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Conlang

Naiim Language

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SettingEdit

The "Naiim" language is a conlang based (phonologically) in Old English. Its grammar is quite different from the Old English, because was more important the originality of the work, and put some emphasis on aesthetics, (some).

Basic GrammarEdit

Here is a basic grammar of Naiim:

AlphabetEdit

  • Capital:: A, Æ, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q,R, S, Sh, T, Þ, U, V, W, Y.
  • Lowercase: a, æ, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, k, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, sh, t, þ, u, v, w, y.

PronunciationEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Pronunciation is reduced in this table, using symbols IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet)for easy comprehension.

  Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Velar Glotal
Oclusivas [pɶnbsp;ɶnbsp;b]     [tɶnbsp;ɶnbsp;d]     [kɶnbsp;ɶnbsp;g]  
Africadas         [cɶnbsp;ɶnbsp;/tʃ/]      
Nasales [m]     [n]     [(ŋ)]  
Fricativas   [fɶnbsp;ɶnbsp;v] [þɶnbsp;ɶnbsp;/θ/] [sɶnbsp;ɶnbsp;] [shɶnbsp;ɶnbsp;/ʃ/] [(ç)] [(x)ɶnbsp;ɶnbsp;] [h]
Aproximantes       [ɾ]   [] [w(v)]  
Aproximante lateral       [l]        

The sounds marked in parentheses in the chart are allophones:

  • [ŋ] is an allophone of /n/ occurring before /k/ and /g/.
  • [ç, x] are allophones of /h/ occurring in coda position after front and back vowels respectively.
  • [v] when W is before a consonant, it is pronounced like the fricative labiodental /v/

VowelsEdit

Monophthongs Short Long
Front Back Front Back
Close [iɶnbsp;ɶnbsp;y] [u] [iːɶnbsp;ɶnbsp;yː] [uː]
Mid [eɶnbsp;ɶnbsp;] [o] [eːɶnbsp;ɶnbsp;] [oː]
Open [æ] [a] [æː] [aː]
  • Long vowels are graphical acute accent placed on the vowels, and umlauts on 'æ ".
  • The long-i (ii) is plotted with a double-i when it is inside a word.

In monosyllabic words the long vowel is graphed with a "umlaut" on the vowel:

  • Eótard --> Kingdom
  • äs --> day

DiphthongsEdit

  • ai = [aɪ] like in "guy".
  • oi = [oɪ] like in "toy".
  • ui = [uɪ] like in Spanish "muy".
  • ei = [eɪ] like in "day".
  • au = [aʊ] like in German "auf".
  • eu = [eʊ] like in Spanish in "reuma".
  • Any other vowal pronounced as two different syllables.

Double ConsonantsEdit

There are five consonants that can have their long version, and the long vowel "i" is written as an exception "ii". These consonants are n, s, t, d, g, and they should be pronounced the same but longer.

  • nn /nː/
  • ss /sː/
  • tt /tː/
  • dd /dː/
  • gg /gː/

RestrictionsEdit

Words can not end in B G D, unless within a consonantal group, and can not appear P K T before "u / ú," therefore, in the compound and in the order of words, when given these positions, P K T change: B G D

  • Præþ, "to play"
  • Þu brænde, "you play/are playing"

NounsEdit

Nouns have three genders: masculine, femenine and neuter; three numbers: singular, plural, dual, and nine cases: nominative, accusative/dative, genitive, ablative, allative, adessive, pre/postpositional, locative and instrumental.

Naiin declensionEdit

During the change from singular to plural and dual a vocalic change occurs in the final syllable, and no-final syllable if it has. because these changes are similar in every word, the division between first and second declension is organized at this form:

  • first declension---> words ended at consonant (female, male, neutral)
  • second declansion--> words ended at A (female)
  • third declension---> words ended at S (female)
  • fourth declension--> words ended at O (neutral)

Regular declensionEdit

The regular delcension is not applicable to nouns ending in -a,-s,-o, and words can be masculine, feminine or neutral nouns. All the masc. words are regular, but not all the femenine words are regular.

