In the Naṃkrthāvāka , four copulae are to be found, or rather two copulae with both an intransitive and a transitive form. In Nāmaς they class as the same verbs, but in English, they represent four very different meanings.


The intransitive root -as, is derived from the hypothetical Proto-Indo-European root *h1és-; to be.

For the Naṃkrthāvāka , it is common for both the *'h1é and *h2é syllable to become -a, through extended a-gradiation. Another characteristic is the disappearance of terminal, non-stressed, *-i in the second and third person, as well as the diphtongisation of terminal *-é to -eı. Stress is - as always - irregular.

Please note this extrordinary fact: the language is constructed, thus I've allowed myself to create the transitive conjugation with mere inspiration of the intransitive one.


A copula, or linking verb in layman's terms, connects and indicates equivalence between subject and and object, as well as linking attributes, for example identity:

  • "I only want to be myself."
  • "When the area behind the dam fills, it will be a lake."
  • "The Morning Star is the Evening Star."
  • "Boys will be boys."
Attributive objects:
  • "She could be a nurse."
  • "Dogs are canines."
  • "Moscow is a large city."

Predicative attributes:

  • "It hurts to be blue."
  • "Will that house be big enough?"
  • "The hen is next to the cockerel."
  • "I am confused."


This conjugation is similar in meaning with the English verb "to exist", as well as "to be", the basis is that it can't carry an object, therefore it could represent both copulative and non-copulative uses. Above all, it's important to remember that the copula - similarly to other constructed languages, in particular - is irregular. There's no distinction between perfective and the imperfective aspect.


  • "He is jealous"
  • "We are here"


  • "I think, therefore I am"


The transitive forms are not reconstructed, but rather the result of "inspired" a priori. I have been somewhat inspired of the s, z > r shift known as Grammatischer Wechsel. This formation distinguishes between mood in the second person - irregularly, however. Eos reponds to the English copulative verb "to be", where indentity and similarity is connected by the copula:

  • "He is a police officer"
  • "We are idiots"

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