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Introduction Edit

Nao is a new artificial language with the following features:

1. Requires thinking rather than memorization

2. Easy and logical grammar

3. Easy spelling and pronunciation

4. Truly neutral (the words and grammar are not based on those of any existing language)

When you learn a foreign language, one of the most frustrating things is the fact that you have to memorize so many words. That stops many people from mastering the language or even learning the language at all. You get frustrated because you have to use the dictionary all the time, and the words just don’t stay long in your head. 

Nao, however, doesn’t have that problem. The main feature of Nao is the fact that you don’t have to memorize thousands of words. In Nao, most words are built logically from the elementary words. If you know elementary words and the rules of combining, you can compound them in a very easy way, for example:

bo = bodypart

kan = see / look

--------------------------

bokan = eye

So, you don’t actually have to memorize bokan, you just have to get used to it which is much much easier. Now that you know how to make eyeit’s easy to guess how you build ear or leg. Nao is very consistent and logical when it concerns word construction. So, knowing 300 elementary words in Nao would be roughly the same as knowing 10000 words in English! You can see the table of the elementary words in the main page of the dictionary.  The most common elementary word in the language consists of just one letter: "c" (pronounced like English "sh") If you put "c" right at the end of a word, it will change its meaning to the opposite. For example:

la = goodlac = bad

neso = show nesoc = hide

dobio = dangerousdobioc = safe

tcucnienai = summertcucnienaic = winter

Official website: http://nao.comze.com/

There you can find the full information about the language, the dictionary, the textbook, games, forum and many other things.

Examples of how it works Edit

da = person Edit

tuo = work -> datuo = worker

nepoa = teach -> danepoa = teacher

fepoa = learn -> dafepoa = student

nipaosolse = care only about oneself -> danipaosolse = egoist

gonas = go to space -> dagonas = astronaut

togi Edit

lon = long -> togilon = length

foi = fast -> togifoi = speed

domo = possible -> togidomo = probability

dai = big -> togidai = size

ti (turns a verb into a verbal noun) Edit

lioc = read -> tilioc = reading

mei = live -> timei = life

PhonologyEdit

Nao has

13 consonants:      p t k b d g h f s c l m n

5 vowels:   a i u e o

All are pronounced like in IPA except: c [ʃ']

The stress doesn't play a big role and normally falls on the last vowel.

Writing SystemEdit

Nao uses Latin alphabet but an ideogrammic writing is also being developed as an alternative.

One letter one sound, no exceptions. Everything is written exactly the way it is pronounced.

Capital letters are not used. Sentence edges are marked with a hyphen.

Full grammarEdit

How to construct words Edit

The basis of the language are the so-called elementary words. Each elementary word consists of: one consonant + by one or a few vowels + [optionally] consonant(s). For example, ku, lei, kan are elementary words but dompif is a compound word consisting of dom + pif.

Each elementary word is either a noun or a verb, and here are the rules of how to put them together.

Any elementary noun or verb can be modified (=described / made more specific) by another noun or verb: just put the describing word after the word being described. Note that the left word must be elementary.

Compound Primary meaning Secondary meaning
[noun1] [noun2] [noun1] belonging to [noun2] [word1] described by [word2]
[noun] [verb] [noun] who does [verb]
[verb] [noun] [verb], the object being [noun]
[verb1] [verb2] [verb1], the object being [verb2]

If the left word is a noun, the resulting compound is a noun. If the left word is a verb, the resulting compound is a verb. Use the secondary meaning if and only if the primary meaning makes no sense in the given context.

How to construct sentences Edit

A sentence is a sequence of elementary words. Spaces are used purely for ease of reading and do not influence the meaning.

The structure of the sentence is classic:

The head of the sentence is the main verb + the subject(s) and the object(s).

The main verb (=the predicate) is normally marked with the marker hu.

The subject, if not marked with a special marker word, must come before the main verb.

The object, if not marked with a special marker word, must come after the main verb.

Subject, object, and even the main verb can be omitted for shortness or vagueness if the speaker wishes to do so, as long as the grammatical structure of the sentence remains clear.

Nouns by default can play a role of the subject, direct object or indirect object in the sentence.

