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Niwenglisc:Verbe

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Nouns * Adjektive * Verbs
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VerbeEdit

Verbs in Niw Englisc are just a bit more complex than in modern English. They are declined to show person, mood, and number moreso than we are used to. Below is an example of a type 1 strong verb to indicate this:

present sg. - pl.
Ic sleide wiȝ sleideþ
þu sleidest ȝiȝ sleideþ
he/scie/it sleideþ hje sleideþ
present subj. sg. - pl.
Ic sleide wiȝ sleiden
þu sleidest ȝiȝ sleiden
he/scie/it sleide hje sleiden
past sg. - pl.
Ic slad wiȝ sladeþ
þu sladest ȝiȝ sladeþ
he/scie/it slad hje sladeþ
past subj. sg. - pl.
Ic slæde wiȝ slæden
þu slædest ȝiȝ slæden
he/scie/it slæd hje slæden

ConjugationsEdit

Present TenseEdit

  • Present Indicative:
Pres.Ind sg. - pl.
Ic finde wiȝ findeþ
þu findest ȝiȝ findeþ
he/scie/it findeþ hje findeþ
  • Present Subjunctive:
Pres.Ind sg. - pl.
Ic finde wiȝ finden
þu findest ȝiȝ finden
he/scie/it finde hje finden
  • Present Indicative Passive:
Pass.Ind sg. - pl.
Ic werðe gefunden wiȝ werðeþ gefunden
þu wirst gefunden ȝiȝ werðeþ gefunden
he/scie/it wirþ gefunden hje werðeþ gefunden
  • Present Subjunctive Passive:
Pass.Subj sg. - pl.
Ic werðe gefunden wiȝ werðen gefunden
þu werðest gefunden ȝiȝ werðen gefunden
he/scie/it werðe gefunden hje werðen gefunden
  • Present Perfect Indicative Passive:
Perf.Ind sg. - pl.
Ic habe gefunden wiȝ habeþ gefunden
þu hafst gefunden ȝiȝ habeþ gefunden
he/scie/it hafþ gefunden hje habeþ gefunden
  • Present Perfect Subjunctive Passive:
Perf.Subj sg. - pl.
Ic habe gefunden wiȝ haben gefunden
þu habest gefunden ȝiȝ haben gefunden
he/scie/it habe gefunden hje haben gefunden

Past TenseEdit

  • Past Indicative:
Past.Ind sg. - pl.
Ic fand wiȝ fanden
þu fandest ȝiȝ fanden
he/scie/it fand hje fanden
  • Past Subjunctive:
Past.Subj sg. - pl.
Ic fænde wiȝ fænden
þu fændest ȝiȝ fænden
he/scie/it fænde hje fænden
  • Past Indicative Passive:
Pass.Ind sg. - pl.
Ic warþ gefunden wiȝ wurdeþ gefunden
þu wurdest gefunden ȝiȝ wurdeþ gefunden
he/scie/it warþ gefunden hje wurdeþ gefunden
  • Past Subjunctive Passive:
Pass.Subj sg. - pl.
Ic wurde gefunden wiȝ wurden gefunden
þu wurdest gefunden ȝiȝ wurden gefunden
he/scie/it wurde gefunden hje wurden gefunden
  • Present Perfect Indicative Passive:
Perf.Ind sg. - pl.
Ic hafde gefunden wiȝ hafden gefunden
þu hafdest gefunden ȝiȝ hafden gefunden
he/scie/it hafde gefunden hje hafden gefunden
  • Present Perfect Subjunctive Passive:
Perf.Subj sg. - pl.
Ic hæfde gefunden wiȝ hæfden gefunden
þu hæfdest gefunden ȝiȝ hæfden gefunden
he/scie/it hæfde gefunden hje hæfden gefunden

Future TenseEdit

  • Future Indicative
Fut.Ind sg. - pl.
Ic werðe finden wiȝ werðeþ finden
þu wirst finden ȝiȝ werðeþ finden
he/scie/it wirþ finden hje werðeþ finden
  • Future Subjunctive:
Fut.Subj sg. - pl.
Ic werðe finden wiȝ werðeþ finden
þu werðest finden ȝiȝ werðeþ finden
he/scie/it werðe finden hje werðeþ finden
  • Future Indicative Passive:
Pass.Ind sg. - pl.
Ic werðe gefunden werðen wiȝ werðeþ gefunden werðen
þu wirst gefunden werðen ȝiȝ werðeþ gefunden werðen
he/scie/it wirþ gefunden werðen hje werðeþ gefunden werðen
  • Future Subjunctive Passive:
Pass.Ind sg. - pl.
Ic werðe gefunden werðen wiȝ werðen gefunden werðen
þu werðest gefunden werðen ȝiȝ werðen gefunden werðen
he/scie/it werðe gefunden werðen hje werðen gefunden werðen
  • Future Perfect Indicative Passive:
Perf.Ind sg. - pl.
Ic werðe gefunden haben wiȝ werðeþ gefunden haben
þu wirst gefunden haben ȝiȝ werðeþ gefunden haben
he/scie/it wirþ gefunden haben hje werðeþ gefunden haben
  • Future Perfect Subjunctive Passive:
Perf.Subj sg. - pl.
Ic werðe gefunden haben wiȝ werðen gefunden haben
þu werðest gefunden haben ȝiȝ werðen gefunden haben
he/scie/it werðe gefunden haben hje werðen gefunden haben

