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Nellen

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CharacteristicsEdit

Nellen ['nɛllen] is a language of Efhang origin, featuring a complex noun declension.

As a North Efhang language, r is pronounced as [ʀ].

Words are stressed on the first syllable, except when an unstressed prefix is used.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

[p] [t] [k]
[b] [d] [g]
[θ] [x]
[ð]
[s] [ʃ] [z] [dʒ]
[m] [n] r [ʀ] [l]
[j] [w]

The plosive consonants have fricative allophones, used at the end of syllables:

  • [p] -> [ɸ]
  • [t] -> [θ]
  • [k] -> [x]
  • [b] -> [β]
  • [d] -> [ð]
  • [g] -> [ɣ]


The allophones for [t] and [d] merge with the original [θ] and [ð]. For most speakers, [ɣ] merges with [ʀ] as well.

VowelsEdit

Vowels are:

a [a] (unstressed), [æ] (stressed)
e [e] (unstressed), [ɛ] (stressed)
i [ɪ]
o [o] (unstressed), [ɔ] (stressed)
u [ʊ]
ö [ø] (unstressed), [œ] (stressed)
y [y]

MorphologyEdit

NounsEdit

There are three gender of nouns: masculine, feminine and neuter. Nouns are declined according to two numbers: singular and plural; definiteness (definite, indefinite); and to five cases, viz.:

  1. Nominative (subject)
  2. Accusative (direct object)
  3. Dative (indirect object)
  4. Ablative
  5. Genitive (possessive)

Masculine NounsEdit

Indefinite Declension Example: uwnan "a man", "a person"
Number Singular Plural
Nominative - -uð
Accusative -o -oð
Dative -uk [-x] -es
Ablative -um -em
Genitive -ik [-x] -is
Number Singular Plural
Nominative uwnan ['uwnan] uwnanuð ['uwnanuð]
Accusative uwnano ['uwnano] uwnanoð ['uwnanoð]
Dative uwnanuk ['uwnanux] uwnanes ['uwnanes]
Ablative uwnanum ['uwnanum] uwnanem ['uwnanem]
Genitive uwnanik ['uwnanix] uwnanis ['uwnanis]
Definite Declension Example: uwnanin "the man", "the person"
Number Singular Plural
Nominative -in -un
Accusative -on -onð
Dative -ung -ens
Ablative -im -ejn
Genitive -ing -ins
Number Singular Plural
Nominative uwnanin ['uwnanin] uwnanun ['uwnanun]
Accusative uwnanon ['uwnanon] uwnanonð ['uwnanonð]
Dative uwnanung ['uwnanuŋg] uwnanens ['uwnanens]
Ablative uwnanim ['uwnanim] uwnanejn ['uwnanejn]
Genitive uwnaning ['uwnaniŋg] uwnanins ['uwnanins]

Feminine NounsEdit

Indefinite Declension Example: henrejh "a family"
Number Singular Plural
Nominative - -eð
Accusative -eʃ
Dative -ek -es
Ablative -um -em
Genitive -ik -is
Number Singular Plural
Nominative henrejh ['hɛnʀejh] henrejheð ['hɛnʀejheð]
Accusative henrejhö ['hɛnʀejhø] henrejheʃ ['hɛnʀejheʃ]
Dative henrejhek ['hɛnʀejhex] henrejhes ['hɛnʀejhes]
Ablative henrejhum ['hɛnʀejhum] henrejhem ['hɛnʀejhem]
Genitive henrejhik ['hɛnʀejhix] henrejhis ['hɛnʀejhis]
Definite Declension Example: henrejhan "the family"
Number Singular Plural
Nominative -an -að
Accusative -ön -aʃ
Dative -ang -as
Ablative -am -en
Genitive -ang -as
Number Singular Plural
Nominative henrejhan ['hɛnʀejhan] henrejhað ['hɛnʀejhað]
Accusative henrejhön ['hɛnʀejhøn] henrejhaʃ ['hɛnʀejhaʃ]
Dative henrejhang ['hɛnʀejhaŋg] henrejhas ['hɛnʀejhas]
Ablative henrejham ['hɛnʀejham] henrejhen ['hɛnʀejhen]
Genitive henrejhang ['hɛnʀejhaŋg] henrejhas ['hɛnʀejhas]

