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Newwang

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Newwang
Nèwwãŋ
Type
Analytic
Alignment
Marked Nominative
Head direction
left
Tonal
Yes
Declensions
No
Conjugations
No
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Newwang (natively Nèwwãŋ [n̪ɜɰ˥˧wæ̃˧˨˦]) is the most spoken language of Manginga ([manˈdʒiŋa], exonym). It is also widely spoken and taught in several other nations and by the Mangingan diaspora, making it one of the most spoken languages on Patrona.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

labial dentialveolar retroflex palatal velar glottal
nasal m n̪ <n> ɳ <nr> ɲ <ŋ>
plosive p t̪ <t> ʈ <tr> k (ʔ)
fricative (f) s̪ <s> ʂ <sr> h
affricate t̪s̪ <z> ʈʂ <c>
approximant l̪ <l> ɻ <r> j/ɥ <y> ɰ/w <w>

1. The retroflex consonants /ɳ/, /ʈ/, and /ʂ/ are neutralized with their dentialveolar counterparts when syllable final, in free variation but tending to shift to either one or the other depending on the surrounding consonants.

2. The palatal nasal /ɲ/ may only be found in the coda, and tends to be reduced to nasalization of the preceding vowel in educated speech.

3. The labial fricative [f] only appears in the coda, and the labial plosive [p] only syllable initially, thus classifying them as one archiphoneme /p/ is most useful.

4. Whether or not the glottal stop [ʔ] exists as its own phoneme is very unclear. It tends to appear in between adjacent vowels, suggesting it only appears syllable-initially. Yet to some speakers (particularly those in the Northwest of the country) it appears at the end of clauses (perhaps explaining the Northwests distinct dialectal lack of Newwang’s affirmative particle), suggesting it acts a suprasegmental feature.

5.The dorsal approximants are typically rounded syllable-initially in the standard dialect; however, in the coda /j/ and /w/ are rounded when adjacent to close vowels.

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
High ɪ <i>

ʏ <û>

ɯ̽ <î>

u (ʊ) <u>

Low æ <a> ɜ (ɝ) <e>

1. The merger of /u/ and /ɯ/ as [ʊ] is a particular indicator of southern to central-southwestern “rural” speech.

2. A rhoticized pronunciation of /ɜ/ is an indicator of a very urban accent.

ToneEdit

# name contour checked? example
1 pwef "level" 44 Yes nî "tea"
2 sé "going" 35 No nî́ "ceremonial dance"
3 yà "coming back" 53 No nî̀ "to chew"
4 mî̉ "doubting" 22 or 31 Yes nî̉ "to be quiet"
5 kẽ "questioning" 324 Yes nî̃ "death"

PhonotacticsEdit

Initials:

labial dentialveolar retroflex dorsal
nasal m mw n nl nw nr nrw
plosive p py pw t tl tw tr trw k ky kw
fricative s sl sw sr srw h hw
affricate z zl zw c cw
approximant l r y w

Finals:

unchecked checked
m ym wm f yf wf
n yn wn t yt wt
ŋ yŋ wŋ s ys ws
r y w l

NounsEdit

CaseEdit

particles: "na" is for the agentive, "nrî" for the topic.

DerivationsEdit

agent prefix pe-
place descriptor + wãr "place"
inhabitant location + yìŋ "person"
collection noun + sû́ "group"
tool verb + zi "thing"
adjectival noun postposition kwè "like/as"
causative aux. verb lî̉ "make"
diminutive prefix û̀-
augmentative prefix cî̀-
lack of prefix tà-
full of prefix ma-

GrammarEdit

MoodEdit

mood particle
indicative 0
interrogative kẽ
imperative
dubitative mî̉
emphatic trwî́

TopicalizationEdit

SyntaxEdit

Unmarked word order is SXVO (the X referring to an indirect object). In intransitive sentences, any indirect object appears after the verb. When objects are topicalized, they are moved to the beginning of the sentence and lose any particles.

  • ex. srî̀ trũ nrî wảs trwî.
  • gloss: DIST book TOP awe.inspiring EMPH
  • English: That book was awesome!

ComparisonEdit

Neutral comparison is achieved using the comparative copula 'srák' and the essive postposition 'kwè' in the following formula:

  • subject na object kwè srák adjective.
  • ex. tã na kìm kwè srák wảs trwî.
  • gloss: 2.ORD NOM 3.PEJ ESS COMP.COP awe.inspiring EMPH
  • English: You are just as awesome as her!

ConjunctionsEdit

words clauses
è 0 and
lãt ex.or
met nû̃f in.or

NegationEdit

Negative adverb: 'maŋ'

QuestionsEdit

A yes-no question take the form of a normal sentence ended with the interrogative particle kẽ.

To answer affirmatively, simply repeat the verb or adjective. To answer negatively, use the negative adverb maŋ.

PronounsEdit

pejorative ordinary laudative
1 kủ hèŋ
2 kìm
3prox lak mû́
3obv sre

VocabularyEdit

NumeralsEdit

# name 8+#
0 pẽk wẽ
1 wûŋ pèw
2 lî́ zlũy
3 srẽ lán
4 nrĩ
5 kìr cí-wûŋ
6 tra cí-lî́
7 trwaŋ cí-srẽ
8 wẽ lî́wẽ

DirectionsEdit

hî̃k lủm tren

Intermediate directions are compounds: pàtren "southeast"

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