Wikia

Conlang

Norling

3,215articles on
this wiki
Talk0
Norling
Norlingisk, Häþisk
Type
Agglutinative
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
No
Genders
3 (1 Commonly)
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


NORL

Symbol of the Norling Language

Norling (Norlingsgespråkt), (a.k.a. Heathish Häðisk, Loquntian Norse Lockuntisk Norð, & Þå) is a constructed language based primarily in Old Norse, Old High German/Bavarian, and Old English. It is one of the official languages of the Republic of The Kingdom of Loquntia.

Norling is very closely related to, and partially mutually intelligible with the Northern Germanic languages Icelandic, Faroese, Danish, and Swedish, while containing a few Anglo-Frisian loanwords.

Parts of Speech Edit

Pronouns Edit

The Norling personal pronoun system is similar to that of Old English.

The Norling personal pronouns are:

Singular Plural
Person Nominative Objective Possessive: sing./pl. Person Nominative Objective Possessive: sing./pl.
1 ig met mer 1 vir ås var
2 (familiar) ðu ðeg ður 2 (formal pl.) jäg jär
2 (formal sing.) je jeg jer        
3 Masc. hir han hans(er) 3 þer þem þern
3 Fem. ske hon honner
3 Neut. (Unused) der dem dern
3 Inanimate/Neuter het het etter
3 Demonst. Familiar den den 3 Demonst. Familiar dísser dísser
3 Demonst. Alien dän däss 3 Demonst. Alien dässer dässer
3 Indef. en en ens 3 Indef. enner enner þern

Relative Pronouns Edit

Proximal Distal Interrogative / Circumstantial
Nominative har þvar kvar
Locative hartil þvartil kvartil

Nouns Edit

Norling nouns technically have three grammatical genders: masculine or common, feminine and neuter which determine their definite forms. Noun gender is largely arbitrary without a cultural predisposition for the grammatical genders assigned to things; however, the usage of the common (masculine) gender for almost every word is grammatically correct.

Norling nouns are inflected for number and definiteness and can take a genitive suffix. They exhibit the following morpheme order:

Noun stem (Definite article -en (or -an, -et)) (Plural -e) (Genitive -ern or -s)

Examples Edit

Common Declension: -en (common gender)

Singular Plural
Indefinite (en) kvar

a place

kvare

places

Definite kvaren

the place

kvarene

the places

Singular Plural
Indefinite (en) börn

(a) bear

börne

bears

Definite börnen

the bear

börnene

the bears

Feminine Declension: -en (rare)

Singular Plural
Indefinite (an) kvinn

a woman

kvinne

women

Definite kvinnan

the woman

kvinnane

the women

Feminine Declension: -en (rare)

Singular Plural
Indefinite (et) hus

a house

huse

houses

Definite huset

the house

husete

the houses

Definite State Articles Edit

The definite state articles are very rarely used but still hold semantic value. The gender of each noun is not enforced.

Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom. Sing. da de
Nom. Plu. die die die
Acc./Dat. Sing. däm dam dem
Acc./Dat. Plu. dem dem dem
Gen. Sing. da de
Gen. Plu. die die die

NumeralsEdit

Cardinal numbersEdit

The cardinal numbers from zero to twelve in Norling are:

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
nul en tvy þren fjorå fif seks sev åt nen ten elev tvolv

The number 1 is the same as the indefinite article, (en).

The Norling numbers from 13 to 19 are:

13 14 15 16 17 18 19
þrenten fjoråten fiften seksten sevten åtten nenten

The numbers for multiples of ten from 20 to 1000 are:

20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1000
tvyt þrent fjoråt fift sekst sevt åttet nent (en) hundered (en) þusend

Higher numbers include:

10 000 ten þusend
100 000 (en) hundered þusend
1 000 000 en þusendþusend
10 000 000 ten þusendþusende
100 000 000 (en) hundred þusendþusend
1 000 000 000 en þusendþusendþusend
Written form In components (do not use in written Norling)
21 tvytogen (tvyt-og-en)
147 enhunderedfjoråtensev (en-hundered-fjoråten-sev)
1 975 enþusend hunderedsevtogfif (þusend)
10 874 tenþusend åthunderedsevtogåt (ten-þusend-åt-hundered-sevt-og-åt)
1 378 971 enþusendþusend þrenhunderedsevtogåtþusend nenhunderedsevtogen (en-þusendþusend þren-hundered-sevt-og-åt-þusend nen-hundered-sevt-og-en)

Rational numbers are read as the cardinal number of the numerator followed by the ordinal number of the denominator; is shown below:

½ en half, one half
en þyrdh
tvy þyrdhe
¾ þren fjoråþe
en åtþ
þren åtþe
fif åtþe
sev åtþe

Ordinal numbersEdit

First to twelfth:

1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th
1st 2dr 3dh 10þ 11þ 12þ
fyrst ander þyrdh fjoråþ fifþ seksþ sevþ åtþ nenþ tenþ elevþ tvolvþ

