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New Heloesian

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Little or no further editing of content will occur.
New Heloesian
Type
Alignment Nominative-Accusative
Head direction Head-initial
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders 0
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 97%
Statistics
Nouns 100%
Verbs 100%
Adjectives 100%
Syntax 100%
Words 483 of 1500
Creator Laymnin


PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar
Nasal m n
Plosive b (p) d t g k
Fricative v f z s ʒ ʃ x
Approximant w l j

VowelsEdit

Front Central Near-back Back
Close i y u
Near-close ʊ
Close-mid e: o
Mid ɛ œ ə
Open a

Writing SystemEdit

Letter A a B b C c D d E e F f G g H h I i L l M m
Sound a, a: b k d ɛ f g x i, i:, j l m
Letter N n O o P p (R) -r S s T t U u V v X x Z z
Sound n o, o: p s t ʊ, u, w v ks z
Letter Æ æ Ë ë Ü ü Ie ie i-V u-V Ś ś Ź ź ` i/u(V + ´)†
Sound e: œ, œ: y, y: i: jV wV ʃ ʒ stress V

†Indicates that the vowel V does not become diphthongized with /j/ or /w/.

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

All nouns declines according to case (Nominative, Genitive, Objective, Predicative), and number (Singular, Plural).

ArticlesEdit

There are three articles in New Heloesian: Definite, Negative, and "Numerous". Indefiniteness is marked by a zero article.

Articles do not further decline according to the noun class.

Number Singular Plural
Case Nom. Obj.† Ge. Pred. Nom. Obj.† Gen. Pred.
Definite Ie Ies Ien Ie Ia Ias Ian Ia
Negative He Hes Hen He Ha Has Han Ha
Numerous - - - - Eśe Eśes Eśen Eśe

†Can be contracted to -'s.

Class 1 DeclensionsEdit

Class 1 nouns end in any consonant except for <g>, <c>, and <r>. The consonant ending C is never modified.

Number Singular Plural
Case Nom. Obj. Gen. Pred. Nom. Obj. Gen. Pred.

Consonant Stem

Ending -C -(e)s† -en -i -is -in -iæ
Example Ergan, 

"Shadow"

Ergans Erganen Erganæ Ergani Erganis Erganin Erganiæ

† e is only added if the preceding consonant is z, ś, or ź.

Class 2 Declensions Edit

Class 2 nouns end in <g> or <c>. The endings <g>, <c> become <x> in the objective and genitive forms.


Number Singular Plural
Case Nom. Obj. Gen. Pred. Nom. Obj. Gen. Pred.
G/C-stem Ending -g/c -x -xen -i -x -xin -iæ
Example Lùsic

"Law"

Lùsix Lùsixen Lùsicæ Lùsici Lùsix Lùsixin Lùsiciæ

Class 3 Declensions Edit

Class 3 nouns end in vowels and <r>. The endings do not change.

Number Singular Plural
Case Nom. Obj. Gen. Pred. Nom. Obj. Gen. Pred.
Vowel Stem Ending -V -s -n -iæ -ni -nis -nin -niæ
Example Matvü

"Dream"

Matvüs Matvün Matvüiæ Matvüni Matvünis Matvünin Matvüniæ

PronounsEdit

Number Singular Plural Clitic
Case Nom. Obj. Gen. Pred. Nom. Obj. Gen. Pred.
First La Lats Lan Laiæ Lani Lants Lanin Laniæ L-
Second Vüts Vün Vüiæ Vüni Vünts Vünin Vüniæ Vi-
Third (M) Scæ Scæts Scæn Siæ Suni Sunts Sunin Suniæ S-
Third (F) Se Sets Sæn S-
Third (N) Ho Hots Hon Hoiæ Huni Hunts Hunin Huniæ H-
Reflexive Iźe Iźets Iźen - Iźani Iźan Iźanin - -

Pro-formsEdit

Proximal Distal Universal Existential Negative Interrogative
Determiner Zo (S), Za (P) No (S), Na (P) Be He† Deo
Object Lëvëm Beum Hemè

Person

Lëvaź Beź
Place Zæm Næm Læm Bæm Hæm Diem
Time Zur Nur Liur Bur Hovel Diur
Reason Zan Nan Læn Ban - Dën
Manner Zon Non Lëon Bon - Dër

† See negative article declensions.

