The Neumatic languages all share similar verbal aspects, tenses and moods, which will be detailed here.


Moods describe the subjects attitude towards the action.


The indicative mood indicates simple factual actions, and is by far the most common mood in independent clauses.

  • "I eat."


The subjunctive mood, or the conjunctive, describes hypothetical actions, and is always used in dependent clauses.

  • "I eat, if I am hungry."


The conditional mood indicates actions bound by other actions, in an independent clause. In Nāmaς, the form is identical to that of the subjunctive.

  • "I would eat, if I were hungry."


The optative mood denotes a wished for action, and sometimes an expected one.

  • "I would like to eat."
  • "I should eat, if I were hungry."


The imperative mood indicates requested, or ordered actions.

  • "Eat!"
  • "Don't eat!"


The interrogative mood indicates an enquiry, or a question, or an uncertainty towards the action.

  • "Shall I eat?"
  • "Are you eating?"


The tense indicates the place in time, during which a action occur.


The present tense details occurring actions, right now.

  • "I eat."


Or the past tense, indicates actions which occurred in a past time, that is; then.

  • "I ate."


The future tense display actions that probably will occur in a certain time.

  • "I will eat."
  • "I shall eat."


The aspect of a verb, generally describes the temporal progress and manner. These are very often complicated, and mixed up with tenses, most often because of similar names.


The perfective aspect is used in many contexts:

Perfective verbs refer to the past or to the future, but not to ocurring activities, that is present tense – an activity happening now cannot be ended, so it cannot be perfective. However, in Nāmic, the perfective present refer to exactly that, while the imperfective present present general actions - "I swim." (on my spare time)

  • States and activities that were ended (even if a second ago) or will be ended, with insignificant course, short or treated as a whole by the speaker - "He shouted", "It will fire of".
  • Single-time activities - "To insert to the text", "He went out".
  • Reasons and beginning of the state - "She came to love", "you will understand", "I will stand up".
  • The end of the activity or the state - "He stopped singing".


Imperfective have continuous meanings:

  • Actions in progress, just ongoing states and activities, with significant course (in opinion of the speaker).
  • Activities posing the background for other (perfective) activities - "I was reading the book when the telephone rang".
  • Simultaneous activities - "I will be reading the book while brother will be writing the letter"
  • Durative activities, lasting through some time - "He was shouting", "It will be running".
  • Motions without a strict aim - "I am walking here and there".
  • Multiple activities - "To insert many times to the text", "we will go out (many times)".
  • Non-resultative activities, not completing a goal - "I will be writing the letter".
  • Continuous states - 'I will be standing'.


The retrospective aspect is used to form the so called "tenses" of perfect and plusquamperfect (also known as "pluperfect"). These are contrary to mass belief not tenses, but rather combinations with aspect - present retrospective and preterite retrospective respectively. It may however be illusively called the perfect aspect, despite the similarity with present perfect and perfective.

  • Actions whose goals have already been achieved, prior to when the action was initialised.

In Nāmic three tenses combine with the retrospective:

  • Present retrospective: "The girl has eaten the cookie."
  • Past retrospective: "The girl had eaten the cookie before she ate her lunch."
  • Future retrospective: "The girl will have eaten the cookie by this afternoon."


The gnomic aspect is unusual in its meaning, and denotes recurring habits.

  • The girl use to eat cookies.
  • The girl plays badminton.
  • Those two used to dance, but now they don't do such things anymore.

In Nāmic, the present imperfective has been replaced by a present gnomic, indicating habits and recurring events.

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