perceived as a lexical category in Neumatic linguistics. Please note that adverbs decline by gender and number of the verbs subject.

Kāhar keȷās
(He) talked quickly
[ka.ˈʔa̤ːr] [ke.ˈcaːs]

Adjectival DeclensionEdit

The adjectival declensions are similar to the nominal ones; there are four of them, declined according to phonological features. However, they are not similar considering the vowel metaphony - adjectival āryasto becomes āryastoı, whilst the expected nominal āryasta or āryasto would become āryastaı. The inserted /o/ is a relic from the older languages, where gender played bigger role in declension.

First and Fourth DeclensionEdit

The first declension adjectives, just like their nominal counterparts, have an open lexeme coda. Their predicative ending is always /-m/. The First adjectival declension has merged with the Fourth declension, causing all lexemes to loose their diphtong, thence giving them an open coda: "notoı" > "noto".

First Declension
Noun → Ārya noble
Gender → Masculine Feminine Neuter
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Case ↓ Attributive1
aryā aryāı aryē aryēı aryō aryōı

Nota Bene

  1. The attributive forms are identical to the nominal ones.
  2. The predicative is the cognate noun's accusative case.
  3. The ergative attributive forms the modifiers.

Second DeclensionEdit

Second declension adjectives are formed by second declension nouns, which possess fricative lexeme codas. Examples include mārnas - whole, and vēdath - intelligent.

Second Declension
Noun → Mārnas whole
Gender → Masculine Feminine Neuter
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Case ↓ Attributive

Nota Bene

  • The predicative form is the corresponding noun's accusative form with an elided fricative.

Third DeclensionEdit

All third declension adjectives share the characteristic of a nasal coda, and is the smallest declension of adjectives. Please note that the third adjectival declension doesn't distinguish gender.

Third Declension
Noun → Sām similar
Gender → Masculine Feminine Neuter
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Case ↓ Attributive

Consonant DeclensionEdit

The fourth declension possesses a diphtong coda. It is quite similar to the corresponding nominal declension. Interestingly, a number of colours lie in the fourth declension, like sīnaı - blue, and nōtoı - black.

Consonant Declension
Noun → black
Gender → Masculine Feminine Neuter
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Case ↓ Attributive1

Nota Bene

  • The predicative form is the corresponding nouns accusative form, except regarding colours, which use their basic form.

Adjectival ComparisonEdit

Comparison in Naṃkrthāvāka is not dependent on inflection solely, as it uses comparative adverbs to compare both adjectives and adverbs. Three different degrees of comparison exist, with the standard positive form excluded. The comparative form describes what the English adverb "more", or "less", would describe, likewise is the superlative the ultimate, "most/least" form. However, there is an innovation, the cercative degree of comparison, which describes features as "almost".


This article or section requires fix up.
It will be done soon.



Nāmaς only possess one voice, the active. In the Indo-European language, the passive and medio-passive voices merged, only to produce an impersonal pronoun, instead of a voice.


Nāmaς possesses four moods, which all verbs conjugate by, and the optative may be combinated with other moods:

Indicative Subjunctive Conditional Optative
I eat. I eat if I am hungry. I would eat, if I were hungry. I should eat, if I were hungry.
Ēdem ēha Ēdem ıas ēha kānhar Ēdar ıas ēha kānhar Ēdentem ıas ēha kānhar
[ˈɛːdʰ.ɛ̃ ˈɛː.ʔa̤] [ˈɛːdʰ.ɛ̃ i̯as ˈɛː.ʔa̤ ˈkaːŋ.ar] [ˈɛːdʰ.ær i̯as ˈɛː.ʔa̤ ˈkaːŋ.ar] [ˈɛːdʰɛ̃dʰɛ̃ i̯as ˈɛː.ʔa̤ ˈkaːŋ.ar]


In Nāmaς there are three tenses, which denote the temporal place. The difference between present and preterite, past tense, is simply pushed stress. All tenses are dependent on the aspects.