CopulasEdit

Relating Nouns: EquivalenceEdit

The copulas æ and zadi form a connection between nouns by stating their equivalence. Æ implies direct equivalence, that one thing is another. Zadi, on the other hand, implies partial equivalence, that one thing is similar to another in essence. Venie implies a transformation of one thing into another.

Zadi and venie conjugate regularly to all forms, while æ is restricted to the conjugations below:

Present Past Future
Simple -(i)ææźè æriu
Perfect ærd ærd膆 ærdu††

†Used only as a predicative suffix.

††Largely obsolete forms preserved for regularity; mostly replaced by the counterparts in the simple aspect.

Relating Nouns: Perception Edit

This set of copulas relates nouns based their equivalence as perceived by the senses. These copulas all conjugate regularly without restrictions to their verb forms:

  • śinè: to look like
  • genè: to feel like (touch)
  • ouè: to sound like
  • asè: to taste like, to smell like
  • hatè: to feel like (emotionally)

Relating LocationsEdit

The copula iela forms a connection between nouns by stating their location in space or time. Iela is restricted to the conjugations below:

Present Past Future
Simple iela ielaźè ielariu
Perfect ielard ielardè ielardu

†Obsolete forms; replaced by the counterpart in the simple aspect.

Relating QualitiesEdit

The adjectival copulas da, daher, damn, and davon forms a connection between nouns by stating their qualities. Note that both daher and damn are used as comparative copulas, but the former implies a superior degree of the adjective, while the latter implies an inferior degree of the adjective.

Daher, damn, and davon all conjugate regularly, though they are restricted to the simple, progressive, and perfect aspects. Da is conjugated in the table below:

Present Past Future
Simple da danè danu
Progressive darlt darlè darlu
Perfect dard dardè dardu

Existence Edit

The copula śtag states the existence of an object. Its conjugations are restricted only to the simple and perfect aspects:

Present Past Future
Simple śtag śtagè śtagu
Perfect śtaged śtagedè śtagedu

VerbsEdit

Verbs conjugate according to tense, apsect, and voice.

Class 1 DeclensionsEdit

Class 1 verbs end in any consonant.

Present Past Future
Simple -C -u
Progressive -elt -elè -elu
Perfect -ed -edè -edu
Continuous -en -enè -enu
Delimitative -ent -entè -entu
 Example: ügemt, to fade Present Past Future
Simple ügemt ügemtè ügemtu
Progressive ügemtelt ügemtelè ügemtelu
Perfect ügemted ügemtedè ügemte

du

Continuous ügemt

en

ügemtenè ügemtenu
Delimitative ügemtent ügemtentè ügemtentu

Class 2 Declensions Edit

Class 2 verbs end in vowels and <r><r>.

Present Past Future
Simple - -źè -riu
Progressive -rlt -rlè -rlu
Perfect -rd -rdè -rdu
Continuous -rn -rnè -rnu
Delimitative -rnt -rntè -rntu
 Example: sæli, to mourn Present Past Future
Simple - sæliźè sæliriu
Progressive sælirlt sælirlè sælirlu
Perfect sælird sælirdè sælirdu
Continuous sælirn sælirnè sælirnu
Delimitative sælirnt sælirntè sælirntu

Common Forms Edit

Passive Gerund Negative Present Participle Past Participle Imperative
ü(ź) + Verb -(o)r mie + Verb -(a)va -(a)da -(e)vus

Modals Edit

Modal verbs directly precede the verbs that they modify. Modals also do not conjugate, and the verb that they modify will be conjugated instead.

Modal Verb Meaning
sur can; to be able to do
nur may; to be allowed to do
dur should; to ought to do
lort can; to be possible to do
nor should; to be expected to do
ler may; to be probable to occur
ver must; to be certain to occur
śfer dare; to be willing to do
śer must; to be compelled to do
cor if; indicates subjunctive mood

AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives inflect according to only according case, and also have comparative and superlative forms. The comparative and superlative forms of the adjective only indicate a greater degree of the adjective. However, the predicative forms of the comparative can indicate either degree; daher implies a superior degree of the adjective, while damn implies an inferior or lesser degree of the adjective Adjectives also have 2 classes of their own. 

