Verbs in Niw Englisc are just a bit more complex than in modern English. They are declined to show person, mood, and number moreso than we are used to. Below is an example of a type 1 strong verb to indicate this:
Type 7 strong verbs are mostly regular, with the present and past participle sharing a vowel, and the past tense a short e. There is a small group of verbs that have irregular past tenses, which should be memorized.
bannen to summon; bænnþ, benn, gebannen
blanden to mix; blændeþ, blend, geblanden
blawen to blow; blæwþ, blew, geblawen
bloten to sacrifice; blœteþ, blett, gebloten
blowen to bloom, blossom; blœwþ, blew, geblowen
falden to fold; fældeþ, feld, gefalden
fallen to fall; fællþ, fell, is gefallen
fangen to seize, grab; fængþ, feng, gefangen
floken to clap, strike; flœkþ, flekk, gefloken; as in, the audience clapped
flowen to flow; flœwþ, flew, geflowen
gangen to go, walk; gængþ, geng, is gegangen (typically replaced in the present by gaan)
growen to grow; grœwþ, grew, gegrowen
halden to hold; hældeþ, held, gehalden
hangen to hang; hængþ, heng, is gehangen
heawen to hew; hiewþ, hew, geheawen
hwopen to threaten; hwœpþ, hwepp, gehwopen; mostly spelled "ƕopen" with 'hwair'
knawan to know; knæwþ, knew, geknawen; rarely used, in favor of witten, kunnen
krawan to crow; kræwþ, krew, gekrawen
lowen to low, bellow; lœwþ, lew, gelowen
mawen to mow; mæwþ, mew, gemawen
neapen to pluck off; niepþ, nepp, geneapen
ropen to shout; call; rœpþ, repp, geropen; onropen is used to mean to telephone
rowen to row; rœwþ, rew, gerowen
sawen to sow; sæwþ, sew, gesawen
scaaden to separate; scædeþ, scedd, gescaden; as in, to separate a single thing into two or more parts; dælen is used to mean to divide up, usually something like M&Ms or something that's a bunch of little things in a group.
slæpen to sleep; slæpþ, slepp, geslæpen
spannen to join, clasp; spænnþ, spenn, gespannen
spowen to succeed; spœwþ, spew, gespowen
stalden to possess; stældeþ, steld, gestalden
swapen to sweep; swæpþ, swepp, geswapen
swogen to sound; swœgþ, sweg, geswogen
þrawen to turn, twist; þræwþ
walden to rule, govern; wældeþ
walken to roll, toss; to turn over in the mind, consider, mull over; wælkþ, welk, gewalken
wallen to boil; wællþ, well, gewallen
wawan to blow; wæwþ, wew, gewawen
waxen to grow; wæxþ, wex, gewaxen; in the sense to grow up, get bigger as opposed to growen in the sense of to spring up, sprout
wepen to weep; wepþ, wepp, gewepen
wroten to root up; wrœteþ, wrett, gewroten
beaten to beat; bieteþ, beft, gebeaten
dræden to fear; drædeþ, drerd, gedræden
haaten to command; hæteþ, heht, gehaaten
laaken to play; lækþ, lelk, gelaaken
læten to let; læteþ, lert, gelæten
ræden to advise; read; rædeþ, rerd, geræden
spaaten to spit; spæteþ, speft, gespaaten
kunnen to know how to, can; kann, kuðe, gekunnen/gekuþ
magen to be able to, can; maag, mahte, gemagen/gemaht
moten to have permission to, may; mot, moste, gemoten/gemost
sculen to be obligated to, ought; scall, scollde, gesculen/gescolld
þurfen to need to; þarf, þorfte, geþurfen/geþorft
willen to want to; will, wollde, gewillen/gewolld
Note here that kunnen, magen, and moten are similar but are used in different senses of 'can':
ic kann gaan - I know how to go
ic maag gaan - I am able to go, I have the physical ability to go
ic mot gaan - I am permitted to go, allowed to go.
