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Nanjey'a

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Nanjey'a
Type
Alignment
Head direction
Tonal Yes
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 39%
Statistics
Nouns 75%
Verbs 33%
Adjectives 67%
Syntax 0%
Words of 1500
Creator Nataja

Classification and DialectsEdit

Nanjey'a is based primarily on Navajo and other Na-Dené family laguages. *Nanjey'a is currently in the middle of a phonotactical restructuring

PhonologyEdit

Consonants Edit

Nanjey'a has a relatively large consonant inventory. Its plosive consonants, /p, t, and k/, exist in three laryngeal forms: aspirated, unaspirated, and ejective - for example /pʰ/, /p/, and /p'/ (all close to the "p" sound in English). Ejective consonants are pronounced glottally; Nanjey'a also has a simple glottal stop used after vowels, and every word that would otherwise begin with a vowel is pronounced with an initial glottal stop.

Bilabial Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m̥ m n̻ n ɲ̊ ɲ ŋ̊ ŋ
Plosive Unaspirated p k ʔ
Aspirated t̪ʰ
Ejective p' t̪' k'
Fricative s z ʃ ʒ χ ʁ h
Affricate t̪͡θ d̪͡ð k͡x g͡ɣ
Approximant j ʍ w
Lateral fricative ɬ ɮ
Lateral app. l

VowelsEdit

The language has six vowel qualities: /ɑ/, /æ/, /e/, /i/, /o/, and /u/. Each exists in both oral and nasalized forms, and can be either short or long. Nanjey'a also distinguishes for tone between high and low, with low usually regarded as default.

Front Back
Oral Nasal Oral Nasal
High i ĩ u ũ
Open Mid ɛ ɛ̃ ɔ ɔ̃
Low a ã ɑ ɑ̃

PhonotacticsEdit

  1. Syllables: C(C)V(V)(C)(C)
  2. No /h/ in the syllable coda
  3. No affricates in complex onsets
  4. The first consonant in a complex onset must be an obstruent
  5. The second consonant in a complex onset must not be a voiced obstruent
  6. If the first consonant in a complex onset is not an /s/, the second must be a liquid or a glide
  7. Every subsequence contained within a sequence of consonants must obey all the relevant phonotactic rules
  8. No glides in codas
  9. If the second consonant in a complex coda is voiced, so is the first
  10. Non-alveolar nasals must be homorganic with the next segment
  11. Two obstruents in the same coda must share voicing
  12. No long vowels followed by germinates in the same syllable
  13. No consecutive syllables both containing a long vowel

Lexical StressEdit

Lexical stress in Nanjey'a is regular:

  1. If there is any acute accent in the word, then that syllable is stressed
  2. If there is no accent in the word, then the last diphthong or long vowel is stressed
  3. If there is no acute accent and there are no diphthongs or long vowel then the second to last syllable is stressed

Writing SystemEdit

Vowel Graphemes Edit

The six vowel qualities: /ɑ/, /æ/, /e/, /i/, /o/, and /u/, are written respectively as "a", "ă", "e", "i", "o", and "u". An ogonek ( ¸ ) is attached to the vowel if it is nasalized and the vowel is lengthened by writing the letter twice (e.g. "aa"). The high tone is indicated by an acute accent ( ´ ) and the low (default) tone is written as the letter without an accent. Both nasal and oral vowels can be lengthened and have a high tone. It is important to note that while the vowel itself and the nasalized vowel (with ogonek) are both considered letters, the high tone vowels and lengthened vowels are not considered letters: only modifications the the vowels.

