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Naşvaran (/na∫.vʌ.ran/) is the proto-language of all the known languages on the world of Alor. Naşvaran is unique for its complete lack of inflection and its complex system of honorifics.
| Name: Naşvaran
Head Direction: First
Number of genders: 0
|Stop||p b||t d||k g||ʔ|
|Sibilant Fricative||s z||ʃ ʒ|
|Nonsibilant Fricative||f v||θ ð||x|
Naşvaran nouns do not decline. All nouns must be proceeded by an honorific as well, which will be discussed later in the honorifics section. Nouns can be made plural in three different ways. First, they can be left unchanged, and the context determines the plurality. Secondly, they can be said twice. For example, belna means cat, but belna belna means cats. Third, they can be made plural by putting a number before them.
There are two first person plural pronouns: an inclusive and an exclusive. The inclusive, man (/man/), "me, you, and others" while the exclusive means "me and others but not you." The third person pronouns also do not specify gender. If one must specify gender in the third person, they use the adjectives peru /pɪ.ru/, meaning male, or hena /xe.na/, meaning female, with the pronoun.
|Person (singular)||Naşvaran||Person (plural)||Naşvaran|
|First Person||Nin||First Person Inclusive||Man|
|First Person Exclusive||Niv|
|Second Person||Var||Second Person||Len|
|Third Person||Þam||Third Person||Heþ|
There is one reflexive pronoun, tan /tan/. It is used as the object in reflexive sentences.
There is one demonstrative pronoun: jin /dʒin/. It can be translated to these, those, or this. The demonstrative is used very rarely, only when it is necessary to the meaning of the sentence. It is more common for people to use the third person pronoun instead.
Verbs do not conjugate in Naşvaran. Instead, the tense and mood of verbs are specified by particles that follow it.
Do to the lack of inflection, particles are very important to the meanings of sentences in Naşvaran.
Particles that follow verbs determine their mood and tense. This is a table of tense particles:
The present tense of Naşvaran is analogous to the present progressive in English. It shows that something the action described in the sentence is currently taking place. If the tense is not specified, it means that the action happens, but is not necessarily happening at the moment.
There are also particles specifying grammatical mood. This is a table of them:
Furthermore, when both the tense and mood of a verb are specified, the two particles contract into a single word.
|Tense and Mood||Particles||Contraction|
|Past conditional||aţ + sas||saţ|
|Past optative||aţ + ih||ah|
|Past imperative||aţ + þan||aþ|
|Past subjunctive||aţ + nir||nirţ|
|Past interrogative||aţ + praş||praţ|
|Present conditional||peş + sas||saş|
|Preset optative||peş + ih||heş|
|Present imperative||peş + þan||peþ|
|Present subjunctive||peş + nir||pir|
|Present interrogative||peş + praş||preş|
|Future conditional||bah + sas||bas|
|Future optative||bah + ih||bih|
|Future imperative||bah + þan||þah|
|Future subjunctive||bah + nir||bir|
|Future interrogative||bah + praş||braş|
Yes and NoEdit
In Naşvaran, there are two words for yes and two words for no. The strong yes, ram (/ram/), and the strong no, hal (/xal/) are used when one is certain about their affirmation or refutation. The weak yes, tial (/ti.æl/), and the weak no, ţan (/tsan/) are used when one is not certain.
Other particles exist in Naşvaran. Yi (/ji/) is the object marking particle. It is placed before the object to prevent it from being confused for part of the subject, since Naşvaran is a subject-object-verb language.
Postpositions follow the noun they relate to. Some common postpositions include:
|Far away from||Dura|
|Within the boundary(ies) of||Des|
Naşvaran uses an intricate system of honorifics to show respect. Every noun phrase in an independent clause must be proceeded by an honorific.
When noun honorifics follow the object marker yi, they are contracted with it.
|Used when...||Honorific||Contracted with yi|
|Talking to people one does not know||Ya||Ya|
|Talking to a friend or family member||Ro||Yor|
|Talking to an aquaintence||Ha||Hya|
|Talking to a superior||Fi||Fyi|
|Talking to an expert in a field||Va||Vya|
|Talking to a leader of something||Sra||Yis|
Independent clauses in Naşvaran use subject-object-verb word order. The sentence begins with the subject, which is followed by the object, which is followed by the verb. Adjectives and honorifics preceed the nouns that they modify. Honorifics preceed verbs, and verb particles follow verbs. Subordinate clauses follow the SVO word order. Subordinate clauses also do not need honorifics.
Sentence: Fyan belna fal nin fya sant mer bah ag nin kilno nir þam.
Gloss: [honorific] cat of me [honorific] happy be [future] if I feed [subjunctive] it.
Translation: My cat will be happy if I feed it.
The Universal Declaration of Human RightsEdit
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Fyan prati vyakti fra gam aran vyakti fal ku ikal uş aran sam prut vin. Fyan heþ fya kara aran ant kal işin vin aran yi brah fal atma ţik hara ki karya praş.
[Honorific] all human [object marker] dignity and human of right with free and equal born [passive]. [Honorific] they [object marker] reason and conscience with endow [passive] and [object marker] brotherhood of spirit in everybody towards act [optative]