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Neishan

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The Neishan language (Neyejïn) is the primary language of the Addites, and the official language of the country Atann. It has developed from tribal Addite dialects spoken in the region of modern day Atann. The origins of the word “Neishan” is somewhat unknown, but many historians speculate that it is the Romanised version of the name of the first tribe that European explorers found on the island of Atann.

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Name: Neyejïn

Type: Fusional

Alignment: Nominative–accusative

Head Direction: Initial

Number of genders: 3

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Nouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


HistoryEdit

Neishan is an interesting language, as it utilizes a completely unique vocabulary (with the exception of a few imported words) but its grammar and syntax has morphed to match those of an Indo-European romance language as the region was once a colonial power of Spain. This is a very interesting phenomenon often studied in linguistics classes.

During the 1800’s, when Spain controlled Atann, there were many attempts to eradicate Neishan, but they were mostly unsuccessful. Spanish was made the official language, and speaking Neishan was banned in public places; however, it was still spoken by a majority of the people and was used as a vernacular. The most extreme of these attempts was in 1862, when the provisional governor of Atann Ricardo Miguel Zapatero ordered troops to march up and down the streets of all major cities, shooting anybody they heard speaking Neishan. This act only angered the oppressed Addites further and helped spark the revolutions of 1864-66.

Although Spain’s attempts at destroying Neishan were unsuccessful, Spanish did influence the grammar of Neishan very heavily. Before the colonization period, there were very loose grammar rules which varied widely from region to region and town to town. However, after Spain unified the Island of Atann, all of the different regions and tribes were forced together into one state. This was not a big political problem, as there was little tension between the different Addite tribes.

However, the looseness and variation in grammar rules made day-to-day communication more difficult as the Addites were forced together. Since all Addites were required to learn Spanish, slowly they began to use Spanish as a basis for a unified grammar as there was little coherence originally. The grammar of the Spanish language was a lot more established and strong than that of Neishan, so it eventually carried over into Neishan.

In 1875, after Atann had been independent from Spain for nine years, the “Akadhä’ Petäÿyï dä-Neyejïn” (Regulatory Academy of the Neishan Language) was founded and cleared up any slight ambiguity in the grammar rules at the time. It continues to regulate the language and set standards today. The Neishan language has changed very little since the Academy was formed.

Writing SystemsEdit

For the most part, Neishan uses an adapted version of the Roman alphabet. However, an older, more traditional phonetic alphabet still exists but is not used as much. Students in Atann are required to learn both alphabets; however, foreign students studying Neishan are not always required learn it in introductory classes.

There are two main variations of the Neishan alphabet in use today: the Modern Standard Neishan and the Modern Script Neishan. One is more of a simple, print type while the other is more elegant and has serifs. There can be many subtle variations in the alphabet; many writers of Neishan develop a much customized version of the Modern Script system comparable to cursive signatures. Also, capitalization was never existed in older versions of the Neishan alphabet, so when it is used today a dot is placed somewhere around the letter to signify capitalization. There are generally accepted conventions for where to place this dot on a certain character, and the location can differ between script or standard types; however, ultimately this location is arbitrary as these standard conventions are not official. However, before the existence of these alphabets, there were 3 more or less unified writing systems: Proto-Neishan (which was a non-phonetic character system not understood by modern scholars), Archaic Neishan, and Middle Standard Neishan.

Archaic Neishan was developed by a team of scholars between the 5th and 3rd centuries BC. At this time, the different tribes of Atann were under a loose confederation, and it is believed that two scholars from each tribe were sent to a council to determine a grammatical standard and develop an easier system of writing, which became Archaic Neishan (then called something that can be translated to “Mouth-shape writing”). It seems as if these scholars had an advanced knowledge of phonetics, seeing as sounds that are formed similarly have similar patterns and appearance. One of the first things written in this system is a description of what these scholars did, still surviving to some degree on broken stone tablets.

This writing system remained the standard convention for over a thousand years, with regional variations. Around the 6th or 7th century AD, Atann was unified under one militaristic king, Ätanni (incidentally, he is for whom the island is named). He drafted scholars to make a completely uniform and simpler alphabet, which we know as Middle Standard Neishan.