Example of the graphemes for the letters "a" and "ą":

Phoneme Grapheme
/ɑ/ a
/ɑː/ aa
/ɑ́/ á
/ɑ́ː/ áá
/ɑ̃/ ą
/ɑ̃ː/ ąą
/ɑ̃́/ ą́
/ɑ̃́ː/ ą́ą́

Consonant Graphemes Edit

Phomene Grapheme
/d̪͡ð/ twth
/ʔ/ '
/h/ h
/j/ j
/k/ k
/kʰ/ kh
/k'/ k'
/l/ l
/ɬ/ łh
/ɮ/ ł
/m/ m
/m̥/ mh
/n/ n
/n̻/ nh
/ɲ/ nj
/ɲ̊/ njh
/ŋ/ ng
/ŋ̊/ ngh
/p/ p
/pʰ/ ph
/p'/ p'
/s/ s
/ʃ/ sh
/t̪/ t
/t̪ʰ/ th
/t̪'/ t'
/t̪͡θ/ tth
/w/ w
/χ/ x
/k͡x/ kxh
/ʁ/ xw
/g͡ɣ/ kwxw
VAR y
/z/ z
/ʒ/ zh

Consonant Clusters and Diphthongs Edit

Nanjey'a has two classifications of diphthongs: "y" diphthongs and "w" diphthongs. "Y" diphthongs are formed from any vowel (except /i/ and /ĩ/) by adding a "y" after the vowel. "W" diphthongs are formed from any vowel (except /u/ and /ũ/) by adding a "w" after the vowel. Each "y" and "w" diphthong exists in both oral and nasalized forms, can be either short or long, and has a high or default tone. These diphthongs only exist at the end of words or before/after a glottal stop ( ' ) including those implied at the beginning of words beginning with a vowel.

Example of "y" diphthongs for the letters "a" and "ą":

Phoneme Grapheme
/ɑ͡i/ ay
/ɑ͡iː/ aay
/ɑ́͡í/ áy
/ɑ́͡íː/ ááy
/ɑ̃͡ĩ/ ąy
/ɑ̃͡ĩː/ ąąy
/ɑ̃́͡ĩ́/ ą́y
/ɑ̃́͡ĩ́ː/ ą́ą́y
Letter
Sound
Letter
Sound
Letter
Sound
Letter
Sound
Letter
Sound

Diphthongs Edit

  • diphthongs terminating in a 'y' can only be used at the end of words and if there is an option for the ending of a word always use the 'y' diphthong
  • if possible, when a word ends in a diphthong the multiple letter version will be used
  • if possible, when a word contains a diphthong (not at its end) the single letter version will be used
  • to distinguish two consecutive vowels that could form a diphthong, place a grave accent (à, è, ì, ò, ù) on the leftmost letter without a diacritic

GrammarEdit

Nouns Edit

Nouns in Nanjëa inflect for several categories:

  1. Number
  2. Case
  3. Definiteness
  4. Noun class

Nanjëa nouns can be singular  (sgdual (du) or plural (pl).

They can be either definite (def) or indefinite (indef).

They can belong to one of six classes:

  1. Persons (per)
  2. Material (mat)
  3. Augmentative (Groups) (aug)
  4. Diminutive (Intimacy, Endearing) (dim)
  5. Abstraction (abs)
  6. Loanwords/Other (lnw)

They can be in one of eight common cases (certain dialects may have more or less):

  1. Nominative (nom)
  2. Accusative (acc)
  3. Dative (dat)
  4. Ablative (abl)
  5. Genitive (gen)
  6. Vocative (voc)
  7. Locative (loc)
  8. Instrumental (ins)
Nanjëa noun Template
Slots class definiteness ROOT case.number
-2 -1 0 +1

Class and definiteness prefixes:

Class Definiteness
Definite Indefinite
Persons la- ra-
Animals le- re-
Material lii- rii-
Augmentative lä- rä-
Diminutive lî- rî-
Abstraction lû- rû-
Loanwords/Other lo- ro-
Proper Names VAR VAR
Cases Formality and Number
Informal Formal *
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
Nominative (nom) -a -ab -as -e -eb -es
Accusative (acc)
Dative (dat) -įį -įįb -įįs -ųų -ųųb -ųųs
Ablative (abl)
Genitive (gen) -óó -óó
Vocative (voc) -åb -ås -o -ob -os
Locative (loc) (n)ÿ (n)ÿja
Instrumental (ins) (b)ay (b)äb (b)äs (b)e (b)eb (b)es

* Only proper nouns (i.e. names of nouns) are formally declined to show respect.