Verbs Edit

Non-finite
Infinitive Present haffen
Infinitive Future skallen haffen
Present / Past Participle haft
Indicativeigduhir/hie, ske, it, jievir/vieþeir
Presenthafhaffesthaffeþhaffenhaffenhaffen
Futureskal haffenskallest haffenskalleþ haffenskallen haffenskallen haffenskallen haffen
Conditionaligduhir/hie, ske, it, jievir/vieþeir
Presentvold haffenvoldest haffenvoldeþ haffenvolden haffenvolden haffenvolden haffen
Pastigduhir/hie, ske, it, jievir/vieþeir
Preteritehafthaft(est)haft(eþ)haft(en)haft(en)haft(en)
Past Participlehaft hafthaft(est) hafthaft(eþ) hafthaft(en) hafthaft(en) hafthaft(en) haft
Imperative dujievir/vieþeir
  haf(fe)haf(fe)haf(fen)haf(fen) haf(fen)
Non-finite
Infinitive Present absniten "to work"
Infinitive Future skallen absniten
Present / Past Participle absnitet*
Indicativeigduhir/hie, ske, it, jievir/vieþeir
Presentabsnitabsnitestabsniteþabsnitenabsnitenabsniten
Futureskal absnitenskallest absnitenskalleþ absnitenskallen absnitenskallen absnitenskallen absniten
Conditionaligduhir/hie, ske, it, jievir/vieþeir
Presentvold absnitenvoldest absnitenvoldeþ absnitenvolden absnitenvolden absnitenvolden absniten
Pastigduhir/hie, ske, it, jievir/vieþeir
Preteriteabsnitetabsnitet(est)absnitet(eþ)absnittet(en)absnittet(en)absnittet(en)
Past Participlehaft absnitethaft(est) absnitethaft(eþ) absnitethaft(en) absnitethaft(en) absnitethaft(en) absnitet
Imperative dujievir/vieþeir
  absnit(e)absnit(e)absnit(en)absnit(en) absnit(en)

*The verb absniten must insert the vowel "e" before the "t" which makes it a past participle, this is also the case in subsequent conjugations requiring the past tense.

There are some irregular verbs, such as aren which conjugates to ar in every present case, and then changes to the verb veren in the past tense; vert, vern Q.E.D.

Orthography and Phonology Edit

Alphabet Edit

The Norling alphabet is referred to as the Fuþark, or more rarely the Alfabet being faithful to the original term used to refer to the Norse set of runes, but it is also referred to as the

Alfabet.

Grapheme Name Phoneme(s) Anglicized
A a [/ɑː/] [ɑ] STAR
Å (Aa) å (aa) [/ɔː/] [ɔ] SORE
Ä (Ae) ä (ae) [/æː/] [æ], [ɛ] ASK
B b [/beː/] [b] BEE
D d [/deː/] [d] DIRT
E e [/ɛː/] [ɛ] ELF
F f [/ɛf/] [f], [v] FIST
G g [/ɡeː/] [g] EGG
H h [/hoː/] [h] HEART
I i [/I/] [I] THIN
J j [/jɛː/] [j] YEAR
K k [/kʰeː/] [k] STARK
L l [/ɛl/] [l] LINE
M m [/ɛm/] [m] MORE
N n [/ɛn/] [n] NEW
O o [/oː/] [o] STOVE
Ö (oe) ö (oe) [/œː/] [œ] no english equivalent
P p [/pʰeː/] [p] PIPE
R r [/æɾ/], [/æɻ/] [ɾ]/ [ɻ] no english equivalent
S s (ß) [/ɛs/] [s], [ʃ] STUFF, SHARK
T t [/Tː/] [T] TANK
Þ (Th) þ (th) [/θɵɾnː/] [θ] THING
U u [/uː/] [u] SHOE
V v [/væʋː/] [f], [v] VIPER
Y y [/yː/] [y] no english equivalent

Other PhonemesEdit

These phonemes are represented by these letters but the letters do not indicate these sounds exclusively.

Grapheme Name Phoneme(s) Anglicized
Dh dh [ɛð] [ð] THIS
Dj dj [ʤ] JAIL
Ch ch [ç] no english equivalent
Sch Sch [ʃ], [ɧ] SHELL
Sk sk [ʃk] no english equivalent
Tj tj [tʃ], [tɧ] CHAR
Hl hl [ɬ] LLOYD (Welsh)
Ie, Ij (IJ) ie, ij (ij) [/iː/] [i] READ

Morphological Mutations Edit

Stem Change Edit

Some words change stem instead of regular pluralization

  • föt = foot → fyt = feet
  • gös= goose → gys= geese
  • töþ= teeth → tyþ= teeth

Inclusion of H Edit

In order to prevent creating a diphthong in words such as "ku" where the stem does not end in an E, there is an H placed before the suffix. Examples:

  • da kukuhen
  • dä skuskuhen.

