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Na Hëtṿa

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Name: (Na) Hëtṿa

Type: Fusional

Alignment: Nominative-Accusative

Head Direction: High tone

Number of genders: 3

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Nouns No Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adjectives No No Yes No No No No No
Numbers No No Yes No No No Yes No
Participles No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No
Adverb No Yes Yes Yes No No No No
Pronouns No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No Yes No No No No No
Particle No No No Yes No No No No


SettingEdit

The language of Hëtṿa was created in early 2010 as a semi-official language in the micronation of Debian.

PhonologyEdit

The alphabet of Hëtṿa
A B C Ċ D E Ë F G Ġ H I J K L Ł M N Ñ O P Q R S T U V Y
a b c ċ d e ë f g ġ h i j k l ł m n ñ o p q r s t u v ṿ y
A Ċë E Ë Ef Ge Ġe He I Ja Ka Ka pratë La Ła Ma Ṃa Na Ṇa Ña O Ṗë Qe Q̣ë Ṛë Ṣë Ṭë U Va Ṿa Ya
a b d e,ɛ ə, ɜ f g ɣ h i ʒ k ɢ l ʟ m ts n ŋ ɲ o,ɔ p ʜ c kʰw r, ɾ ʀ, ʁ s ʂ t d u v w j

PhonotacticsEdit

The phonotactics of Hëtṿa are quite simple. The only vowel clusters allowed are a-(anything) and o-(anything). All consonants can cluster except if the second consonant in the cluster is ċ, ṃ or ṣ. While phonetically possible, these letters are not allowed to cluster except if they are the first in the cluster. The letter h is also not allowed to cluster, as the letter h after another consonant creates what is called lenition.

LenitionEdit

Lenition is the use of the letter h to change the sound of consonants. A full table of lenited consonants can be found below:

Bh f
Ch
Ċh
Dh ð
Fh ɸ
Gh ɣ
Ġh ɮ
Jh
Kh ɕ
Ḳh ʑ
Lh ɬ
Łh ɮ
Mh h
Ṃh ŋh
Nh nǀǝ
Ṇh ŋǃa
Ph ɓ
Ṗh ɓ

Qh

x
Q̣h ç
Rh ɹ
Ṛh ʁ
Sh ʃ
Ṣh θ
Th d
Ṭh ɗ
Vh β
Ṿh (ə)b

Basic GrammarEdit

OrderEdit

TransitiveEdit

The order of sentences in Hëtṿa is SOV, or Subject-Object-Verb. So, the structure would be:

(Subject)-(Object)-(Transitive Verb)
English: I eat meat
Eng-Het: I meat eat
Hëtṿa: M'ëlbët memheṿ

Since the verb is transitive, the personal indicator must be repeated twice - before and after the object, the second one attached normally to the verb

IntransitiveEdit

If the verb is intransitive, then the order is VS, or Verb-Subject:

(Verb)-(Subject)
English: I eat
Eng-Het: Eat I
Hëtṿa: emheṿ më (as opposed to memheṿ)

VerbsEdit

Verbs are simple to form. Each verb has the following structure:

Personal indicator-infinitive-(tense/mood indicator) ((negation) and/or (interrogative))

Personal IndicatorsEdit

  • M
  • Ċ
  • T
  • Mh
  • Ċh
  • N

They each mean:

I M
You Ċ
He T
We Mh
You (polite or plural) Ċh
They
One N
Some


Each indicator also has four extra forms:

  1. Indicating words such as us, he and they.
  2. Indicating words such as our, his and their.
  3. Indicating words such as ours, his and theirs.
  4. Indicating reflexion of verbs
  • The first can be formed by adding an -ë to the end of each indicator
  • The second can be formed by adding an -ē to the end
  • The third can be formed by adding an -ās to the end.
  • The fourth can be formed by adding an -ī