Type 1Edit

Verbs of this type have the vowel series ei-a-i

Type 2Edit

Type 3Edit

Verbs of this type have the vowel series e/i-a-o/u

Type 4Edit

Type 5Edit

Type 6Edit

Verbs of this type have the vowel series a-o-a

example: faren, for, is gefaren

Type 7Edit

Type 7 strong verbs are mostly regular, with the present and past participle sharing a vowel, and the past tense a short e. There is a small group of verbs that have irregular past tenses, which should be memorized.

Regular verbs:

  • bannen to summon; bænnþ, benn, gebannen
  • blanden to mix; blændeþ, blend, geblanden
  • blawen to blow; blæwþ, blew, geblawen
  • bloten to sacrifice; blœteþ, blett, gebloten
  • blowen to bloom, blossom; blœwþ, blew, geblowen
  • falden to fold; fældeþ, feld, gefalden
  • fallen to fall; fællþ, fell, is gefallen
  • fangen to seize, grab; fængþ, feng, gefangen
  • floken to clap, strike; flœkþ, flekk, gefloken; as in, the audience clapped
  • flowen to flow; flœwþ, flew, geflowen
  • gangen to go, walk; gængþ, geng, is gegangen (typically replaced in the present by gaan)
  • growen to grow; grœwþ, grew, gegrowen
  • halden to hold; hældeþ, held, gehalden
  • hangen to hang; hængþ, heng, is gehangen
  • heawen to hew; hiewþ, hew, geheawen
  • hwopen to threaten; hwœpþ, hwepp, gehwopen; mostly spelled "ƕopen" with 'hwair'
  • knawan to know; knæwþ, knew, geknawen; rarely used, in favor of witten, kunnen
  • krawan to crow; kræwþ, krew, gekrawen
  • lowen to low, bellow; lœwþ, lew, gelowen
  • mawen to mow; mæwþ, mew, gemawen
  • neapen to pluck off; niepþ, nepp, geneapen
  • ropen to shout; call; rœpþ, repp, geropen; onropen is used to mean to telephone
  • rowen to row; rœwþ, rew, gerowen
  • sawen to sow; sæwþ, sew, gesawen
  • scaaden to separate; scædeþ, scedd, gescaden; as in, to separate a single thing into two or more parts; dælen is used to mean to divide up, usually something like M&Ms or something that's a bunch of little things in a group.
  • slæpen to sleep; slæpþ, slepp, geslæpen
  • spannen to join, clasp; spænnþ, spenn, gespannen
  • spowen to succeed; spœwþ, spew, gespowen
  • stalden to possess; stældeþ, steld, gestalden
  • swapen to sweep; swæpþ, swepp, geswapen
  • swogen to sound; swœgþ, sweg, geswogen
  • þrawen to turn, twist; þræwþ
  • walden to rule, govern; wældeþ
  • walken to roll, toss; to turn over in the mind, consider, mull over; wælkþ, welk, gewalken
  • wallen to boil; wællþ, well, gewallen
  • wawan to blow; wæwþ, wew, gewawen
  • waxen to grow; wæxþ, wex, gewaxen; in the sense to grow up, get bigger as opposed to growen in the sense of to spring up, sprout
  • wepen to weep; wepþ, wepp, gewepen
  • wroten to root up; wrœteþ, wrett, gewroten

Irregular verbs: beaten to beat; bieteþ, beft, gebeaten dræden to fear; drædeþ, drerd, gedræden haaten to command; hæteþ, heht, gehaaten laaken to play; lækþ, lelk, gelaaken læten to let; læteþ, lert, gelæten ræden to advise; read; rædeþ, rerd, geræden spaaten to spit; spæteþ, speft, gespaaten

Irregular VerbsEdit

These verbs are very frequent and very irregular.

  • don to do; dœþ, dade, gedon
  • gan to go; gæþ, geng, is gegaan
  • haben to have; hafþ, hafde, gehafd
  • hycgen to think over, meditate; hygþ, hogde, gehogd
  • libben to live; lifþ, lifde, gelifd
  • secgen to say; sæȝþ, sæȝde, gesæȝd
  • wesen/been - to be; is, was, is gewesen; the only verb to have a distinct future tense form: bim, bist, biþ, beeþ; the future past participle: biþ gebeen will have been (at a future time)

Preterite-Present VerbsEdit

Modal Verbs:

  • Durren to dare to; darr, dorste, gedurren/gedorst
  • kunnen to know how to, can; kann, kuðe, gekunnen/gekuþ
  • magen to be able to, can; maag, mahte, gemagen/gemaht
  • moten to have permission to, may; mot, moste, gemoten/gemost
  • sculen to be obligated to, ought; scall, scollde, gesculen/gescolld
  • þurfen to need to; þarf, þorfte, geþurfen/geþorft
  • willen to want to; will, wollde, gewillen/gewolld

Note here that kunnen, magen, and moten are similar but are used in different senses of 'can':

  • ic kann gaan - I know how to go
  • ic maag gaan - I am able to go, I have the physical ability to go
  • ic mot gaan - I am permitted to go, allowed to go.