Neuter NounsEdit

Indefinite Declension Example: ðejtet "a city", "a town"
Number Singular Plural
Nominative - -ið
Accusative -y -iʃ
Dative -uk -is
Ablative -um -im
Genitive -ik -is
Number Singular Plural
Nominative ðejtet ['ðɛjteθ] ðejtetið ['ðɛjtetið]
Accusative ðejtety ['ðɛjtety] ðejtetiʃ ['ðɛjtetiʃ]
Dative ðejtetuk ['ðɛjtetux] ðejtetis ['ðɛjtetis]
Ablative ðejtetum ['ðɛjtetum] ðejtetim ['ðɛjtetim]
Genitive ðejtetik ['ðɛjtetix] ðejtetis ['ðɛjtetis]


Definite Declension Example: ðejtetin "the city", "the town"
Number Singular Plural
Nominative -in -inð
Accusative -yn -inʃ
Dative -ung -uns
Ablative -im -im
Genitive -ing -ins
Number Singular Plural
Nominative ðejtetin ['ðɛjtetin] ðejtetinð ['ðɛjtetinð]
Accusative ðejtetyn ['ðɛjtetyn] ðejtetinʃ ['ðɛjtetinʃ]
Dative ðejtetung ['ðɛjtetuŋg] ðejtetuns ['ðɛjtetuns]
Ablative ðejtetim ['ðɛjtetim] ðejtetim ['ðɛjtetim]
Genitive ðejteting ['ðɛjtetiŋg] ðejtetins ['ðɛjtetins]

AdjectivesEdit

Adjective declension follows basically that of nouns, except that the only vowel allowed in endings is -i.

muh "new", "young"Edit

Masculine Feminine Neuter
Indefinite
Number Singular Plural
Nominative muh ['muh] muhið ['muhið]
Accusative muhi ['muhi] muhið ['muhið]
Dative muhik ['muhix] muhis ['muhis]
Ablative muhim ['muhim] muhim ['muhim]
Genitive muhik ['muhix] muhis ['muhis]
Definite
Number Singular Plural
Nominative muhin ['muhin] muhin ['muhin]
Accusative muhin ['muhin] muhinð ['muhinð]
Dative muhing ['muhiŋg] muhins ['muhins]
Ablative muhim ['muhim] muhijn ['muhijn]
Genitive muhing ['muhiŋg] muhins ['muhins]
Indefinite
Number Singular Plural
Nominative muh ['muh] muhið ['muhið]
Accusative muhi ['muhi] muhiʃ ['muhiʃ]
Dative muhik ['muhix] muhis ['muhis]
Ablative muhim ['muhim] muhim ['muhim]
Genitive muhik ['muhix] muhis ['muhis]
Definite
Number Singular Plural
Nominative muhin ['muhin] muhið ['muhið]
Accusative muhin ['muhin] muhiʃ ['muhiʃ]
Dative muhing ['muhiŋg] muhis ['muhis]
Ablative muhim ['muhim] muhin ['muhin]
Genitive muhik ['muhix] muhis ['muhis]
Indefinite
Number Singular Plural
Nominative muh ['muh] muhið ['muhið]
Accusative muhi ['muhi] muhiʃ ['muhiʃ]
Dative muhik ['muhix] muhis ['muhis]
Ablative muhim ['muhim] muhim ['muhim]
Genitive muhik ['muhix] muhis ['muhis]
Definite
Number Singular Plural
Nominative muhin ['muhin] muhinð ['muhinð]
Accusative muhin ['muhin] muhinʃ ['muhinʃ]
Dative muhing ['muhiŋg] muhins ['muhins]
Ablative muhim ['muhim] muhim ['muhim]
Genitive muhing ['muhiŋg] muhins ['muhins]