Pronouns Edit

Nouns can be replaced by their pronoun counterpart in almost any case

Cases First Person Pronouns
Formal Informal
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
Nominative (nom) ha(/æ/) ga(/æ/) ama(/æ/) ka kab kas
Accusative (acc)
Dative (dat) hyœ gyœ amyœ tôk tôl tôs
Ablative (abl) haḱÿ
Genitive (gen) no
Vocative (voc) huy gÿ amę ḽav ḽal ḽas
Locative (loc) hÿ kÿ
Instrumental (ins) hay gay äm kay käb käs
Cases Second Person Pronouns
Formal Informal
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
Nominative (nom) usé uséb usés te teb tes
Accusative (acc)
Dative (dat) utœ utœb utœs ta tab tas
Ablative (abl) taḱÿ
Genitive (gen) haô gaô no
Vocative (voc) huy gÿ amę ḽav ḽal ḽas
Locative (loc) hÿ gÿ anÿ kÿ kÿb kÿs
Instrumental (ins) hay gay äm kay käb käs
Cases Third Person Pronouns
Formal Informal
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
Nominative (nom) eńeb eńes la lab las
Accusative (acc)
Dative (dat) eńœ eńœb eńœs lôb lôs
Ablative (abl) laḱÿ
Genitive (gen) laô lo
Vocative (voc) luy lùÿ lùę lav lal las
Locative (loc) lìÿ lÿ
Instrumental (ins) hay gay äm lay läb läs

Pronouns may be omitted unless they are necessary for the meaning of the sentence

Cardinal Numbers Edit

Cardinal numbers can be either nouns or adjectives. Their noun form is always definite but they are not declined into any class meaning they begin in 'l(a)-'. The cardinal numbers 1-10 are as follows:

One Two Three Four Five
Luna Lato Lÿva Læsa Lêca
Six Seven Eight Nine Ten
Laṕa Lwařa Lûza Lwera Lja(/æ/)ḽa

AdjectivesEdit

  1. Attributive adjectives are part of the noun phrase headed by the noun they modify. "I saw three kids happy enough to jump up and down with glee."
    • Single adjective - single noun
      • muvatiflasæido 'a happy kid (lit. per indef kid inf-sg-nom happy)'
      • When one adjective is attributed to one noun, then the adjective takes on its suffix form.
    • Double adjectives - single noun
      • muvatifljaḱïluo ṕûvasæida 'a happy, playful kid (lit. per-indef kid inf-sg-alb playful abs-indef happiness inf-sg-nom)'
      • When two adjectives are attributed to one noun, then the emphasized adjective takes on its suffixal form, the noun it becomes a suffix to declines into its ablative case, and the non-emphasized adjective takes on its noun form (abstract class, mirror definiteness, formality and number of the noun to which it is attributed, and nominative case) and follows the noun to which it is attributed.
    • Multiple adjectives - single noun
      • muvatifljaḱïluo ṕûvasæida y ḱala 'a happy, creative, playful kid (lit. per-indef kid inf-sg-alb playful abs-indef happiness inf-sg-nom and adj creativity inf-sg-nom)'
      • When more than two adjectives are attributed to one noun, then the same rules apply as with 'double adjectives - single noun' and the additional adjectives, in its/their noun form, follow the other noun adjective with the adjectival conjunction y 'and', dropping its/their prefix and mirroring the first noun adjective's formality number and case.
    • Single/double/multiple adjectives - multiple nouns
      • muvatifljaḱï mæ walidjaḱï ṕûvasæida 'a happy kid and parent (lit. per-indef kid inf-sg-alb and n parent inf-sg-alb abs-indef happiness inf-sg-nom)'
      • When one or more adjectives are attributed to two or more nouns, then the first noun declines into its ablative case, is followed by the noun conjunction 'and', and the second noun drops its prefix and declines into its ablative case. The adjectives all follow the nouns in the same way as the 'Multiple adjectives - single noun' rule states.
    • Adjective modified or qualified by a phrase acting as an adverb - noun
      • ka lÿva muvatifljaḱï ṕûvasæidjaḱï iwbun o surus ṕûvamaraha mites *