When Spain first took control of Atann in the 17th c., a proto-Romanized Neishan alphabet was devised which the people were forced to use. During this time, the Latin alphabet had much influences on the now changing Middle Standard Alphabet which was no longer official.

However, when Spain was trying to eliminate the alphabet, the little Neishan that was written in defiance usually used this odd mixture of Latin and Middle Standard. Thus, when Spain was overthrown in Atann, two alphabets were widely used. When the Academy was formed, it made two official, uniform variations of the Latin-influenced traditional alphabet and called them Modern Standard Neishan and Modern Script Neishan. They stated that both the traditional alphabets and the Romanisation were official and were both seen commonly throughout Atann, on signs, in books, etc. Which alphabet one used was considered a stylistic choice; some preferred the look of the Roman, some preferred the traditional Neishan.

However, eventually the Roman alphabet won over in frequency of use as it is more widely used throughout the world. Laws and other official documents, however, were always and are still written in both, and the Modern Neishan Alphabet is still an important symbol of the culture and language of Atann.

PunctuationEdit

Neishan did not have any punctuation before the introduction of Spanish influences; therefore, punctuation in Neishan is the same as standard Peninsular Spanish conventions. In both the Romanised and traditional writing systems, the following punctuation is used:

Name English use Neishan use
Dialogue " " or ' ' – –1
Primary Quotation marks " " « »
Secondary Quotation marks ' ' " "
Question mark ? ¿ ?
Exclamation mark ! ¡ !

1For Dialogue, Neishan uses dashes instead of quotation marks, as in Spanish.

The remaining punctuation is just as in English.


PhonologyEdit

Vowels:

Romanisation IPA
a [a]
e [e]
i [i]
o [o]
u [u]
ÿ [ø]
ä [æ]
ï [ɪ]

Consonants:

Romanisation IPA
b [b]
d [d]
dh [dh] at the end of a word or before a consonant, [dʁ] before a vowel
f [f]
g [g]
h [x]
j [ʃ]
k [k]
l [l]
m [m]
n [n]
p [p]
r [ʁ]
t [t] unless at the end of a word, where it's aspirated [th]
v [v]
w [w]
y [ʒ]
z [z]

PhonotacticsEdit

only the fricatives (i.e. j, y, z, f, v, h,) will blend with other consonants; however, affricatives (e.g. 'tj' representing /tʃ/) are rare. Any diphthong is possible, but long vowels (double vowels) cannot be in a diphthong (e.g. 'aai' is impossible).

AccentsEdit

The Pronunciation above is a central Neishan accent, the most common and what most foreign students learn; however, there are variations. In the North consonants are more heavily aspirated and vowels are more rounded. Thicker Northern accents will pronounce some consonants such as z and t with the tongue further forward, making a z more like the th in that (IPA /ð/) and d, dh, and t are pronounced a little further forward and sustained a bit longer, with the dh actually being articulated on the bottom of the upper teeth. Southern Neishan accents will generally soften the aspiration on consonants but exaggerate long vowels. They also usually voice the f making it essentially a /v/. Another aspect of the Southern accent is that they soften up the rounded vowels, making them less distinguishable from their unrounded counterparts.

Syllables and StressEdit

Syllable patterns: V; CV; CVC A consonant, unless immediately followed by another consonant that is not blended, starts a new syllable. Only fricatives (i.e. j, y, z, f, v, h,) will blend.

Double vowels indicates a long sound.

Stress is always ultimate if a word ends in a stop (no consonant blends), and penultimate in all other cases.

GrammarEdit

Verb TensesEdit

An un-conjugated verb can act as a gerund, infinitive, supine, or participle. There are generally considered to be 3 basic tenses: Past, Present, and Future, as well as 3 compound sets of tenses: Perfects, Progressives, and Subjunctives/conditionals.

Verbs are not conjugated differently according to voice. In order to convey the passive voice without an agent, e.g. English: "Neishan is spoken." or Spanish (from which it derives): "Se habla Neishan.", one would use the third person singular conjugation for the respective tense and not state a subject.


