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北川语

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Nũk hùl meî
北川语
Type
analytic, topic prominent
Alignment
nom acc
Head direction
final
Tonal
Yes
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
no
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

REQUESTING A NATIVE HANZI USER TO HELP ME FIND THE RIGHT HANZI. (note that all bopomofo are ought to be replaced with a hanzi!)

PhonologyEdit

Initial consonantsEdit

Hangul version

standard romanization Ipa standard romanization Ipa
m m r r
n n / ɴ l l
nn ɲ / ŋ j j
t t q ɥ
d d cj ɕj
p b çj tɕj
b p ks ks
k k
g g mv
v β br br / bɾ
f ɸ kr kr / kɾ
s s fr ɸr / ɸɾ
z ʦ / z cr χr
c χ th
h ç ph
ç ʨ kh
x ʣ gh gçʰ

Final consonantsEdit

standard romanization Ipa standard romanization Ipa
m m p
n n k
ng ŋ g gçʰ
l l s s
Tuuns

Estimation of tones in Nũk hùl meî

VowelsEdit

standard romanization Ipa standard romanization Ipa
i ʏ y i
o o w ɔ
ii e: u y
a a e ɛ
er ɑ˞ ar ɑ
ou u: eu ø
ao au oa ua
wu ɔː yu i:
ie ia ia
ei ɛi ai ai

TonesEdit

romanization accent tone non-accentual notation tone name Tone number Tone in Ipa
 ̄   (-) neutral tone 1 (33 )    ˧
 ́  (/) rising tone 2 (25 )    ˨˥
 ̀  (\) falling tone 3 (51 )    ˥˩
 ̂   (^) tipping tone 4 (153)   ˩˥˧
 ̃ (~) dipping tone 5 (523)   ˥˨˧

PhonotacticsEdit

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No No No No No No
Nouns No No No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

NounsEdit

Nouns are followed by a particle, to display their function. Sometimes, when the context is clear enough, in speech the particles could be pronounced as their initial consonant. Also, sometimes the particles are left away in speech, or in poetry.

particle romanization hanzi particle romanization hanzi
nominative accusative nw
nom inc acc inc
topic à topic inc
locative genitive qẁ
instrumental grouping ò tò

VerbsEdit

Tense romanization hanzi aspect romanization hanzi
future ùl eùk perfect
moods romanization hanzi continuous fà fàl
interrogative én gnomic feì fù
imperative stative
negation taì initiative kw̃ ìk
conditional sŷ iís terminative kî íng
subjunctive vwùl vẃ iterative ný jãr

The gnomic is also used for the habitual aspect.

placement sentence initial sentence final verb prefix verb affix
future ùl eùk
interrogative én én
imperative
negation taì
conditional iís
subjunctive vwùl vẃ
perfect
continuous fàl
gnomic feì feì
stative
initiative kw̃ ìk
terminative íng íng íng
iterative jãr jãr

SyntaxEdit

Nũk hùl meî syntax is most often TSOV (topic, subject, object, verb), though within the TSO part you can shift freely, the verb always has to be last of everything (exepted some particles that are allowed after the verb)

VocabularyEdit

Personal pronouns
pronoun Romanized Hanzi
1st person singular
2nd person singular jií
3rd person singular (male)
3rd person singular (female)
1st person dual eùny 我俩
2nd person dual jiíny 你俩
3rd person dual nìny 他俩
1st person plural eùmè 我们
2nd person plural jiímè 你们
3rd person plural nìmè 他们
Demonstratives Personified
English Romanized Hanzi romanized hanzi english
this kẁ kẁnì 这他 he &&
that cjẁ cjẁnì 那他  he &&
Wich kẁn nìn who?
locative destination
English Romanized Hanzi romanized hanzi english
here kẁkẃ kẁné 这往 this way
there cjẁkẃ cjẁné 那往 that way
where kẃn 里何 nén wich way
instrumental
English Romanized Hanzi romanized hanzi english
this way kẁté 这式 kẁ (hè) ... 这 ... this ...
that way cjẁté 那式 cjẁ (hè) ... 那 ... that ...
how? tén 式何 ...n ...  what ... ?

&& 这他 and 他那 are rarely used, 他 is used in most cases, and is considered best to use.

For more vocabulary, visit this linque

Example textEdit

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