The modals can be used as verbs alone, and when doing so, take the strong past participle. When used as modal verbs, they take the weak past participle:

  • Ic habe gaan gewolld I have wanted to go
  • Ic habe an Auto gewillen I have wanted a car

when used alone:

  • kunnen to be familiar with, know a person; ic kann þie Knafen I know those guys
  • magen to be strong; ~ to to be good for, serve a purpose, be the cause of; ~ wiþ to be good for (curing a disease), to prevail with/against; Aspirin mæg wiþ Hefdekken Aspirin is good for headaches.; þis Haarenfot mæg to Spœd this rabbit's foot is good for luck.
  • sculen to owe; ic scall meiner Swester feif Pund I owe my sister five pounds, hu micel scall þu meinem Suhter? how much do you owe my nephew?
  • þurfen to need something, be in need of something; with genitive; ic þarf þes Þopinns I need the pen.
  • willen to want something; they want food hje willeþ Foden

Other preterite-present verbs:

  • agen to own, possess; aag, ahte, geagen
  • benugen to need, require; with genitive benaag, benohte, benugen; he benaag fier Æȝer he needs four eggs
  • dugen to avail, be capable of something; be good, honest, etc.; daag, dohte, gedugen; his Herte daag his heart is good
  • gemunen to remember; gemaan, gemunde, gemunen
  • genugen to be sufficient, not lack; genaag, genohte, genugen
  • witten to know (a fact); waat, wiste, gewitten

Weak VerbsEdit

Weak verbs are more regular than strong verbs, having no vowel alternation to form the past tense. In cases where the verb ends in a sibilant (s, z, sc) or a voiceless consonant (such as p, k) the ending becomes "-te", otherwise it is "-de."

Example:

  • smieken, smiekte, gesmiekt
  • kyssen, kysste, gekysst
  • fullen, fullde, gefulld
  • blenden, blendede, geblended


Examples:

  • smieken - to emit smoke; to fumigate; meine Ieldern wolden user Hus smieken. Hje sæȝden þat wiȝ Flean haben My parents wanted to fumigate our house. They said we have fleas
  • tuken - to treat ill, to afflict, harass, vex; ne tuke þeinen lytlen Broðer! don't harass your little brother!

Irregular Weak VerbsEdit

Comparable to other Germanic languages, Englisc has a series of weak verbs that have irregular past tense forms, meaning, they change consonants in the past tense.

  • bepæken to deceive; bepæhte, bepæht
  • bringen to bring; brohte, gebroht
  • bycgen to buy; bycgeþ, bohte, geboht
  • drekken to afflict, torment, trouble, bother; drahte, gedraht; ne drekk þu þeinen lytlen Broðer, þenden he slæpþ! don't bother your little brother while he's sleeping!
  • dwellen to hinder; dwallde gedwalld
  • gewæken to weaken; gewæhte, gewæht
  • ieken to increase; iehte, geieht
  • kwekken to shake; kwahte, gekwaht
  • kwellen to kill; kwallde, gekwalld
  • lækken to seize; læhte, gelæht
  • lekken to moisten; lahte, gelaht
  • neahlæken to approach; neahlæhte, neahlæht
  • olekken to flatter; olehte, oleht
  • ræcen to reach; rahte, geraht
  • reken to care for, reck; rohte, geroht
  • rekken to narrate; rahte, geraht
  • seken to seek, look for; sohte, gesoht; (alt present form sœken)
  • sellen to sell; sallde, gesalld
  • stellen to put, place; stallde, gestalld
  • streccen to stretch; strahte, gestraht
  • syken to suckle; syhte, gesyht
  • tæcen to teach, demonstrate; tahte, getaht; læren is the more common verb to teach, as it is used when teaching from a book, subjects in school, and so on; tæcen is used to teach in the sense of actual demonstration, physical activities, and the like.
  • tellen to count; talde, getald
  • þeccen to cover; þahte, geþaht; He þahte þen Bord mid Foden and Gedrenken he covered the table with foods and drinks
  • þenken to think; þenkþ, þohte, geþoht
  • þrykken to press, crush; to print; þryhte, geþryht; Þe Þrykker þrykkþ the printer is printing.
  • þynken to seem; þynkþ, þuhte, geþuht
  • wekken to awake; wahte, gewaht
  • werken to work; worhte, gewohrt; (alt present form: wœrken, wyrken); this is the most common form of to work, with arfoðen meaning more manual labor or excessive effort was expended.
  • wlekken to warm; wlehte, gewleht

Separable Prefix VerbsEdit

Much like German, verbs in Englisc can have separable prefixes which alter the meaning of the verb.

Some examples:

  • to come: kumen
  • to come along: midkumen, þu kymst mid, ȝa?
  • to be derived from, come from: ofkumen, it kymþ of þem Land of.

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