Nāmaς has a relatively free word order, thus it would be incorrect to call the words "prepositions", or "postpositions", hence adpositions. There is a tendency towards placing an adposition before the modified nouns, though it isn't compulsory.

Adpositions in Nāmaς are declineable, but decline not to case, but rather gender, person - and number. There are two forms of the adpositions - the independent form:

  • Ērem na vyīa - I walk on the street [ˈæː.rɛm na ˈfʃɪː.a]

And the bound form, which replace and decline with the person:

  • hāmem - You're next to me [ɪs ˈʔaː.mɛm]

Please note that the dependent form at times include an additional consonant, should the independent form terminate in a vowel. This form is used in the first person and impersonal declension.


The adpositions of Nāmaς congruate with number, gender and person. The following table gives the declension:

Adpositional Declension
By, next to
Form → Independent Dependent
Hām -
Gender → Masculine Feminine Neuter
Person ↓ Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
First hāmem hāmam hāmım hāmam hāmeı
Second hāsa hāsıς hāsı hāsıς hāζeı
Third hārra hāron hārrı hāron hārraς hāron
Sıngular Plural
Impersonal hāmıa hāmaı


Similarly to many living languages, like German or Greek - as well as constructed ones, like Kihā́mmic, a preposition may possess different meanings depending on the inflected case on the object:

Locative Phrase
Haı na vyīa
"(It) is" intrans.pre.prf.3.sgc "on" prep.independent "street" sg.3.dec.loc.indef
It's on the street
Genitive Phrase
Haı na vyās
"(It) is" trans.pre.prf.3.sgc "on" prep.independent "street" sg.3.dec.gen.indef
It's the street's


To decrease the confusion, this appendix will provide an overview of the adpositions, their uses, and concords with cases. Please consult the Neumatic cases, should problems arise.

Adposition Meaning Usage
Ergative - Absolutive - Nominative
hēnta [ˈʔɛːn.ta] versus, against John versus Emma.
nēga [ˈnɛ.g͡ɣa] no I have no shoes.
adh [að] to He throws it to me.
praı [praɪ̯] for Are you gonna' pay for that?
amvıā [amˈ.fɪ̯aː] beyond It lies beyond the hills.
sām [saːm] with; by means of He writes by the means of a pen.
[ʔaː] by The house built by him.
vıa [ʍɪ̯a] by; via You get there via that road.
adh [að] into You're going into a house.
na [na] on; at I'm at your place.
hēnta [ˈʔɛːn.ta] against And he leant against the wall...
[ʔaː] by; along; next to The dog stands next to the fence.
praı [praɪ̯] ahead of; before The man is ahead of us.
handāı [ʔan.ˈdaɪ̯] behind; after Now he's behind us!
amprāı [am.ˈpraɪ̯] in front of I'm in front of the house now.
amāndaı [am.ˈan.daɪ̯ behind Well, I'm behind it.
āndra [ˈaːn.dra] under; below It's under the table.
āna [ˈaː.na] over; above There's a pigeon above you.
amkūkro [aŋ.ˈkɵːk.rəs] around The cat runs around the garden.
mēda [ˈmɛː.d͡ða] between Keep it between the two of us...
ammēda [amˈ.mɛː.d͡ða] amongst Oh, he's amongst the people.
amsdāura [amˈ.staː.u̯ra] across Just go across the bridge.
na [na] of He knelt in the presence of the king.
amsēdha [amˈ.sɛː.θa] instead of She's here instead of him.
mēnta [ˈmɛːn.ta] thanks to All thanks to the cat.
av [aʍ] from, of I'm from Norway!
adh [að] towards, at, to He throws it towards me.
av [aʍ] away; from; of Go away from those hills!
ek [ɛx] out of Get out of the car!
sām [saːm] together with I'm together with my family.
hēnta [ˈʔɛːn.ta] against They are against abortion.
praı [praɪ̯] for I did it for you!
am [am] about What are you talking about?
kva [kʍa] than You'll have to wait more than a month.
samsdēȷa [samˈ.stɛːca] according to According to this book...
ēranta [ˈæː] during During the visit to...
ādranta [ˈaːd.ran.ta] until Until they got to Edinburgh.

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