Class 1 InflectionsEdit

Class 1 adjectives end in consonants.

Case Nom. Obj. Gen. Predicative Form

Attributive

Ending -C -(s) -en da + Adjective
Example sen, "Gracious" sens senen da sen
Comparative Ending -er -ers -ern daher/damn

 + Adjective

Example sener seners senern daher sen /damn sen
Superlative Ending -vo -vos -von davon 

+ Adjective

Example senvo senvos senvon davon sen


Class 2 InflectionsEdit

Class 2 adjectives end in vowels.

Case Nom. Obj. Gen. Predicative Form

Attributive

Ending -V -s -n da + Adjective
Example sèrvu, "Young" sèrvus sèrvun da sèrvu
Comparative Ending -r -rs -rn daher/damn

† + Adjective

Example sèrvur sèrvurs sèrvurn daher sèrvu/damn sèrvu
Superlative Ending -x -x -xen davon

 + Adjective

Example sèrvux sèrvux sèrvuxen davon sèrvu

NumbersEdit

Cardinal NumbersEdit

# Word # Word # Word # Word
0 nin 11 śerlus 100 vuc 600 luvuc
1 lus 12 śernit 101 vuc er lus 700 svuc
2 nit 20 niśen 101 vuc nin lus 800 avuc
3 gen 21 nitśerlus 110 vuc er śen 900 avuc
4 scex 30 iatśen 110 vucca lus 1000 tenn
5 uh 40 scetśen 111 vucca śerlus 10,000 śetenn
6 lux 50 utśen 121 vucca nitśerlus 10,000 hunnæ
7 śtec 60 lutśen 200 nivuc 10^6 bann
8 heg 70 steśen 300 iavuc 10^9 æc
9 cov 80 etśen 400 scevuc 10^12 luften
10 śen 90 ceśen 500 scuvuc

Ordinal forms of the numbers are formed by adding the prefix al-.

Numbers containing decimal points have the decimal point read as clo

Negative numbers are formed by adding the word ennen after the number.

FractionsEdit

There are two ways to express fractions:

  1. N ź D, with N being the cardinal numerator and D being the cardinal denominator. The phrase literally translates as "N of D".
    1. Percentages are expressed in this manner, with D being 100; (N ź vuc).
  2. N D-(d)uwith N being the numerator and D being the denominator. The phrase literally translates as "N Dths".

​The D-(d)u form of a number can also stand alone when discussing simple fractions like halves, thirds, and quarters (Ex. śendu, "tenths"). This form can also converted into a verb by changing -u into -üd (Ex. śendüd, "to reduce to a tenth, to decimate, to break into ten").

Multiplicatives and CollectivesEdit

The multiplicative form of a number indicates how much an object, quantity, or quality is multiplied. It is formed by adding the suffix -ept (Ex. nitept, "double"). To convert a number into a verbal multiplicative form, the suffix -ëptè is added.

The collective form of a number indicates all of the members of a given number of objects. It is formed by adding the suffix -elźè- (Ex. niśenelźè-, "all twenty of"). The collective form also declines according to class 2 adjectival declensions.

AdverbsEdit

Numbers can also become adverbs reflecting the frequency of an action performed. If the action is done repetitively ("Look both ways twice.", the suffix -ul is added. If the action is referred to based on experience ("I've been overseas twice."), then -(e)val is added.

Prepositions and Conjunctions Edit

Prep. Meaning Prep. Meaning Prep. Meaning Adverbial† Meaning Conjunction Meaning
um to ź of a with er and
ot from ost around ena without vot away
ieś in cies inside of ietum into vieś in
ietot in from
out cas outside of asum out to vaś out
asot out from/of
ox between cos through veos in the meantime dæś or
geos during nos while
üm next to com left of vom left
gum right of vum right
an before (space) can before van forwards donn then, hence
ën behind cën after vën backwards
un on cun above, over onum onto von up, over
onot on from
en off cen below, under enum off to ven down, under
enot off of
ivin across civin against vivin across do, evo but
tom by zan for zum in order to na because
ex at (place) ge at (time) uxem towards
oxet away from

†Does not take an object; follows the verb.

