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Name: [[]]



Head Direction:

Number of genders:

Declensions: No

Conjugations: No

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No No No No No No
Nouns No No No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No



Bilabial Dental Alveolar Retroflex Velar Uvular Glottal











(t̢') or (d')











(t̢h) or (dh)











(t̢) or (d)


















L, n and r are often devoiced word-finally, and after stops.

Ejective and aspirated stops can only occur at the beginning of syllables.

Front Back















There is no contrast in length in the vowels; they are all "half-long"-

Phonotactics All syllables are closed, of the CVC-type.

Basic GrammarEdit


Nouns are not inflected for plural, or for definiteness.

Case markers appear as postpositional clitics. The nominative case is unmarked. The other cases are marked by postpositional clitics.

Accusative: Marked by -tin. This is optional, and not very common in contemporary Nipmel.

Dative: Marked by -tan. This is used for the indirect object of ditransitive clauses, and for the complement of some verbs. Pin telli' kul ke'tan. - 'The man gives the woman a flower.'

Miltan zullukli' zelkul - 'The king forgot the dream'

Allative: Marked by -tal. Used for destination and goal.

T'ultal seslatman - 'We are travelling to the city'.

Locative: Marked by -nix.

Savnix mermin. - 'I live in the village.'

Ablative: Marked by -nox. Used for source..

Matnox ladlukli' kin. - 'The woman went from the table.'

Perlative: Marked by -kór. Used for path, and also for duration.

Savkor latlukli' kul. - 'The man walked through the village.'

Zur lankór k'arlukmin. - 'I worked for three days.'

Lankór par tanli' kinnak. - 'The girl was happy throughout the day.'

Instrumental: Marked by - sep.

Lan poklukli' kul sornep. 'The man hit the dog with a stick.'


Comitative: Marked by -mon.

Kinmon leklukli' kul. 'The man came with (his) wife.'

Abessive: Marked by -kun.

Kulnakkun läklukli' kul. 'The man came without (his) son.'

Beneficative: Marked by -vun.

Zelkulvun k'arli' mäfkul. 'Te farmer worked for the king.'

Causative: Marked by -lok



Verbs do not inflect for tense. There is a difference between perfective and imperfective aspect, however. The perfective aspect is marked by the suffix -luk. The imperfective aspect is unmarked. Verbs must agree with their subjects.

Singular Plural
1p. -min latmin [lap˺min̥] 'I walk' -man latman
2p. -tir lattir [lat:ir̥] 'you walk' -tar lattar
3p. -li' latli' [lat˺liʔ˺] '(s)he walks' -la' latla'

Word Order

Word order is OVS, modifier-modified.


Example textEdit

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