Present Preterite Future
I talk. I talked. I will talk.
Kāhyem ēha Kahyēm ēha Kāhasyem ēha
[ˈkaː.çɛm ˈɛː.ʔa̤ ] [ka.ˈçɛːm ˈɛː.ʔa̤ ] [ˈkaː.ʔa̤s.ʂɛm ˈɛː.ʔa̤ ]


There are four aspects in the Namian language, and please note that in combination with some moods and tenses, no conjugational forms exists. The present imperfect fits the the description "Gnomic" aspect rather than "Imperfect", and features obvious facts, as well as use for stating general occurrences.

Perfective Imperfective Gnomic Retrospective
I stood up. I stood up, when... I use to stand. I had been standing.
Maı stentōı Maı stentām, āƞa... Maı stēntam. Maı stēntabham.
[maɪ̯ stə.ˈntəː] [maɪ̯ stɛ.ˈntaːm ˈaːɲ.a] [maɪ̯ ˈstɛː.ntam] [maɪ̯ ˈstɛː.nta.ɸam]


Specifically, Nāmaς possesses an unique trait - it distinguishes transitivity, not just dynamic and stative verbs, but transitivity. The characteristic is known foremostly in Uralic languages and Siberian ones. Transitivity is, how many, and if, a verb accepts a direct object. If it doesn't, it is called an intransitive verb. This is Nāmaς' basic verb form.

  • "I go" - Ērem eha [ˈæːr.ɛm ˈɛː.ʔa̤ ]

The transitive verbs however, can take atleast one direct object, they are formed through vowel apophony, where the first vowel of the root is altered, according to a pattern.

  • "I kill the man" - Mērthoı o anthrās [ˈməːr.tʰɔɪ̯ ɔ an.ˈtʰraːs]

Nevertheless, the language's finesse is the fact that the absolute majority of all Nāmaς' verbs, are ambitransitive, and can stand both with and without an object. However, since the transitivity is marked morphologically on the verb it doesn't count as ambitransitive - but in Nāmaς it's perceived as the same verb. Sometimes the conjugation distinguishes the intransitive-transitive states:

  • "To instruct" versus "to show".

"Dekaς" hēnta "Dıkeς" [ˈdɛ.ɣaz ˈʔɛ̤ːnta ˈdı.ɣɛz]

And sometimes stative-dynamic verbs:

  • "To be active" versus "to do".

"Magaς hēnta "Megeς" [ˈma.ɣaz ˈʔɛ̤ːnta ˈmɛɣ.ɛz]

Some verbs distinguishes both of the above, depending on context:

  • "To know" or "to be able" versus "To know (someone)".

"Vedhaς" hēnta "Vıdhıς" [ˈfɛ.θas ˈʔɛ̤ːnta ˈfıθ.ıs]


The Namian supine is equivalent of that of the English gerund. It is essentially the verbal noun of Nāmaς, and can be found in phrases such as:

  • "I like dancing"
  • "It's important to know" - "To know is important"

In Nāmaς, the supine is used to form both the verbal nouns, as well as the optative mood, and the three participles. Since the supine always terminate in "-nς", it is classed as third declension, and thus declined thereafter. The formations then come from the third declension special neuter accusative.

Please note that no matter it declines and acts like a noun, it is perceived as a verbal form, hence you use the intransitive when it is the object:

Kānem nākantam - "I like dancing" [ˈkaː.nɛm ˈnaː.kan.tam]


In Nāmaς there are three active participles, since no passive voice exists. They all decline according to normal adjective or adverb declensions, depending on context. The meaning is displayed in English with relative clauses.

Present Participle Past Participle Future Participle
A person who carries. A person who carried. A person who's about to carry
Nāra nāutanta Nāra nautānta Nāra nautasyānta
[ˈnaː.ra ˈnɔː.tɑn.tɑ] [ˈnaː.ra nɔ.ˈtɑːn.tɑ] [ˈnaː.ra nɔ.tɑs.ˈʂɑːn.tɑ]


In Nāmaς no true infinite form exists, all forms are conjugated, and whereas English uses an infinitive to represent the main verb, and and conjugate the auxiliary verb, Nāmaς uses the perfective subjunctive form, conjugated accordingly. Please consider the following example:

Pronoun Auxiliary verb Main verb
ēha kāhyem vēdhar
"I" "to want" ıntrans.ı "to know"ı
[ˈɛː.ʔa̤] [ˈkaː.çɛm] [ˈfɛː.θar]
"I want to know."