Kelmt "great"Edit

Masculine Feminine Neuter
Indefinite
Number Singular Plural
Nominative kelmt ['kɛlmθ] kelmtið ['kɛlmtið]
Accusative kelmti ['kɛlmti] kelmtið ['kɛlmtið]
Dative kelmtik ['kɛlmtix] kelmtis ['kɛlmtis]
Ablative kelmtim ['kɛlmtim] kelmtim ['kɛlmtim]
Genitive kelmtik ['kɛlmtix] kelmtis ['kɛlmtis]
Definite
Number Singular Plural
Nominative kelmtin ['kɛlmtin] kelmtin ['kɛlmtin]
Accusative kelmtin ['kɛlmtin] kelmtinð ['kɛlmtinð]
Dative kelmting ['kɛlmtiŋg] kelmtins ['kɛlmtins]
Ablative kelmtim ['kɛlmtim] kelmtijn ['kɛlmtijn]
Genitive kelmting ['kɛlmtiŋg] kelmtins ['kɛlmtins]
Indefinite
Number Singular Plural
Nominative kelmt ['kɛlmt] kelmtið ['kɛlmtið]
Accusative kelmti ['kɛlmti] kelmtiʃ ['kɛlmtiʃ]
Dative kelmtik ['kɛlmtix] kelmtis ['kɛlmtis]
Ablative kelmtim ['kɛlmtim] kelmtim ['kɛlmtim]
Genitive kelmtik ['kɛlmtix] kelmtis ['kɛlmtis]
Definite
Number Singular Plural
Nominative kelmtin ['kɛlmtin] kelmtið ['kɛlmtið]
Accusative kelmtin ['kɛlmtin] kelmtiʃ ['kɛlmtiʃ]
Dative kelmting ['kɛlmtiŋg] kelmtis ['kɛlmtis]
Ablative kelmtim ['kɛlmtim] kelmtin ['kɛlmtin]
Genitive kelmtik ['kɛlmtix] kelmtis ['kɛlmtis]
Indefinite
Number Singular Plural
Nominative kelmt ['kɛlmt] kelmtið ['kɛlmtið]
Accusative kelmti ['kɛlmti] kelmtiʃ ['kɛlmtiʃ]
Dative kelmtik ['kɛlmtix] kelmtis ['kɛlmtis]
Ablative kelmtim ['kɛlmtim] kelmtim ['kɛlmtim]
Genitive kelmtik ['kɛlmtix] kelmtis ['kɛlmtis]
Definite
Number Singular Plural
Nominative kelmtin ['kɛlmtin] kelmtinð ['kɛlmtinð]
Accusative kelmtin ['kɛlmtin] kelmtinʃ ['kɛlmtinʃ]
Dative kelmting ['kɛlmtiŋg] kelmtins ['kɛlmtins]
Ablative kelmtim ['kɛlmtim] kelmtim ['kɛlmtim]
Genitive kelmting ['kɛlmtiŋg] kelmtins ['kɛlmtins]

Comparative FormEdit

SuperiorityEdit

The suffix -yl- is added to the stem of the adjective. Ex.:

  • kelmt "large", kelmtyl "larger"
  • muh "new", muhyl "newer"
  • pun "good", punyl "better"
EqualityEdit
InferiorityEdit

SuperlativeEdit

The suffix -ejn- is added to the stem of the adjective, which is then used in the definite form. Ex.:

  • kelmt "large", kelmtejnin "the largest"
  • muh "new", muhejnin "the newest"
  • pun "good", punejnin "the best"

PronounsEdit

Pronouns follow the same declension system used for nouns and adjectives, with little differences in some forms.

PersonalEdit

1st sing. 2nd. sing. 3nd. sing. m. 3nd. sing. f. 3nd. sing. n. 1st pl. 2nd. pl. 3nd. pl. m. 3nd. pl. f. 3nd. pl. n.
Nominative jyn don rin ran rin mun hun run rað rið
Accusative nyn dyn ron rön ryn monð hunð ronð raʃ rinʃ
Dative nuk, nung duk, dung rung rang rung mis, mins his, hins rens ras runs
Ablative num dum rim ram rim mim him rejn ren rim
Genitive nik dik ring rang ring mis his rins ras rins

PossessiveEdit

Possessives are not declined at all. They require the noun to be in the definite form, while any accompanying adjective must be in the indefinite form.

Person Singular Plural
1st ni mi
2nd di hi
3rd m., f. and n.

Examples:

  • mi henrejhan "my family"
  • mi ðejtetin "my town"
  • mi elnehun "my brothers"
  • di har enejkin "your old friend"
  • di hari enejkun "your old friends"

DemonstrativeEdit

There is only one demonstrative er, which may stand for "this", "that", "such". The deictic particles jen "here", ha "there (next to you)", re "there", "over there" may be added after the noun for specification. The same as with possessives, demonstratives require the noun to be definite and any accompanying adjective to be indefinite. The demonstrative er itself does not decline. Ex.:

  • er gesan "this/that/such a house"
  • er gesan jen "this house"
  • er gesan ha "that house (next to you)"
  • er gesan re "that house (over there)"
  • er muh gesan jen "this new house"
  • er harið gesað re "those old houses (over there)"

InterrogativeEdit

Interrogatives have an unstressed prefix a-, so they are stressed on the second syllable.

  • arij [a'ʀij] "what"
  • arawn [a'ʀæwn] "who"
  • agor [a'gɔʀ] "which"
  • agun [a'gun] "how"
  • atir [a'tiʀ] "where"
  • amtor [am'tɔʀ] "when"

RelativeEdit

The only relative pronoun is ra [ɾæ], standing for "that", "which", "who".