Present TenseEdit

Refers to affirmative actions that happen in the present (e.g. “I swim on Mondays”); for negative actions see Subjunctive/Conditional Tenses.



Take the verb, and add the following endings ('z' is added if the verb ends in a vowel):

Singular Plural
1st Person -(z)ÿ -(z)eu
2nd Person -(z)ä -(z)ädha
3rd Person -(z)a -(z)adha


Example verb – Pÿt (to pwn):

Singular Plural
1st Person pÿtÿ pÿteu
2nd Person pÿtä pÿtädha
3rd Person pÿta pÿtadha


Example verb 2 – Koÿ (to be)

Singular Plural
1st Person koÿzÿ koÿzeu
2nd Person koÿzä koÿzädha
3rd Person koÿza koÿzadha


Past TenseEdit

Refers to past completed affirmative actions (see Subjunctive/Conditional Tenses and Progressive Tenses.)

Take the present tense form of the verb, and add “pï” at the end:

Singular Plural
1st Person -(z)ÿpï -(z)eupï
2nd Person -(z)äpï -(z)ädhapï
3rd Person -(z)apï -(z)adhapï

Example verb – Pÿt (to pwn)

Singular Plural
1st Person pÿtÿpï pÿteupï
2nd Person pÿtäpï pÿtädhapï
3rd Person pÿtapï pÿtadhapï


Example verb 2 – Koÿ (to be)

Singular Plural
1st Person koÿzÿpï koÿzeupï
2nd Person koÿzäpï koÿzädhapï
3rd Person koÿzapï koÿzadhapï


Future TenseEdit

Used for future events about which the speaker feels strongly that they will occur (see Subjuntive/Conditional Tenses).

Take the present tense form of the verb, and add “za” at the end:

Singular Plural
1st Person -(z)ÿza -(z)euza
2nd Person -(z)äza -(z)ädhaza
3rd Person -(z)aza -(z)adhaza


Example verb – Pÿt (to pwn)

Singular Plural
1st Person pÿtÿza pÿteuza
2nd Person pÿtäza pÿtädhaza
3rd Person pÿtaza pÿtadhaza


Example verb 2 – Koÿ (to be)

Singular Plural
1st Person koÿzÿza koÿzeuza
2nd Person koÿzäza koÿzädhaza
3rd Person koÿzaza koÿzadhaza


Perfect TensesEdit

Same as use in English, unless the subjunctive must be used (see Subjunctive/Conditional Tenses).

Take the helping verb “Jer” and conjugate it to either the past, present, or future and attack it to the end of the verb. No difference between verbs ending in vowels or consonants.

Example verb for present – Pÿt (to pwn)

Singular Plural
1st Person pÿtjerÿ pÿtjereu
2nd Person pÿtjerä pÿtjerädha
3rd Person pÿtjera pÿtjeradha


Example verb for past – Pÿt (to pwn)

Singular Plural
1st Person pÿtjerÿpï pÿtjereupï
2nd Person pÿtjeräpï pÿtjerädhapï
3rd Person pÿtjerapï pÿtjeradhapï


Example verb for future – Pÿt (to pwn)

Singular Plural
1st Person pÿtjerÿza pÿtjereuza
2nd Person pÿtjeräza pÿtjerädhaza
3rd Person pÿtjeraza pÿtjeradhaza


Progressive TensesEdit

Same as use in English, unless the subjunctive must be used (see Subjunctive/Conditional Tenses).

Take the helping verb “ko” and conjugate it to either the past, present, or future and attack it to the end of the verb. No difference between verbs ending in vowels or consonants.


Example verb for present – Pÿt (to pwn)

Singular Plural
1st Person pÿtkozÿ pÿtkozeu
2nd Person pÿtkozä pÿtkozädha
3rd Person pÿtkoza pÿtkozadha


Example verb for past* – Pÿt (to pwn)

Singular Plural
1st Person pÿtkozÿpï pÿtkozeupï
2nd Person pÿtkozäpï pÿtkozädhapï
3rd Person pÿtkozapï pÿtkozadhapï
  • It can also refer to an action that occurred in the past but is still occurring today; in this case, one would conjugate it for past tense progressive and then at the word “zÿldaj” which means roughly “to today”


Example verb for future – Pÿt (to pwn)

Singular Plural
1st Person pÿtkozÿza pÿtkozeuza
2nd Person pÿtkozäza pÿtkozädhaza
3rd Person pÿtkozaza pÿtkozadhaza

Subjunctives/Conditional TensesEdit

Subjunctives/Conditional Tenses

Note on the name: Usually called the subjunctive tenses, but can also be cited as the conditional tenses (seeing as it is used in conditional statements)

This set of compound tenses is a little trickier.