SyntaxEdit

Word OrderEdit

New Heloesian has a predominantly SVO word order, with SOV word order in imperative and interrogative sentence constructions. Interrogative sentences must begin with ne, if it is not headed by an interrogative word; ne can still begin the sentence for added emphasis. However, general word order can be disregarded based on the topic-comment structure of a sentence. 

NounsEdit

Noun phrases consist of the noun surrounded by its modifiers. Modifiers that are essential to the noun (articles, numbers) are placed before the noun, while non-essential modifiers (adjectives) are placed after the noun based on priority. Modifiers that come after the noun are prioritized based on how "new" the information is to the speaker. However, in general the noun phrase has the following word order:

  • Article (immovable / null)
  • Number (immovable)
  • NOUN
  • Visual qualities
  • Aural, Tactile qualities
  • Other physically perceiveable qualities
  • Intangible qualities
  • Genitive noun
  • Relative clause

VerbsEdit

Verb phrases place the verb in the initial position, with modifers following it. When two verbs form a compound (Ex. "Start reading"), then the main verb follows the modifying verb. The modifying verb is the verb that is conjugated, and is also the verb that any modals will precede. Adpositional phrases may also be inserted between the two verbs.

AdjectivesEdit

In contrast to verb phrases, the adjective phrase places the adjective in the final position, with its modifiers preceding it.

AdpositionsEdit

Adpositional phrases are ordered by place, time, and then manner. As with the modifiers of noun phrases, the order of adpositional phrases may change according to priority. The placement of these phrases is highly flexible, though they generally precede the verb. In topic-comment sentences, the adpositional phrase may even be mentioned before the subject.

ClausesEdit

Relative clauses are constructed with topic-comment form and follow the declined forms of their relative pronouns:

Case General Person Place Thing Time
Restrictive di daź- dos- do- die-
Unrestrictive ti vaź- vos- vno- vnie-

The complementizer ni turns its following clause into the subject of the sentence. Complementary and subordinate clauses must follow SVO form.

Example TextEdit

SentencesEdit

Text Translation
Su conne von's Nells er's Netts omzies. They looked up at the stars, the empty night.
Tsvigæ Vica viss. Today is a beautiful day.

PoetryEdit

All, Hiervs Senvos, Ne Diur La Śelmu?: Oh, Most Gracious God, When Will I Die?Edit

All, Hiervs senvos: ne diur la śelmu? Oh, most gracious God: when will I die?
La col Nells źennvos vün, ieś's Ëvæds śicæva: I see your reddest star, burning in the sky:
Vill eźæ, un's Mavivs omzies begëź'va! A lonely light, drifting on the sea!
Sussen hon ügemtelt ietum ies Netts vels. Its flame is fading into the mysterious night.
Hatèvus iośæ, Nells śillæs, Depart happily, beautiful star,
To Sux vün, la sur col! All, ie Śelmbissur! by your act, I can see! Oh, the Beauty of Death!
Dovnis senvos: ne's Oblies la cëśed? Most gracious Lord: have I found the answer?
Susten ver iela zur. The time must be now.
Er donn, la mallèriu. And thus, I will sleep.

Na Halvs Hell Eź, La Dembie Um Vüts: From Deep Affliction I Cry Out To YouEdit

Na Halvs hell eź, la dembie um vüts. From deep affliction I cry out to you
Dovnis, Dembiernis lan ślodevus; Lord God, hear my call;
Śovens sens vün uxem lats evèvus, Incline your merciful ear here to me,
er vü um Sambiers lan hilavus! and be open to my prayer!
Na vü źien, so v'ummè luvè Since You behold, according to Your will,
dos Sundis er Daxunis üź sun, what sin and injustice is done,
Hierv, deo an vüts śfer śël? who can, Lord, remain before you?

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