IndefiniteEdit

  • erkon ['ɛʀkon] "some", "any"
  • mejhon ['mɛjhon] "no", "none"
  • dut [duθ] "all", "every"
  • ret [ʀɛθ] "each", "every"

NumbersEdit

Cardinal NumbersEdit

  • 0 mor [mɔʀ]
  • 1 hon [hɔn]
  • 2 tejd [tɛjð]
  • 3 deð [dɛð]
  • 4 hel [hɛl]
  • 5 ðeg [ðɛɣ]
  • 6 zið [zið]
  • 7 ðawd [ðæwð]
  • 8 hejd [hɛjð]
  • 9 muw [muw]
  • 10 tawð [tæwð]
  • 11 hontawð ['hɔntað]
  • 12 tujawð ['tujað]
  • 13 deðawð ['dɛðað]
  • 14 hellawð ['hɛllað]
  • 15 ðengawð ['ðɛŋgað]
  • 16 zijawð ['zijað]
  • 17 ðawdawð ['ðæwdað]
  • 18 uytawð ['ujtað]
  • 19 muwawð ['muwað]
  • 20 hemd [hɛmð]
  • 21 hemd hon [hɛmð hɔn]
  • 30 lemd [lɛm(ð)]
  • 40 helemd ['hɛlem(ð)]
  • 50 ðengemd ['ðɛŋgem(ð)]
  • 60 zihemd ['zihem(ð)]
  • 70 ðawdemd ['ðæwdem(ð)]
  • 80 hejdemd ['hɛjdem(ð)]
  • 90 muhemd ['huwem(ð)]
  • 100 ðawn [ðæwn]

Ordinal NumbersEdit

Ordinal numbers are regular adjectives.

  • 1 bellin ['bɛllin]
  • 2 ðikemd ['ðikemð]
  • 3 delðij ['dɛlðij]
  • 4 golled ['gɔlleð]
  • 5 ðemmed ['ðɛmmeð]
  • 6 zihejð ['zihejð]
  • 7 ðawdejn ['ðæwdejn]
  • 8 hejdeh ['hɛjdeh]
  • 9 mujim ['mujim]
  • 10 tawðejn ['tæwðejn]

ConjunctionsEdit

CoordinatingEdit

  • roj [ʀɔj] "for"
  • ge [ge], [gɛ] "and"
  • mah [mæh] "nor"
  • ðawt [ðæwθ] "but"
  • ho [hɔ] "or"
  • ihted ['ihteð]"yet"
  • ðejn [ðɛjn] "so"

CorrelativeEdit

  • henep … ge … ['hɛneɸ ... ge] "both … and … "
  • ho … ho … "either … or … "
  • mah … mah … "neither … nor … "
  • me … ðawt … [mæ ... ðæwt] "not … but … "
  • með … denep … [mɛð ... 'dɛneɸ] "not only … but also … "

SubordinatingEdit

  • tib [tiβ] "after"
  • gedot ['gɛdoθ] "although"
  • ðije "if"
  • iððawd ['iððawð] "unless"
  • rijuk ['ʀijux] "so that"
  • belmed ['bɛlmeð] "therefore"
  • bijsel "in spite of", "despite"
  • roj "because"

VerbsEdit

  • Moods: Indicative
  • Tenses: Present, Perfective, Aorist, Future, Future Perfect
  • Persons: 1st, 2nd and 3rd
  • Numbers: Singular and Plural

Sample Conjugation: hejtil "see"Edit

Nellen incorporates old pronominal elements to the endings used in verb conjugation.

The infinitive ends in -l, and old thematic vowels are kept, except in the present tense in which it is optional for all persons but third singular.

