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Newwang

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Newwang
Nèuwảŋ
Type
Analytic
Alignment
Marked Nominative
Head direction
left
Tonal
Yes
Declensions
No
Conjugations
No
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Newwang (/nuˈ(w)aŋ/ natively Nèuwảŋ [n̪əʊ̯˥˧wæ̰̃˨˩]) is the most spoken language of Mandyinga ([manˈdʒiŋa], exonym). It is also widely spoken and taught in several other nations and by the Mandyingan (Manwảryìŋ) diaspora, making it one of the most spoken languages on Patrona.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

labial dentialveolar retroflex palatal velar glottal
nasal m n̪ <n> ɳ <nr> ɲ <ŋ>
plosive p t̪ <t> ʈ <tr> k (ʔ)
fricative (f) s̪ <s> ʂ <sr> h
affricate t̪s̪ <z> ʈʂ <c>
approximant l̪ <l> ɻ <r> j <y> w <w>
  • The retroflex consonants /ɳ/, /ʈ/, and /ʂ/ are neutralized with their dentialveolar counterparts when syllable final, in free variation but tending to shift to either one or the other depending on the surrounding consonants.
  • The palatal nasal /ɲ/ may only be found in the coda, and tends to be reduced to nasalization of the preceding vowel in educated speech.
  • The labial fricative [f] only appears in the coda, and the labial plosive [p] only syllable initially, thus classifying them as one archiphoneme /p/ is most useful.
  • Whether or not the glottal stop [ʔ] exists as its own phoneme is very unclear. It tends to appear in between adjacent vowels, suggesting it only appears syllable-initially. Yet to some speakers (particularly those in the Northwest of the country) it appears at the end of clauses (perhaps explaining the Northwests distinct dialectal lack of Newwang’s affirmative particle), suggesting it acts a suprasegmental feature.

VowelsEdit

Monophthongs Edit

Front Back
unround rounded unround rounded
High i <i> y <û> ɯ <î> u <u>
Low æ <a> ɝ <e>
  • The merger of /u/ and /ɯ/ as [ʊ] and an unrhotasized /ɜ/ are particular indicators of southern to central-southwestern “rural” speech.

Diphthongs Edit

All diphthongs are closing and most of the first parts to the diphthongs cannot be vowels on their own.

Fronting Backing
eɪ̯ <ei> iʊ̯ <iu>
oɪ̯ <oi> əʊ̯ <eu>
ɑɪ̯ <ai> æʊ̯ <au>

ToneEdit

# name contour checked? example
1 pwef "level" 44 Yes nî "tea"
2 sé "going" 35 No nî́ "ceremonial dance"
3 yà "coming back" 53 No nî̀ "to chew"
4 rẻt "creaking" 22 or 31 Yes nî̉ "to be quiet"

PhonotacticsEdit

CV(C)

Initials Edit

labial dentialveolar retroflex dorsal
nasal m mw n nl nw nr 0
plosive p py pw t tl tw tr trw k ky kw
fricative s sl sw sr srw h hw
affricate z zl zw c cw
approximant l r y w

Finals Edit

unchecked checked
m f
n t
ŋ k
r s

Grammar Edit

Nouns Edit

Case Edit

An unmarked noun is the patient of the sentence. Particles and postpositions can be added to show other cases.

particles: "na" is for the agentive, "nrî" for the topic.

Derivations Edit

agent prefix pe-
place descriptor + wảr "place"
inhabitant location + yìŋ "person"
collection noun + sû́ "group"
tool verb + zi "thing"
adjectival noun postposition kwè "like/as"
causative aux. verb lî̉ "make"
diminutive prefix û̀-
augmentative prefix cî̀-
lack of prefix tà-
full of prefix ma-

MoodEdit

mood particle
indicative 0
interrogative
imperative
dubitative mî́
emphatic trwî

Syntax Edit

Unmarked word order is SXVO (the X referring to an indirect object). When objects are topicalized, they are moved to the beginning of the sentence and lose any particles.

  • ex. srî̀ trủ nrî wảs trwî.
  • gloss: DIST book TOP inspire.awe EMPH
  • English: That book was awesome!

ComparisonEdit

Neutral comparison is achieved using the comparative copula 'srak' and the essive postposition 'kwè' in the following formula:

  • subject na object kwè srak adjective.
  • ex. tả na kìm kwè srak wảs.
  • gloss: 2.ORD NOM 3.PEJ ESS COMP.COP inspire.awe
  • English: You are just as awesome as her.

ConjunctionsEdit

Newwang has two sets of conjunctions, one for within phrases ("an arm and a leg"), and one to connect independent phrases or clauses ("I ran and I jumped").

phrase-internal phrase-external gloss
è 0 and
lảt ex.or
met nû̉f in.or

NegationEdit

Negative adverb: 'maŋ'

QuestionsEdit

A yes-no question take the form of a normal sentence ended with the interrogative particle .

To answer affirmatively, simply repeat the verb or adjective. To answer negatively, use the negative adverb maŋ.

PronounsEdit

pejorative ordinary laudative
1 kủ hèŋ
2 kìm tả
3prox lak mû́
3obv sre

VocabularyEdit

NumeralsEdit

# name 8+#
0 maŋ wẻ
1 wûŋ pèu
2 lî́ zlỏi
3 srẻ lán
4 nrỉ
5 kìr wẻ kìr
6 tra wẻ tra
7 trwaŋ wẻ trwaŋ
8 wẻ lî́ wẻ

DirectionsEdit

nái
hî̀k lủm tren

Intermediate directions are compounds: pàtren "southeast"

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