The modals can be used as verbs alone, and when doing so, take the strong past participle. When used as modal verbs, they take the weak past participle:
Ic habe gaan gewolld I have wanted to go
Ic habe an Auto gewillen I have wanted a car
when used alone:
kunnen to be familiar with, know a person; ic kann þie Knafen I know those guys
magen to be strong; ~ to to be good for, serve a purpose, be the cause of; ~ wiþ to be good for (curing a disease), to prevail with/against; Aspirin mæg wiþ Hefdekken Aspirin is good for headaches.; þis Haarenfot mæg to Spœd this rabbit's foot is good for luck.
sculen to owe; ic scall meiner Swester feif Pund I owe my sister five pounds, hu micel scall þu meinem Suhter? how much do you owe my nephew?
þurfen to need something, be in need of something; with genitive; ic þarf þes Þopinns I need the pen.
willen to want something; they want food hje willeþ Foden
Other preterite-present verbs:
agen to own, possess; aag, ahte, geagen
benugen to need, require; with genitive benaag, benohte, benugen; he benaag fier Æȝer he needs four eggs
dugen to avail, be capable of something; be good, honest, etc.; daag, dohte, gedugen; his Herte daag his heart is good
gemunen to remember; gemaan, gemunde, gemunen
genugen to be sufficient, not lack; genaag, genohte, genugen
Weak verbs are more regular than strong verbs, having no vowel alternation to form the past tense. In cases where the verb ends in a sibilant (s, z, sc) or a voiceless consonant (such as p, k) the ending becomes "-te", otherwise it is "-de."
smieken, smiekte, gesmiekt
kyssen, kysste, gekysst
fullen, fullde, gefulld
blenden, blendede, geblended
smieken - to emit smoke; to fumigate; meine Ieldern wolden user Hus smieken. Hje sæȝden þat wiȝ Flean habenMy parents wanted to fumigate our house. They said we have fleas
tuken - to treat ill, to afflict, harass, vex; ne tuke þeinen lytlen Broðer!don't harass your little brother!
Comparable to other Germanic languages, Englisc has a series of weak verbs that have irregular past tense forms, meaning, they change consonants in the past tense.
bepæken to deceive; bepæhte, bepæht
bringen to bring; brohte, gebroht
bycgen to buy; bycgeþ, bohte, geboht
drekken to afflict, torment, trouble, bother; drahte, gedraht; ne drekk þu þeinen lytlen Broðer, þenden he slæpþ! don't bother your little brother while he's sleeping!
dwellen to hinder; dwallde gedwalld
gewæken to weaken; gewæhte, gewæht
ieken to increase; iehte, geieht
kwekken to shake; kwahte, gekwaht
kwellen to kill; kwallde, gekwalld
lækken to seize; læhte, gelæht
lekken to moisten; lahte, gelaht
neahlæken to approach; neahlæhte, neahlæht
olekken to flatter; olehte, oleht
ræcen to reach; rahte, geraht
reken to care for, reck; rohte, geroht
rekken to narrate; rahte, geraht
seken to seek, look for; sohte, gesoht; (alt present form sœken)
sellen to sell; sallde, gesalld
stellen to put, place; stallde, gestalld
streccen to stretch; strahte, gestraht
syken to suckle; syhte, gesyht
tæcen to teach, demonstrate; tahte, getaht; læren is the more common verb to teach, as it is used when teaching from a book, subjects in school, and so on; tæcen is used to teach in the sense of actual demonstration, physical activities, and the like.
tellen to count; talde, getald
þeccen to cover; þahte, geþaht; He þahte þen Bord mid Foden and Gedrenken he covered the table with foods and drinks
þenken to think; þenkþ, þohte, geþoht
þrykken to press, crush; to print; þryhte, geþryht; Þe Þrykker þrykkþ the printer is printing.
þynken to seem; þynkþ, þuhte, geþuht
wekken to awake; wahte, gewaht
werken to work; worhte, gewohrt; (alt present form: wœrken, wyrken); this is the most common form of to work, with arfoðen meaning more manual labor or excessive effort was expended.