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Naşvaran

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Naşvaran (/na∫.vʌ.ran/) is the proto-language of all the known languages on the world of Alor. Naşvaran is unique for its complete lack of inflection and its complex system of honorifics.

Name: Naşvaran

Type: Analytic

Alignment: Nominative-Accusative

Head Direction: First

Number of genders: 0

Declensions: No

Conjugations: No

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect

General InformationEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No Yes No Yes No No
Nouns No No No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No Yes No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Stop p b t d k g ʔ
Sibilant Fricative s z ʃ ʒ
Nonsibilant Fricative f v θ ð x
Approximate j
Trill r
Lateral Approximant l

AffricativesEdit

Alveolar Sibilant Palatoalveolar
Affricative ts

VowelsEdit

MonophthongsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close u
Near-close ɪ ʊ
Close-mid e o
Mid ə
Open-mid ɛ ʌ
Near-open æ
Open a

GrammarEdit

Word ClassesEdit

NounsEdit

Naşvaran nouns do not decline. All nouns must be proceeded by an honorific as well, which will be discussed later in the honorifics section. Nouns can be made plural in three different ways. First, they can be left unchanged, and the context determines the plurality. Secondly, they can be said twice. For example, belna means cat, but belna belna means cats. Third, they can be made plural by putting a number before them.

PronounsEdit

Personal PronounsEdit

There are two first person plural pronouns: an inclusive and an exclusive. The inclusive, man (/man/), "me, you, and others" while the exclusive means "me and others but not you." The third person pronouns also do not specify gender. If one must specify gender in the third person, they use the adjectives peru /pɪ.ru/, meaning male, or hena /xe.na/, meaning female, with the pronoun.

Person (singular) Naşvaran Person (plural) Naşvaran
First Person Nin First Person Inclusive Man
First Person Exclusive Niv
Second Person Var Second Person Len
Third Person Þam Third Person Heþ

Reflexive PronounEdit

There is one reflexive pronoun, tan /tan/. It is used as the object in reflexive sentences.

Demonstrative PronounEdit

There is one demonstrative pronoun: jin /dʒin/. It can be translated to these, those, or this. The demonstrative is used very rarely, only when it is necessary to the meaning of the sentence. It is more common for people to use the third person pronoun instead.

VerbsEdit

Verbs do not conjugate in Naşvaran. Instead, the tense and mood of verbs are specified by particles that follow it.

ParticlesEdit

Do to the lack of inflection, particles are very important to the meanings of sentences in Naşvaran.

Verb ModifiersEdit

Particles that follow verbs determine their mood and tense. This is a table of tense particles:

Tense Particle
Past Tense
Present Tense Peş
Future Tense Bah

The present tense of Naşvaran is analogous to the present progressive in English. It shows that something the action described in the sentence is currently taking place. If the tense is not specified, it means that the action happens, but is not necessarily happening at the moment.

There are also particles specifying grammatical mood. This is a table of them:

Mood Particle
Conditional Sas
Optative Ih
Imperative Þan
Subjunctive Nir
Interrogative Praş

Furthermore, when both the tense and mood of a verb are specified, the two particles contract into a single word.

Tense and Mood Particles Contraction
Past conditional aţ + sas saţ
Past optative aţ + ih ah
Past imperative aţ + þan
Past subjunctive aţ + nir nirţ
Past interrogative aţ + praş praţ
Present conditional peş + sas saş
Preset optative peş + ih heş
Present imperative peş + þan peþ
Present subjunctive peş + nir pir
Present interrogative peş + praş preş
Future conditional bah + sas bas
Future optative bah + ih bih
Future imperative bah + þan þah
Future subjunctive bah + nir bir
Future interrogative bah + praş braş

Yes and NoEdit

In Naşvaran, there are two words for yes and two words for no. The strong yes, ram (/ram/), and the strong no, hal (/xal/) are used when one is certain about their affirmation or refutation. The weak yes, tial (/ti.æl/), and the weak no, ţan (/tsan/) are used when one is not certain.

Other particlesEdit

Other particles exist in Naşvaran. Yi (/ji/) is the object marking particle. It is placed before the object to prevent it from being confused for part of the subject, since Naşvaran is a subject-object-verb language.

PostpositionsEdit

Postpositions follow the noun they relate to. Some common postpositions include:

Meaning Postposition
From Panş
On Pav
Onto Kel
Next to Kan
Before Munţ
Far away from Dura
Out of Las
Into Nem
In Ţik
Coming from Ruv
Amidst Nad
Through Vah
Behind
Near Pad
Under Se
Above Na
Within the boundary(ies) of Des
Of Fal

HonorificsEdit

Naşvaran uses an intricate system of honorifics to show respect. Every noun phrase in an independent clause must be proceeded by an honorific.

Noun HonorificsEdit

When noun honorifics follow the object marker yi, they are contracted with it.

Used when... Honorific Contracted with yi
Talking to people one does not know Ya Ya
Talking to a friend or family member Ro Yor
Talking to an aquaintence Ha Hya
Talking to a superior Fi Fyi
Talking to an expert in a field Va Vya
Talking to a leader of something Sra Yis
Writing Fyan Fya

Sentence StructureEdit

Word OrderEdit

Independent clauses in Naşvaran use subject-object-verb word order. The sentence begins with the subject, which is followed by the object, which is followed by the verb. Adjectives and honorifics preceed the nouns that they modify. Honorifics preceed verbs, and verb particles follow verbs. Subordinate clauses follow the SVO word order. Subordinate clauses also do not need honorifics.

ExampleEdit

Sentence: Fyan belna fal nin fya sant mer bah ag nin kilno nir þam.

Gloss: [honorific] cat of me [honorific] happy be [future] if I feed [subjunctive] it.

Translation: My cat will be happy if I feed it.

ExamplesEdit

The Universal Declaration of Human RightsEdit

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Fyan prati vyakti fra gam aran vyakti fal ku ikal uş aran sam prut vin. Fyan heþ fya kara aran ant kal işin vin aran yi brah fal atma ţik hara ki karya praş.

[Honorific] all human [object marker] dignity and human of right with free and equal born [passive]. [Honorific] they [object marker] reason and conscience with endow [passive] and [object marker] brotherhood of spirit in everybody towards act [optative]

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