Stem Changes Edit

Stem changes occur in many verbs in their past participles. Examples:

  • vorkenvrukt
  • arenvert

Intonation Edit

In each of the sentences below display the standard intonation in their respective sentence types. The symbols used are '^' for a rising then falling tone, "↗" for a rising tone, "↘" for a falling tone, and "↗↗" "↘↘" for relative changes in context. Each symbol is placed before the vowel which it modifies.

Indicative Tone

  • Ig h^olp.
  • Ig haf h^olpt.
  • Ig haf h^olpt J↗ohann med d↘äß.

Interrogative Tone

  • G↗åheþ hir h^emv↗ard?
  • Haftest du d↘eht d↗äß?
  • Knoffest du kvar vir h↗aften bin?
  • Villest du þva vir gåhen h^usetv↗ard?, or g↗engen vir venden til sk↗ul↘en?

Imperative Tone

  • G^åh!
  • R↗ynen!
  • G^et!

Vocabulary Edit

Days of The Week Edit

English Norling
Sunday Sondäg
Monday Möndäg
Tuesday Tivsdäg
Wednesday Vodensdäg
Thursday Þorsdäg
Friday Friggursdäg
Saturday Läggendäg

Swadesh List Edit


No. English Norling
1Iig
2you (singular)ðu
3hehír
4wevír
5you (plural)
6theyþer
7thisden
8thatdäß (lat. hoc) / þva (lat. quid)
9herehar
10thereþvar
11whokver
12whatkva
13wherekvar
14whenkven
15howkvernig
16notik
17allål
18manymök
19someenner
20few
21otherander
22oneen
23twotvy
24threeþren
25fourfjorå
26fivefif
27bigstor
28longleng
29widekvið
30thickþik
31heavyheft
32smallsmål
33shortskort
34narrownarå
35thinþin
36womankvinn
37man (adult male)gut
38man (human being)mann
39childbarn
40wifevif
41husbandhösband
42mothermoður
43fatherfaður
44animaldöer
45fishfisk
46birdfugel
47doghund
48louselus
49snakeädhur
50wormvorm
51treebum
52forestskog
53stickstaf
54fruitappel
55seedsít
56leaflef
57rootrut
58barkbark
59flowerblumur
60grassgräß
61roperöp
62skinskin
63meatflesk
64bloodblöd
65bonebyn
66fatfet
67eggeg
68hornkorn
69tailnöß
70featherfeður
71hairhär
72headhäd
73earär
74eyeég
75nosesnut
76mouthmuþ
77toothtöþ
78tonguetung
79fingernailfingurnegel
80footföt
81legleg
82kneekny
83handhånd
84wingving
85bellykvold
86gutspluck
87neckneck
88backbäck
89breastbrust
90hearthärt
91liverlifur
92drinkdrinken
93eatätten
94bitebitten
95sucksucken
96spitspitten
97vomitspugen
98blowbloggen
99breathebreðen
100laughlugen
101seesegen
102hearhären
103knowknoffen
104thinkhygen, þinken
105smellsmollen
106fearfraggen
107sleepsvoben
108liveliffen
109diedaggen
110killakvellen
111fightslaggen
112huntjakten
113hitstrakken
114cutskorten
115splitsplitten
116stabstäbben
117scratchskräßen
118digburuhen
119swimsvimmen
120flyflugen
121walkvenden
122comekommen
123lielaggen
124sitsitten
125standständen
126turnkvöllen
127fallhusten
128givegifen
129holdhelden
130squeezeskvissen
131rubrubben
132washläggen, värsken
133wipevippen
134pullpullen
135pushpusken
136throwþroggen
137tieknotten
138sewsyen
139countbetallen, räknen
140saysagen
141singsyngen
142playspillen
143floatfluten
144flowfloggen
145freezefrysten
146swellsvollen
147sunson
148moonmön
149starstar
150watervas
151rainrynvann, rynvass
152riverström, å
153lakeschor
154seasie
155saltsalt
156stonesten
157sandsänd
158dustdust
159eartherþ
160cloudhafenur
161fogblundur
162skyskag, hafene
163windvind
164snowsnö
165iceis
166smokerykning
167firealdur
168ashask
169burnbrunen
170roadvag
171mountainberg
172redröt
173greengryn
174yellowgelb
175whitekviss
176blacksyt
177nightnät
178daydäg
179yearjyr
180warmvarmt
181coldkald
182fullkvol
183newny
184oldöld
185goodgod, bra
186badill
187rottensör
188dirtydrittisk
189straightretleg
190roundrund, kvöllisk
191sharpskarp
192dulldul
193smoothslat
194wetvannladen, vassladen
195drytor
196correctret
197nearnär
198farfar
199rightret
200leftlyft
201atont
202inih
203withmeð
204andog
205ifif
206becausefor
207namehedt

Around Wikia's network

Random Wiki