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Nadkyvgy Reference Grammar

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Nadkyvgy
Type
Alignment
Head direction
Tonal No
Declensions No
Conjugations No
Genders
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
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Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
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Words of 1500
Creator [[User:|]]

 Nadkyvgy is a half-artlang half-lacihposoliph language. Lacihposoliph languages are basically reverse philolangs (Laciposoliph is philosophical backwards); it is meant to be harder to learn. On the other side, the language is spoken by 2,000,000 people in the homeland (in what is what we call Tunisia), but there are movements to revitalize it. In the diaspora, 1,000,000 Nadkyvgy speakers in the world. The word order and morphosyntactic alignment are hard to get used to if you are trying to learn this language, but it's not a very high hurdle. But people are trying to learn it, since the language is weakening (albeit the speakers in what we call Tunisia is more than our world's Tunisian population) and deemed at risk of dying out in 100 years.

Classification and DialectsEdit

Nadkyvgy is in the family of languages called Siyel. The protolanguage of this family, of course, is called Proto-Siyel. The language comes from the Tugarami branch, splitting into a 3 sub-branches called Taʘdz, |rim (the branch Nadkyvgy is from) and the only sub-branch of the Tugarami branch named without a click, Tsoddh (See Romanization below to see how to pronounce this).

Nadkyvgy has many dialects due to its former trade empire in its alternate universe (the Nadkyvgy empire) that it had in the 700-1100s, and the Second Nadkyvgy empire (the colonial one) starting at 1455 (the First Discovery, made by Venetians, not Spanish) and ending at 1648 (at the end of the Thirty Years' War, being ceded to Ottoman Tripolitania). The following dialects are:

1.Tunisian dialect or "standard dialect" This is the delta standard of the Nadkyvgy dialect group. It has all the phonological features shown in the Phonology section.

2.Algerian and Sinai dialects This is the closest non-standard dialect there is in the Nadkyvgy dialect group. The only real difference between Tunisian and Algerian is that the dental, lateral and alveolar clicks are unmerged. This also what happens in the Sinai peninsula, called Sinai dialect, which also has another sound change (dipthongs with unrounded + its rounded counterpart merge with the schwa).

3.French dialect This is the farthest non-standard dialect there is in the Nadkyvgy dialect group. It has many differences between the delta standard and the standard dialect, like merging /ʘ/ with the bilabial implosive, and /|/ with the alveolar implosive. /w/ is split into its voiced and voiceless versions, in free variation. /ɾ/ is split into [ɾ] and the retroflex tap [ɽ], again in free variation. As for vowels, all the rounded vowels (excluding /ɒ/) are merged with the schwa as well as /ɜ/.As for tones, the 6th tone (454, all of these are Chao numerals) is merged with the 2nd tone (55), and the 7th tone (212) is merged with the 3rd tone (11), making an effective 5-tone system for French.

4.Venetian dialect This is the dialect spoken around the Gulf of Venice. The voiced affricates are deaffricated, e.g. /dz/ -> [z]. The implosives in the Venetian dialect become voiceless aspirated stops. The ejectives, on the other hand, are merged with the voiced stops. As for the vowels, all the rounded vowels merge with their unrounded counterparts. Also, /i/ splits into [i], [ɪ] and the schwa. Unlike the French dialect, there are no tone changes.

5.Carimex dialect This is the dialect spoken in former colonies of the Second Nadkyvgy Empire. The name is a portmanteau of Caribbean + Mexico. Fricatives, affricates and approximants are split in free variation to [h], [ʔ], and the epiglottal stop [ʡ]. For vowels, the open front vowels merge with the open back vowels. Also, (just like in English) [

PhonologyEdit

Nadkyvgy has a rich inventory of both consonants (45 of them; 47 phonetically) and vowels (9 of them). There are some allophones here; these are going to be discussed later in this section.