Adjectives in Nanjëa do not decline but do merge with the nouns they describe. All regular adjectives end in '-o'. The format for merging an adjective with a noun is as follows:

Nanjëa noun-adjective Template
Slots class definiteness ROOT case.number adjectival suffix
-2 -1 0 +1 +2

If there are two adjectives describing one noun, then the adjective intended to be emphasized is merged with the noun and the other adjective(s) follow directly after the noun in their free standing form:

Nanjëa adjective Template
Slots ROOT grammatical ending: 'o'
0 +2

Verbs Edit

Verbs in Nanjëa conjugate for several categories:

  1. Person
  2. Number
  3. Tense
  4. Aspect

Nanjëa verbs can be singular  (sgdual (du) or plural (pl) each with first person (1p), second person (2p) or third person (3p) to reflect the subject.

They can conjugate into five tenses:

  1. Present
  2. Remote Past (Things the speaker did not experience)
  3. Recent Past (Things the speaker did experience)
  4. Remote Future (Things the speaker will not experience: relatively rare in common language, but used in formal documents)
  5. Near Future (Things the speaker will experience)

They can conjugate into four aspects:

  1. Perfective
  2. Progressive (Actions)
  3. Continuous (States)
  4. Habitual
Aspects Simple Present Tense
First Person Second Person Third Person
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
Perfective -o -ab -amos -ôb -ôs -e -eb -es
Progressive -ono -ano -ando -ôno -anô -ôndo -eno -ane -endo
Continuous -ovo -avo -avas -ôvo -avô -ôvas -evo -ave -evas
Habitual -eo -alvo -alvos -eô -alvô -alvôs -alve -alves
Aspects Simple Recent Past Tense
First Person Second Person Third Person
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
Perfective -abá -amós -ēb -ēs -éb -és
Progressive -onó -anó -andó -ēno -anē -ēndo -éno -ané -éndo
Continuous -ovó -avó -avás -ēvo -avē -ēvas -évo -avé -évas
Habitual -eó -alvó -alvós -ēho -alvē -alvēs -ého -alvé -alvés
Aspects Simple Remote Past Tense
First Person Second Person Third Person
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
Perfective -otḯ -abḯ -asḯ -ôtḯ -ôbḯ -ôsḯ -etḯ -ebḯ -esḯ
Progressive -onḯ -anḯ -andḯ -ônḯ -anḯ -ôndḯ -enḯ -anḯ -endḯ
Continuous -ovḯ -avḯ -avḯs -ôvḯ -avḯ -ôvḯs -evḯ -avḯ -evḯs
Habitual -eḯ -alvḯ -alvḯs -eḯ -alvḯ -alvḯs -ḯ -alvḯ -alvḯs


Aspects Simple Near Future Tense
First Person Second Person Third Person
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
Perfective -abû -amûs -a(/æ/) -a(/æ/)b -a(/æ/)s -îb -îs
Progressive -onû -anû -andû -a(/æ/)no -ana(/æ/) -a(/æ/)ndo -îno -anî -îndo
Continuous -ovû -avû -avûs -a(/æ/)vo -ava(/æ/) -a(/æ/)vas -îvo -avé -îvas
Habitual -eû -alvû -alvûs -a(/æ/)ho -alva(/æ/) -alva(/æ/)s -îho -alvé -alvîs