It is always used in both clauses of a “bledh” conditional statement which only exist in the past and present. The three structures of a conditional statement include:

Bledh (if) past sub. bledhi (then) past sub. (if I did X, then Y would have happened)

Bledh (if) past sub. bledhi (then) present sub. (if I did X, then Y would happen)

Bledh (if) present sub. bledhi (then) present sub. (if I do X, then Y happens/will happen)

Order is important: the “bledh” clause must always come first

The subjunctives are usually used for actions to come unless they are specifically guaranteed or the speaker wants to put an emphasis that the action will occur; in that case, use the singular, perfect, or progressive future.

They are also used for saying that something did not happen (e.g. “I did not go to the store” would be subjunctive)

They are also used for commands, where the speaker will put teh apropriate pronoun after verb conjugation.

There is no such thing as a perfect or progressive subjunctive tense, just conjugate it like anything else (e.g. for saying “I was not walking” you would just use normal past progressive)

To conjugate the subjunctive, take the helping verb “tïdhä” and conjugate it like the other compound tenses:

Example verb for present – Pÿt (to pwn)

Singular Plural
1st Person pÿttïdhäzÿ pÿttïdhäzeu
2nd Person pÿttïdhäzä pÿttïdhäzädha
3rd Person pÿttïdhäza pÿttïdhäzadha


Example verb for past – Pÿt (to pwn)

Singular Plural
1st Person pÿttïdhäzÿpï pÿttïdhäzeupï
2nd Person pÿttïdhäzäpï pÿttïdhäzädhapï
3rd Person pÿttïdhäzapï pÿttïdhäzadhapï


Example verb for future – Pÿt (to pwn)

Singular Plural
1st Person pÿttïdhäzÿza pÿttïdhäzeuza
2nd Person pÿttïdhäzäza pÿttïdhäzädhaza
3rd Person pÿttïdhäzaza pÿttïdhäzadhaza

PronounsEdit

Subject or direct object (Nominative or accusative):

Singular Plural

1st Person

Ÿti Ÿteu

2nd Person

Feminine Ädhi Ädhiu
Masculine Äti Ätiu

3rd Person

Feminine Adhi Adhiu
Masculine Ati Atiu
Neuter Tai Taidha


Object of a preposition (prepositional)

Singular Plural

1st Person

Ÿt Ÿtu

2nd Person

Feminine Ädh Ädhu
Masculine Ät Ätu

3rd Person

Feminine Adh Adhu
Masculine At Atu
Neuter Ta Taidh


Possessive (can function like English "my" or "mine"):

Singular Plural

1st Person

Ÿtij Ÿteuj

2nd Person

Feminine Ädhij Ädhiuj
Masculine Ätiy Ätiuy

3rd Person

Feminine Adhij Adhiuj
Masculine Atiy Atiuy
Neuter Taij Taidhaj


Demonstrative:

  • Tadh – close to speaker singular, “this”
  • Tudh – Close to speaker plural, “these”
  • Tadha – Far from speaker singular, “that”
  • Tudha – Far from speaker plural, “those”


Relative Pronouns:

  • Kaa – that, which, who, whom (the person who did it, the book that I read)
  • Loka – where, or referring to a concept (the school where I attended, the values that they held)

Interrogative Pronouns:

  • Keta - what, which
  • Ketä - who, whom
  • Look - when, where (often used in conjunction with the phrases "in time" or "in place" to differentiate)
  • Komo - how

SyntaxEdit

General Sentence StructureEdit

Noun phrases: Adjectives are always attached to the end of nouns with a hyphen. If the noun ends with a stopand the adjective begins with another one, only the latter is pronounced and the words are phonetically merged. In the case of multiple adjectives describing one word, the adjectives are separated by apostrophes and placed in any order (except articles must always be first).