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Plosive p     t t      d c     ɟ k     g ʡ ʔ
Fricative s     z θ     ð s     z ʃ     ʒ h
Affricate ts    dz tθ   dð ts   dz tʃ    dʒ
Approximant w* j
Flap or tap ɾ
Ejectives p' t' c' k'
Implosives ɓ ɗ ʄ ɠ
Lateral app. l

Clicks

ʘ |~||~!
  • Note that [w] is not actually bilabial, even though most lists put [w] in the bilabial section. The real place of articulation of [w] is labio-velar, not bilabial.

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i     y
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid ə
Open-mid ɜ     ɞ
Near-open
Open a     ɶ ɑ     ɒ

Tones and Stress Edit

Nadkyvgy is tonal in addition to its 9-vowel inventory. The language has 7 tones, represented with Chao numerals with 33 (no diacritics), 55 (represented with dot above vowel), 11 (represented with dot below vowel), 35 (represented with acute accent), 31 (represented with a grave accent), 454 (represented with a macron), and 545 (represented with a tilde above). Nadkyvgy doesn't have a stress system, like most of its other family members (that currently don't exist; this is my first language).

PhonotacticsEdit

The overall syllable structure is C(V)(V), with the most prominent syllable type being C. Most words have only one vowel in them, in fact. The least used syllable type is CVV, but such syllables exist, and when they are in a word, have more than one vowel in them, like P'ȳtaeg'tthdh (meaning royal family). However, we have to deal with the constraints of the language. (There are some writing system flukes, see Writing System below)

1. No duplicates, except duplicate affricates. For example, g + g isn't allowed, however pf + pf is. Other examples include: f + f (not allowed), l + l (not allowed), ts + ts (allowed), ddh + ddh (allowed). However, combinations like d + d' or c + c' aren't allowed. Other disallowed combinations d' + d or c' + c (the last two combinations switched). So you can't combine voiced stops with their implosive counterparts, the voiceless stops with their ejective counterparts, ejectives with their tenuis counterparts, and implosive with their tenuis voiced (oxymoron) counterparts.

2. No affricating pairs. For example, p + f isn't allowed, because p + f make an affricate, pf. However, p + v is allowed, because pv isn't an affricate; in other words, intervocalic affricating pairs are allowed, though. Other examples include t + sh (not allowed) , d + z (not allowed), t + dh (allowed), b + f (allowed).

3. No velar-palatal or palatal-velar pairs. For example, k + j' isn't allowed, nor is u (representing [j], not [u]) + k'. Unlike the others, their isn't a real caveat here, so this rule is solid. Other examples include j + g' and k' + c'.

4. No affricate-lengthening fricatives. For example, bv + v is not allowed. Again, intervocalic affricate-lengthening fricatives (or, well, ALFs) are okay, e.g. tth + dh. Other examples include tsh + sh (not allowed), dz + z (not allowed), ddh + th (allowed) and pf + v (allowed).



Writing SystemEdit

The Nadkyvgy language uses it's own script named the Td'klò script, or clean (as in no diacritics) left (as in left-to-right direction, due to most scripts for Nadkyvgy being right-to-left) script. It was created by the Nadkyvgystani calligrapher J'adhk P'tha (804-867), who worked for 'Æo II the Blind. 'Æo, in one of his decrees, decided to put the Td'klò script the official script for no reason (because he was blind). Now people eventually used this script and became the only script ever seen for the language, in the "script competition" that time.

The phonetic values for the romanization are delineated in the Romanization section.

RomanizationEdit

The romanization is as follows:

GrammarEdit

Nadkyvgy has a OSV word order and is prefixing language. It has an polysynthetic morphological alignment and has a transitive morphosyntactic alignment, i.e. "I hurt them" would be "I hurt they", but "I ran" would be "Me ran". Transitive morphosyntactic alignments are rare in the real world, in this world they are relatively common, and by that I mean at least half as common as nominative-accusative case systems in our world.

NounsEdit

The Nadkyvgy basic noun template looks like this:

VerbsEdit

SyntaxEdit

LexiconEdit

Example textEdit

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