Active Voice
Singular Plural
1st sing. 2nd. sing. 3rd sing. 1st pl. 2nd. pl. 3rd pl. Participle Infinitive
Present hejt-(i)-ni-m hejt-(i)-di-ð hejt-i-θ-k hejt-(i)-mi-n hejt-(i)-hi-ð hejt-(i)-ju-n hejt-i-nd hejt-i-l
Perfective danim hejt-oθ dadið hejt-oθ daθk hejt-oθ damin hejt-oθ dahið hejt-oθ dajun hejt-oθ hejt-o-θ dil hejt-oθ
Aorist hejt-i-sna-m hejt-i-sta-ð hejt-i-sa-k hejt-i-sma-n hejt-i-sxa-ð hejt-i-sa-wn hejt-i-s hejt-i-sa-l
Future hejt-i-ti-m hejt-i-ti-ð hejt-i-ti-k hejt-i-ti-n hejt-i-ti-ð hejt-i-ti-n hejt-ol hejt-i-ti-l
Imperative - hejt-ø hejt-ø-e-k hejt-ø-e-n hejt-ø-e-ð hejt-ø-e-n - -
Passive Voice
Singular Plural
1st sing. 2nd. sing. 3rd sing. 1st pl. 2nd. pl. 3rd pl. Participle Infinitive
Present hejt-es-i-m hejt-es-i-ð hejt-es-i-k hejt-es-i-n hejt-es-i-ð hejt-es-u-n hejt-es-ned hejt-es-i-l
Perfective desim hejt-oθ desið hejt-oθ desik hejt-oθ desin hejt-oθ desið hejt-oθ desun hejt-oθ hejt-es-o-θ desil hejt-oθ
Aorist hejt-es-a-m hejt-es-a-ð hejt-es-a-k hejt-es-a-n hejt-es-a-ð hejt-es-a-wn hejt-es-as hejt-es-a-l
Future hejt-es-ti-m hejt-es-ti-ð hejt-es-ti-k hejt-es-ti-n hejt-es-ti-ð hejt-es-ti-n hejt-es-ol hejt-es-ti-l
Imperative - hejt-es hejt-es-e-k hejt-es-e-n hejt-es-e-ð hejt-es-e-n - -

Irregular VerbsEdit

Sejel "be"Edit
Singular Plural
1st sing. 2nd. sing. 3rd sing. 1st pl. 2nd. pl. 3rd pl. Participle Infinitive
Present sim sið sik smin sið sun sind sejel
Perfective danim sej-oθ dadið sej-oθ daθk sej-oθ damin sej-oθ dahið sej-oθ dajun sej-oθ sej-o-θ dil sej-oθ
Aorist sej--sna-m sej--sta-ð sej--sa-k sej--sma-n sej--sxa-ð sej--sa-wn sej-e-s sej-e-sa-l
Future sej--ti-m sej--ti-ð sej--ti-k sej--ti-n sej--ti-ð sej--ti-n sej-ol sej-e-ti-l
Imperative - sej-ø sej-ø-e-k sej-ø-e-n sej-ø-e-ð sej-ø-e-n - -
Dil "have"Edit
Active Voice
Singular Plural
1st sing. 2nd. sing. 3rd sing. 1st pl. 2nd. pl. 3rd pl. Participle Infinitive
Present danim dadið daθk damin dahið dajun damind dil
Perfective danim doθ dadið doθ daθk doθ damin doθ dahið doθ dajun doθ doθ dil doθ
Aorist da--sna-m da--sta-ð da--sa-k da--sma-n da--sxa-ð da--sa-wn da--s da--sa-l
Future dam--ti-m dam--ti-ð dam--ti-k dam--ti-n dam--ti-ð dam--ti-n dam-ol dam--ti-l
Imperative - dam-ø dam-ø-e-k dam-ø-e-n dam-ø-e-ð dam-ø-e-n - -
Passive Voice
Singular Plural
1st sing. 2nd. sing. 3rd sing. 1st pl. 2nd. pl. 3rd pl. Participle Infinitive
Present d-es-i-m d-es-i-ð d-es-i-k d-es-i-n d-es-i-ð d-es-u-n d-es-ned d-es-i-l
Perfective desim doθ desið doθ desik doθ desin doθ desið doθ desun doθ dam-es-o-θ desil doθ
Aorist dam-s-a-m dam-s-a-ð dam-s-a-k dam-s-a-n dam-s-a-ð dam-s-a-wn dam-s-as dam-s-a-l
Future dam-s-ti-m dam-s-ti-ð dam-s-ti-k dam-s-ti-n dam-s-ti-ð dam-s-ti-n dam-s-ol dam-s-ti-l
Imperative - dam-s dam-s-e-k dam-s-e-n dam-s-e-ð dam-s-e-n - -

VocabularyEdit

  • Swadesh List: Here we give the Swadesh List for North Efhang.

SampleEdit

  • "Dutin uwnanun meðjun rejlið, tejkemtetum ge tejlijdem. Run dajun lesö ge gemzejzö, ge tihjun eʃejl hon hollung spejlejdum helnemtetik."

['dutin 'uwnanun 'mɛðjun 'ʀɛjlið, 'tɛjkemtetum ge 'tɛjlijdem. ʀun 'dæjun 'lɛsø ge 'gɛmzejzø, ge 'tihjun 'ɛʃejl hɔn 'hɔlluŋg 'spɛjlejdum 'hɛlnemtetix.]

    • ("All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.")

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