Examples:

  • big (reu) house (Yÿta): Yÿareu
  • ugly (ÿdhau) house: Yÿta’ÿdhau
  • big man (lozvät): lozvät’reu
  • the (tä) big house: Yÿtatä’reu

Verb Phrases: Adverbs are attached to the beginnings of verbs but hyphenated

  • Example: I pwn awesomely: azvïyä-pÿtÿ

If adverbs are modifying adjectives, then the adjective is placed after the noun which it modifies separated by an apostrophe and the adverb is attached with a hyphen.

  • Example: bright red paint: kelkÿ’luita-mewon

Sentence Structure and Nominative and Accusative cases: Simple subjects of a verb are always placed immediately after the verb

  • Example: Adham pwns: pÿta Adham

Direct objects/predicate nominatives/predicate adjectives are placed after the complete subject, separated by a comma

  • Examples: Adham pwns Bili: pÿta Adham, Bili

Note: when pronounced, there is no pause at the comma, and the comma is often omitted in informal writing

Clauses are always separated by a semicolon, with a conjunction optional. If a conjunction is used, then the semi-colon is attacked to the front of it; otherwise, it is attached to the end of the last word in the first clause Examples:

  • Adham pwns Bili but Bili pwns you: pÿta Adham, Bili ;zvï pÿta Bili, äti
  • Adham pwns Bili; Bili pwns you: pÿta Adham, Bili; pÿta Bili, äti

For question sentences, you construct the entire sentence, and then place the question word at the end separated by commas. Question words are always capitalised.

  • Example: What is your (f) name?: Koÿzä ädhij-yeedh, Dhomena?

Other Phrases and CasesEdit

Prepositional: The preposition is placed first, and then the noun (w/ any modifiers attached) is placed afterword and hyphenated. It is placed after the word/phrase that it modifies.

Prepositional phrases are also used for the dative case (indirect objects) and the genitive case (possession, i.e. instead of saying "John's book" Neishan uses the structure "The book of John")

Examples:

  • By the man: zät-lozvät’tä
  • Under the ugly house: gäka-yÿtatä’ÿdhau
  • I threw you the ball: Taazÿpï, gahi zÿla-äti. (lit. translates to ‘I threw the ball to you’)

Appositive: Appositive phrases are placed directly after the noun to which they refer and are placed in brackets

  • Example: Adham, a man,…: Adham [lozvät’ta]…

Relative clause: Placed after the noun phrase which it modifies, placed in brackets, with the relative pronoun placed first (or as the direct object if a subject and a verb are present).

Examples:

  • Adham, who pwns, is awesome: Koÿza Adham [kaa pÿta], azvï.
  • Adham, a man who pwns, is awesome: Koÿza Adham [pÿta lozvät’ta, kaa], azvï.

NOTE: in informal situations the relative pronoun is often omitted in speech (but rarely in writing). This is VERY INFORMAL and not grammatically correct per se.

Examples:

  • “Adham, who pwns, is awesome” is spoken as: Koÿza Adham [pÿta], azvï.
  • “Adham, a man who pwns, is awesome” is spoken as: Koÿza Adham [pÿta lozvät’ta], azvï.

Vocative case: The vocative case (to whom the idea of sentence is directed, e.g. "John, please go over there.") is handled by placing the addressee at the beginning of the sentence and followed by a colon.


VocabularyEdit

AffixesEdit

Affixes in Neishan are very limited and all take teh form of suffixes, but some do exist. The following table lists the affixes of Neishan:

Preceding vowel

Preceding consonant

Meaning

Examples

ayï

makes a noun/verb into an adjective

Petäÿ (to regulate) Petäÿyï (regulatory), lozvät (man) lozvätayï (manly)

zetä

etä

Negates an adjective/adverb

lozvätayï(man) lozvätayïtä (un-manly)

ma a Comparative English -er
ä Superlative English -est

DictionaryEdit

English Neishan
A ta
Academy Akadhä
Atanite (adjective) Ädhaitÿ
Atanite (person) Ädhaitÿ
Atann Adhän
Awesome Azvï
Ball Gahi
Be Koÿ
Big Reu
Bright Luita
but, however, although Zvï
by, from, zät
Day Yedha
Flag Bandh
Future Dhäza
Go ÿtei
Have (as in perfect tenses) Jer
He Ati
Hello (formal) Koolita
Hello (informal) Koli
House Yÿta
If bledh
in, on, around zïl
It Tai
Lame Zäp
Language Ney
Man Lozvät
Woan lozvat
Name Yeedh
Neishan Nejïn
Neishan (more formal, usually translated “Neishan Language”) Neyejïn
Of, from, about
Over käka
Paint Kelkÿ
Past Dhaltï
Red Mewon
Regulatory Petäÿyï
She Adhi
The
Throw (v.) Taaz
To pwn Pÿt
To, at zÿla
Today Dajdha
Ugly Ÿdhau
under gäka
We Ÿteu
What Dhomena
When, where Rampaka
Where Veledat
Who Tejmir
Why Yäät
Father Dhäf
Heaven Kelet
Holy, hallowed Yutjä
Kingdom Vaa
to come Hit
to do Mïlek
will, desire Velïy
Earth Dyo
as, as in, like, etc. (conjunction indicating relationship) Käta
to give limÿk
day, today Zak
Food Dhola
And data
to forgive Hïvya
tresspasses, sins Trayin
to sin (intransitive), to sin against (transitive) Traÿ
to lead, allow Zvob
Temptation lïvel
to deliver Taha
Evil Dhandan
no, not äi
Power Kÿz
Glory Seïrot
because, because of, for, as (conjunction indicating cause) Poa
all, every (adj), everything (n) Dhamÿ
Time koluÿ
for, by (preposition indicating time duration or method) Kolaa
Amen Amen
Force (military) Karayma
Cover, Defence Jimä
Army Ehejto
Operation Operajo
Special Ejpeka

CountingEdit

Neishan uses Arabic numerals, even with non-latin script. The old form of numerals is archaeic and not advised by the Regulatory Academy of the Neishan Language.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Ni

Wa

Mo

Pÿ

Kaka

Yetsa

No

Reko

Ninoo


11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

Nin

Wan

Mon

Pin

Kan

Yetsan

Non

Lïn

Rekon

Wanoo


21

22

23

30

40

50

100

200

300

1000

Wanooni

Wanoowa

Wanoomo

Monoo

Pÿmoo

Kakanoo

Na

Wana

Mona

Too-


10k

100k

Million

Billion

Trillion

Quadrillion

Quintillion

Ninootoo-

Natoo-

Mïja-

Bïja-

Trïja-

Kaja-

Kija-

e.g.

55 – Kakanookaka

156 – Nakakanooyetsa

782 – Nonalïnoowa

1028 – Too-wanoolï

3471 – Motoo-pÿna-nonooni

4,347,284,163 – Wabïja-monapÿnoonomïja-wanalïnoopÿtoo-nayetsanoomo

Example textEdit

The Lord's PrayerEdit

English Neishan
Our Father, who art in heaven, Dhäf-ÿteuj, kaa koÿza zïl-kelet,
Hallowed be Thy name! ¡Yeedh-Ätiy koÿza yutjä!
Thy kingdom come, Thy will be done, Vaa-Ätiy hitaza, velïy-Ätiy koÿjeraza,
On earth as it is in Heaven. Zïl-Dyo ;käta koÿjeraza zïl-kelet.
Give us this day our daily bread, Äti limÿktïdhäza zÿla-ÿtu zïl-zak dhola-ÿteuj'zakyï
And forgive us our trespasses, ;Data hïvyatïdhäza trayin-ÿteuj
As we forgive those who trepass against us. ;Käta hïvyazadha taidha kaa traÿza ÿteu.
And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil. Äti äi-zvobtïdhäza zïl-lïvel ;zvï Äti tahatïdhäza zät-dhandan
For Thine is the kingdom, the power, and the glory, forever and ever!
Amen
;poa ¡vaa-tä data kÿz-tä data seïrot-tä koÿza Ätiy kolaa koluÿ-dhamÿ!
Amen.

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