Verbs by default can play a role of the main verb in the sentence.

Markers are used to mark or change the default roles of words in the sentence. That said, markers enable you to change the word order in the sentence. All markers are put in front of the word being marked. If the marker is obvious from the context and it hasn't been applied to change the word order, it may be omitted. The markers are as follows:

hu = main verb marker

ba = subject marker

bac = object marker

hi = adverb (= main verb modifier)

gu = adjective (= main noun modifier, does not create a main noun)

de = adjective (= main noun modifier, creates a main noun)

pe = clause marker

LexiconEdit

How many words are in Nao? Infinite. It’s like asking “How many sentences are there in English?”. Just like the grammar of English allows you to generate an infinite number of sentences, the grammar of Nao goes to the next level and allows you to generate an infinite number of words.

For the dictionary, check the official website nao.comze.com

General vocabulary Edit

ma place (primary meaning: a place where a person can be come and do something)
da person
na top
ta that
ke what
ne cause
li time
fe become
te male
go go
gao all
nu the inside; prefix of continuous action
gau prefix of regular action
bo bodypart
ki tool
nau present
to thing / object
cu group
do PASSIVE
ni feel
c OPP
bi [verb1] and as a result [verb2]
hi ADVERB MARKER
de ADJECTIVE MARKER
hu MAIN VERB MARKER
ti NOUN MARKER
ba SUBJECT MARKER
pe CLAUSE MARKER
ho prefix of respect
pa prefix of emphasize
di prefix of informality
tce prefix of anger
prefix of affirmation
he to ask, to order, to suggest
gi number particle
duo and
keo but
nul 0
mu 1
ku 2
tei 3
fou 4
pet 5
lok 6
set 7
hau 8
nef 9
mei alive
bei exist
sol only
noi too (also)
tul too (excessive)
koi solid thing
lei liquid thing
fau air, gas matter
kois beast (mammal)
leis fish
faus bird
kan look/see
lui listen/hear
suo (v) record
tok flow
goa way
sao circle
pai many, much
faui perceive smells
koie eat
leie drink
faue breathe
nie year
nal weekday
dia day
hoa hour
min minute
mil milk
nai warm/hot
ga complete
cu group
tcu whole
beo be (copula)
tai type of…, the way [something is/happens]
kon specific
dai big
lon long
hai high, tall
pae parent
kio sibling
son asleep
tuo work
tua try [hard]
fei find easy
geo full of energy
lun close, not far (in a broad sense)
sim same
mit meet
ko with
cmi alongside
mo can
poa skilled
seo success
gan strong
nao sky
men surface
koe cover
hoe deserve
dau fight
leiu wet
leia water
heia room
guo country (state)
biu settlement (city, town, village)
dom building
pi located
pif reside
sea next
doi back (as in “go back” or “fight back”, not “back of the car”)
se self
pia each other
due extra; surpass
tci question particle
lik time (as in “three times”)
pou think
kou know
hom understand
fo think (have an opinion)
so see/notice
tcek test, check
foi fast
tu to
hoi because
sei if
lai light
den electricity
nuo center
nuf concentrate
nuk container
tui bag
mou move
hei oscillate
tia side
tiai right
tcie cut
ham bite
poe have sex
paf shoot (with a weapon)
tas trans, via (journey medium)
fnai burn, be on fire
ten hold
diu s0lve [a task, a problem]
tae vertical
dou hard object (opposite to soft object)
doua stone
nas space
lua make sounds with vocal cords
lou injured
bio be in danger
dio story
dis talk
til language
teiu be called
lio write
lit letter (character)
pap paper
mai allowed
maia rule (for controlling human’s behavior)
kem commit crime
nei control
du do
la good
san healthy
dil have a deal
dea be in a state, in a condition
lie happy
fi like, enjoy
mau want
fao have fun
fia be romantically/sexually attracted to
hae find [something] funny
hou respect
pao important
kie use
dok document
fua extraordinary
fae cloth
gau regular (something that happens on a regular basis)
kua climb, crawl
dei true, yes
tceo angry
bai buy
mon money
tcoe straight
kui cook
tcus choose
tcoi taste
tcou insect
mae front
mur wall
def tree
lus plant
hua flower
fut fruit (including vegetables, berries,...)
kis kiss
bam explode
fiu child
sit sit
lis wait
tou head
hea hair
pant pants, jeans, trousers, shorts (any clothing for legs)
but shoe
kep hat
maie to do [real] magic
doe sweet
tcua sour
coa salty
fmo open
goi instead
fai find (a job, a wife, meaning of life, etc)
kao be in order (be organized)
alk alcohol
bou stick-shaped object
pue rope-shaped object
gal glass
boa board
toe be stressed
som be early at [something]
hol hole
boe physical matter