In more colloquial language, it is possible to completely ignore any inflection of the main verb, and instead rely on the bare stem. In the above mentioned sentence, a youngster would perhaps express it: "Ēha kāhem vedh". Please note that the pure stem is "ved-", but the aspiration - and spirantisation - cannot contradict the Phonotactics.



The indicative intransitive conjugation forms verbs to fit into factual main clauses, however, without any direct objects. For the optative mood, insert "-ant-" onto the stem.

The subjunctive intransitive formations of the verb, form hypothetical actions in dependent clauses, and bound actions in the main clauses - with no direct objects involved. There is no distinction between the perfect and imperfect aspects in the subjunctive.

Please note that all "-r" endings depende on whether the verb is transitive or not, as well as if it has an intitial back or front vowel. Front intransitive gives: -ar, back intransitive gives: - or, whilst you get an -ir and -er with front and back transitive verbs, respectively.

Interestingly, the subjunctive also happens to be the remaining of the passive voice - without the uses.


The transitive indicative is used to form main clauses with factual content, with a direct object. The transitive stem is constructed through vowel apophony in the stem. The apophony is identical to that of the monophtongisation of diphtongs, in the "Diphtongs" section.

The subjunctive intransitive formations of the verb, form hypothetical actions in dependent clauses, and bound actions in the main clauses - with at least one direct object. There is no distinction between the perfect and imperfect aspects in the subjunctive.

Interestingly, the subjunctive also happens to be the remaining of the passive voice - without the uses.

Irregular verbsEdit

Other than these conjugations, Nāmaς possesses a number of irregular conjugations. Considering the fact that is an artificial language, there ought to be more than a "number". These irregular conjugations have so far been mapped:

  • Eos - the copula "to be"
  • "Daha" Conjugation
    • Daha - to be generous - to give
    • Kaha - to utter - to talk
    • Seha - to understand - to see
    • "Kara" Conjugation
    • Kara- to be active - to do
    • Skarbha - to be a writer - to write
    • Sarṇa - to hear - to listen to
  • "Vaga" Conjugation
    • Vaga - to speak - to say
    • Vega - to go, travel, come
    • Yaga - to pray - to hallow
    • Arga - to be in the lead - to lead, bring


Nāmaς has a relatively free word order, thus it would be incorrect to call the words "prepositions", or "postpositions". There is a tendency towards placing an adposition before the modified nouns, though it isn't compulsory.

Adpositions in Nāmaς are declineable, but decline not to case, but rather gender, person - and number. There are two forms of the adpositions - the independent form:

  • Ērem na vyīa - I walk on the street [ˈæː.rɛm na ˈfʂɪː.a]

And the bound form, which replace and decline with the person:

  • Is hāmem - You're next to me [ɪs ˈa̤ː.mɛm]

Please note that the dependent form at times include an additional consonant, should the independent form terminate in a vowel. This form is used in the first person and impersonal declension.

There is no first or second person neuter singular. The plural neuter refers to mixed collectives of men and women.

By, next to
Form Independent Dependent
Hām -
Gender  Masculine Feminine Neuter
Person Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
First hāmem hāmam hāmım hāmam hāmeı
Second hāsa hāsıs hāsı hāsıs hāζeı
Third hārra hāron hārrı hāron hārras hāron
Sıngular Plural
Impersonal hāmıa hāmaı

Nota Bene

All the objects of the adpositions must decline by case - should they not have been declined, the meaning could turn ambiguous:

"Haı na vya", can, when declined accordingly, mean both:

  • Haı na vyīa - It is on the street. [a̤i̯ na fʂɪː.a]
  • Haı na vya - It is the street's. [a̤i̯ na fʂa]


Compound words, in all lexical categories alike (except adpositions), form according to set number of rules, depending on the nature of the compound.






A number of appendices gives a quick reach to Nāmaς in depth.


Here is a small introduction to the Naṃkrthāvāka vocabulary. Hopefully, it will be added to the Contitionary.

No. English Naṃkrthāvāka
2you (singular)tva
5you (plural)ȷam
37man (adult male)ānthras
38man (human being)mēnsya


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