Tense/Mood indicatorsEdit

Present Indicates what is happening now
Present perfect -(i)mak Something that has happened
Future perfect -(i)ni Something that will have happened
Past perfect -(i)ti Something that had happened
Future -(i)siti Something that will happen
Imperfect (e)ċe ____ip Something that was happening
Pluperfect -(i)masi Something that had happened
Preterite -(i)ma Something that happened
Conditional I (i)mhap ____asi Something that would happen
Conditional II (i)mhet ____asi Something that would have happened
Conditional III (i)mhos ____asi Something that would be happening
Negation dai To say that something did not happen
Interrogative To ask if something happened


Noun casesEdit

There are seven basic cases:

  1. Nominative
  2. Genitive
  3. Accusative
  4. Ablative
  5. Elative
  6. Intrative
  7. Translative
  • The nominative case is the main subject of the sentence
  • The genitive denotes possession
  • The accusative is the object of the sentence
  • The ablative denotes movement away from something
  • The elative means movement out of something
  • The intrative denotes something in between two objects.
  • The translative denotes a change of state (i.e. into something, becoming something)

There are also three numbers:

  1. Singular
  2. Dual
  3. Plural
  • The singular denotes one of something
  • The dual denotes two of something
  • The plural denotes many (but still an unspecified amount) of something.


AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives always end in the consonant cluster -sh. They are derived from abstract nouns, i.e. great < greatness, tall < height, stupid < idiocy.


Here are a few common adjectives:

Happy Osash
Sad Nigosash
Great Gorash
Bad Nigorash
Silly Maṭash
Smart Elmaṭash
Slow Niġharmash
Funny Simash
Boring Nisimash
Annoying Nipelimash


Comparative and SuperlativeEdit

The extra forms of adjectives can be formed by using these words:


  • Dē for comparatives
  • Dā for superlatives


AdverbsEdit

Adverbs are formed by using adjectives, and adding eclipsis to the final s, making it ṣ, e.g.

Funny > Funnily

Simash > Simaṣh


Happy > Happily

Osash > Osaṣh

Conjugation and Declension of the aboveEdit

VerbsEdit

Below is an example of how to conjugate the verb esha (to be) in the first person (mesha):


Present mesha
Present perfect meshamak
Future perfect meshani
Past perfect meshati
Future meshasiti
Imperfect ċe meshatip
Pluperfect meshamasi
Preterite meshama
Conditional 1 mhap meshasi
Conditional 2 mhet meshasi
Conditional 3 mhos meshasi


NounsEdit

Below is a table on how to conjugate two nouns, sap (house) and hëtṿa (language):

sap (house):

Singular Dual Plural
Nominative sap sapë sapa
Genitive satë saṭë sata
Accusative saph saphë sapha
Ablative sapat sapatë sapata
Elative saṿe saṿë saṿa
Translative saṿas saṿasë saṿasa
Intrative saṿan saṿanë saṿana



hëtṿa (language):

Singular Dual Plural
Nominative hëtṿa hëttë hetṿa
Genitive hetṿe hetṿë hetṿā
Accusative heth hethë hetha
Ablative hëtṿat hëtṿatë hetṿata
Elative hëtṿe hëtṿë hetṿām
Translative hëtṿas hëtṿasë hetṿasa
Intrative hëtṿan hëtṿan hetṿan

Dictionary {v.53189}Edit

English Hëtṿa
Hello Mepeshi
How are you? Ċamiṭ dë?
Fine, thanks. Hela, ċi mepet
What's your name? Ċīs bërën tesha tṿë?
My name is... Mīs bëren... teshá
Where are you from? Bhrom hōt ċepeti?
I come from.... Bhrom... mepeti.
Do you speak English? Engq̇harh toshet dë?
My Hëtṿa is not so good. Hëtṿh mīs dē gorash tesha dai.

Example textEdit

The dog ate the cat.

I sing loudly.


Dog-(NOM) eat-PRET-3SG cat-(ACC)

sing-1SG noise-ADV


Gołica tisima beth.

Mara piluṣh.

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