Example textEdit

– dio de dombou 'babilon –

− tci mic litac fac maukou tci hoike da moc hom pia duo hidispiu tci hoike dagao dis til simc − hidomonofofa lun ta hubei hodiododupao − mo doso maie gitac keo hidomo bei tcuc todei nu ta, domocgafo −

− litac da facgauhom pia hidis til sim − ta dofafo hoi datagao beo paeclon 'noi pe nofecmei li maleigomakoi duo fai topibioc lun manaochai 'ararat − sudama facnufedai duo fekoukopoa to niu − sauta gauda tcus nekobibei biu duo pinu ta nekobibei dombou hai gi nao pe domokan tuc gaf topi de saonaslaic −

− facbei to gidai pe da hunufacfepoa : nefaia sucmur, nepikopia doua duo nepi ta tunu tonacfoatendom − dombou hunufacfehai hifelun nao − gauda faclie togifoi pe tonebei datagao hufedai − 

− li danegao fekou lun ta, teta nifua kan dombou padai gumeucse tu nao − danegao no fi topoubinufa ta : gauda felacnihoedohouse piulik hitua meucsebilun nao − duo teta dis: «beo mu sudama, dagao hom pia, dagao dis til sim − keo nudu ke − hinihoedohou duo dofeicnec, datagao mau meucsebilun nao, lun hodanegao» − danegao no nedeahoelac  datagao kie nemeic keo nemutcutes til pe datagao dis −

− dia tac, li gauda gonuc tu dombou, datagao hinodofofa fec hom pia − dagaoc mo hom tci ke dodis pilun − gauda mo du gaoc − tinekobibei fec − gauda gonac tuc dombou tu naoc foa fehom tci ke nudodu − keo pi naoc gauda fedau hoi homc todis pia − li kan ta, danegao nepiufei gauda kie nego gauda tuc biu nodoganekobibei duo nepi datagao tu biu simc pi nuoc simc de saonaslaic − li li go, gauda feckou paelunc se hifeheu hotogaudu duo til se −

The story of the Babylon tower

Have you ever wondered why people can't understand each other and moreover why they speak different languages? Actually there is a legend on this matter, too. It might seem a little bit magical but maybe there is a bit of truth in it, who knows.

At some time, people used to understand each other speaking the same language. After all, all of them were descendants of Noi who survived during the flood and found a shelter near the Ararat mountains. Step by step the people was getting bigger and learning new things and skills. And then people decided to build a city and in it they'd build a tall tower right up to the skies so that it could be seen from anywhere on Earth.

There were a lot of things that the people had learned by then: burning bricks, gathering stones and putting them into the foundation. Step by step the tower was growing getting closer to the sky. The people were happy to see how fast and steadily their creature was growing.

When God found out about it he was surprised to see a enormous tower stretching to the sky. God did not like the that idea: the people became empty pride and vanity again, trying to ascend to the sky. And he said: "It's one people, everybody understands each other, everybody speaks the same language. But what are they doing? Proud and stubborn, they want to reach to the sky, to approach God Himself!" God did not punish them with death, but he mixed the languages they were speaking.

One day, when people went out to the tower, they suddenly couldn't understand each other anymore. Nobody could understand what is spoken near them. People could not do anything. The construction stopped. People went down from the tower to the ground to find out what's going on. But on the ground they started fighting because one couldn't understand what the other wants to say. Upon seeing that, God helped the people by making them leaving the unfinished city and putting them into different cities located at the different edges of the Earth. As time passed, people forgot about their ancestry, they got their own traditions and languages.