Case / Number Singular Plural Dual
Nominative Stæn Sten Stën
Accusative/dative Stæna Stene Sténe -a/e/e
Genitive Stæns Stens Stëns -s//-as/es
Ablative Stænam Stenem Sténem -am/em
Allative Stænga Stenge Sténge -na/ne//-ga/ge
Adessive Stæné Stenii Sténi -é/ii/i
pre/postpositional Stænen Stenen Stenen -en/in
Locative Stæner Stener Sténer -ar/er
Instrumental Stænem Stenem Sténem -em
  • The words culmiated in N or L, add -ga/ge in Allative.
  • The words culminated in N or L, add -as/es in genitive.

Declension -a (Feminine)Edit

All words ending in -a are feminine, therefore don´t follow the regular completion.

Case/Number Singular Plural Dual
Nominative Eóþa Ieþa Eóþe -a/e
Accusative/dative Eóþana Ieþane Eóþen -na/ne/n
Genitive Eóþasa Ieþase Eóþese -sa/se/se
Ablative Eóþama Ieþame Eóþem -ma/me/m
Allative Eóþan Ieþan Eóþene -n/ne
Adessive Eóþé Ieþé Eóþi -é/i
pre/postpositional Eóþana Ieþane Eóþeni -na/ne/ni
Locative Eóþar Ieþa Eóþere -r/rá/re
Instrumental Eóþam Ieþama Eóþame -m/ma/me

Declension -s (Feminine)Edit

Case/Numer Singular Plural Dual
Nominative Gos Ges Gose -e
Accusative/dative Gosa Gese Gese -a/e/e
Genitive Goss Gess Gosse -s/s/se
Ablative Gorm Germ Gerim -m/im
Allative Gosen Gesen Gerin -en/in
Adessive Gos Gese Gose -e
pre/postpositional Gorna Gerne Gerne -na/ne
Locative Gors Gers Gorse -rs/rse
Instrumental Gorm Gesem Gerum -m/em/um

Declension -o (Neuter)Edit

Case/Numer Singular Plural Dual
Nominative Broþo Breþo Briþo
Accusative/dative Broþon Breþon Briþn -on/on/n
Genitive Broþos Breþes Briþes -os/es/es
Ablative Broþom Breþem Briþm -om/em/m
Allative Broþn Breþn Briþen -n/en
Adessive Broþoe Breþoe Briþoe -oe
pre/postpositional Broþna Breþne Briþne -na/ne/ne
Locative Broþor Breþor Briþer -or/er
Instrumental Broþm Breþom Briþm -m/om/m

PronounsEdit

Pronouns replacing the nouns already mentioned and indicating the speaker, and one to whom you speak.

Personal PronounsEdit

There are 4 declensions for each pronoun:

  • Nominative
    • affixed nominative
  • Accusative
    • affixed acusative
  • Dative
  • Genitive

NominativeEdit

Singular Plural Dual
1º person iz eiz hïz
2º person þu þau þei
3º person ru rru hrü

Affixed NominativeEdit

Singular Plural Dual
1º person za zai zei
2º person þa þae/e þei
3º person r ri rh

AccusativeEdit

Singular Plural Dual
1º person za haz
2º person da ta þa
3º person la lla

Affixed AccussativeEdit

The form for accusative is same than form in nominative:

Singular Plural Dual
1º person za zai zei
2º person þa þae/e þei
3º person r ri rh

DativeEdit

Dative form has not an affixed form

Singular Plural Dual
1º person iza eize híze
2º person þua þoe þaie
3º person rua rrue hrúe

GenitiveEdit

Singular Plural Dual
1º person izas eizas hízes
2º person þus þaus þeis
3º person rus rrus hrüs

Example:

  • Armél hrüs, "their house"(lit. "house of they")

Relative PronounsEdit

There are three types of pronouns, equivalent to that, where and who.

  • ta, that
  • va, where
  • a, who

Examples:

  • Faþah a Eóris ai , "Our Father, who art in heaven", (it´s also possible to use "ta")

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