Aspects Simple Remote Future Tense
First Person Second Person Third Person
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
Perfective -abǫ -amǫs -ęb -ęs -ÿ -ÿb -és
Progressive -onǫ -anǫ -andǫ -ęno -anę -ęndo -ÿno -anÿ -ÿndo
Continuous -ovǫ -avǫ -avǫs -ęvo -avę -ęvas -ÿvo -avÿ -ÿvas
Habitual -eǫ -alvǫ -alvǫs -ęho -alvę -alvęs -ÿho -alvÿ -alvÿs

Moods in Nanjëa are not conjugated into verbs but are indicated by particles which are attached to the end of the verb by use of apostrophes. Examples of these moods are as follows:

  1. Indicative (no indicator):
    • mulanaka kįvamanja ja(/æ/)kųle - "the boy eats an apple (lit. the boy an apple eats)"
  2. Subjunctive (az): Subjunctive forms of verbs are used to express various states of unreality such as wish, emotion, possibility, judgment, opinion, obligation, or action that has not yet occurred. Subjunctives occur most often, although not exclusively, in subordinate clauses, particularly that-clauses or kotô-clauses. The subjunctive indicator is added to the end of the verb's bare infinitive. Pronouns cannot be dropped in a subjunctive clause.
    • Ka te čųe'az kotô surono. - "I suggest that you be careful"
    • La ta täzêe'az kotô ṕûvaѓuwôa ge. - "It is important that she stay with you"
  3. Conditional (we): The conditional mood is used to express a proposition whose validity is dependent on some condition, possibly counterfactual. It thus refers to a distinct verb form that expresses a hypothetical state of affairs, or an uncertain event, that is contingent on another set of circumstances. The conditional we is only used in the apodosis while the subjunctive az is used in the protasis in conditional phrases. The conditional indicator is added to the end of the verb's conjugation.
    • Te ka äke'az te ka supotô'we. - "If you loved me you would support me"
    • Ka katse'az la ṕûvgaḱura gî'we. - "If I win, he will be disappointed"
  4. Hortative (mika): Hortative modalities encourage or urge. There are seven hortative modalities that differ by intensity, attitude (for or against), and—in the case of the cohortative—person:
    • Adhortative: The adhortative encourages or urges. Adhortative constructions can only be used in second person singular, dual, and plural.
      • (Te) Hatô'mika. - "You might want to go."
    • Exhortative: The exhortative avidly encourages or strongly urges. Exhortative constructions can only be used in second person singular, dual, and plural.
      • (Te) Hatô'bita. - "You really should go."
    • Suprahortative: The suprahortative is used for pleas of encouragement or absolute urging. This modalitiy is commonly used with the exclamation fadiku meaning please. Suprahortative constructions can only be used in second person singular, dual, and plural.
      • (Te) Hatô'jiba, fadiku! - "Please! You must go."
    • Dehortative: The dehortative discourages or urges against. Dehortative constructions can only be used in second person singular, dual, and plural.
      • (Te) Įe hatô'įemika. - "You might not want to go."
    • Inhortative: The inhortative avidly discourages or strongly urges against. Inhortative constructions can only be used in second person singular, dual, and plural.
      • (Te) Įe hatô'įebita. - "You should not go."
    • Infrahortative: The infrahortative is used for pleas of discouragement or absolute urging against. Infrahortative constructions can only be used in second person singular, dual, and plural.
      • (Te) Įe hatô'įejiba, fadiku! - "Please! You must not go."
    • Cohortative: The cohortative is used for mutual encouragement or discouragement. Cohortative constructions can only be used in first person dual, and plural.
  5. Imperative (či, ča): forms commands or requests, including the giving of prohibition or permission, or any other kind of advice or exhortation in the second person.
    • mulasalada lečugatœ kïrô'či - "Cut (singular, familiar) the lettuce for the salad"
    • mulasalada lečugatœ kïrôb'ča - "Cut (dual, formal) the lettuce for the salad"
  6. Jussive

LexiconEdit

Example textEdit

We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

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