Fandom

Conlang

Norlingish

3,197articles on
this wiki
Add New Page
Talk0 Share

Ad blocker interference detected!


Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers

Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.

Norlingish
norð
Type
Agglutinative
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative </br> Ergative-Absolutive
Head direction
Initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
2 (3)
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


NORL

Adopted International Symbol of the Norling Language

Norlingish (a.k.a Norling, Norð, Þå, Norlingisk, Häþisk, Språk) is a language originally designed to be an adaptation of Old English and German that quickly turned into an artificial natural language that is of North Germanic derivation.

The name "Norling" was chosen before the language was developed, and the only starting premise was that it would be predominately Northern and Western Germanic. It started off as a dialect of Old English but quickly grew into a useful code-switching language due to its conservative use of diphthongs and the simplification of roots to allow for a more fluid agglutinative language. The grammatical and morphological nuances, however, were not developed with the lexicon, they were developed in practice.

Classification and DialectsEdit

The language underwent a lot of changes during use, including the addition of new roots as well as morphological changes such as the eviction of the neutral and feminine genders, and the continued syncopation of some sounds. Through speech and writing the language was forced to grow and many words needed to be created so as to strictly avoid using roots from other languages. Most roots contain 3-4 letters and during it's creation, diphthongs and triphthongs were avoided at all costs, but as naturalization of the language occurred, natural diphthongs were required to make grammatical sense, namely kuhen, dehen, döer, and anything containing the letter "ê".

In the paradigm of dialects, there are two:

Standard NorlingEdit

In standard spoken Norling some words are derived from English or Latin Roots, for instance åtto (car), film (movie), electrik (electricity) and pistol (firearm), to name a few. In formal speech, words derived from other languages are improper, so respectively these words are interchangeable with vagnur, flikkurskorg, brunstenström, and dustknakkur.

Church NorlingEdit

In written formal Norling, also known as Church Norling (used for liturgical purposes in an undisclosed religious society), there different writing conventions as well as morphological differences. One such difference is the use of a different infinitive case for verbs, '-a' instead of '-en'. Other examples include the fact that geminated consonants are not written, and derived roots are evaded. It is very disrespectful to speak in Standard Norling to a person of high rank.

ExamplesEdit

The phrase "He never told us angrily "no running" when we went out of the house." varies only slightly between the two dialects.

Standard Norling: Hir nikker täl ås hötteg "nul rynnen" kven vir vendt us fre hussem.

Church Norling: Hir niker täl åss höteg "ryna ik" kven vir vendt us fre hussem.


PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal Ɂ
Plosive p, b t, d k, g
Fricative f, v θ, ð s, z ʃ ʂ (only kʂ) ŋ (only ŋg) h
Affricate
Approximant ɻ j
Trill ɾ
Flap or tap
Lateral fric. ɬ
Lateral app. l
Lateral flap

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i, y
Near-close ɪ ʊ
Close-mid
Mid e, ø ə
Open-mid ɛ, œ ɔ
Near-open æ ɐ
Open

PhonotacticsEdit

Depending on the speaker, the phonemes [ɛ] and [e] are typically interchangeable. Known diphthongs are: [e͡ə] in êg, [œ͡y] in öy, [ʊ͡e] in kuher, [ɔ͡e] in åer, and [œ͡e] in döer. There are two known triphthongs, [œyə] or [œyeɾ] in öyer, and [eəʊ] in frêur. There is one known quadraphthong, approximately [oœyə], in Faroöyer, meaning the Faroe Islands.

Writing SystemEdit

Letter A a Ä ä, Æ æ, ae Å å, aa E e Ê ê, ehe I i Î î, ie O o Ö ö, Œ œ U u Y y B b
Sound [ɐ] [æ] [ɔ] [ɛ], [e] [e͡ə] [ɪ] [i] [o] [œ] [ʊ] [y] [b]
Letter D d Ð ð, dh F f G g H h J j K k L l M m N n P p R r
Sound [d] [ð] [f] [g] [h] [j] [k] [l] [m] [n] [p] [ɾ], [ɻ]
Letter S s** T t Þ þ, th V v Kv kv, Ƕ ƕ* Hl hl* Ng ng* Ss ss, ß*
Sound [s], [ʃ], [z] [t] [θ] [v] [kʂ] [ɬ] [ŋg] [s]

(*) Indicates a digraph and the phoneme it represents, not members of the alphabet proper.

(**) The grapheme 's' indicates [ʃ] when it precedes a consonant (e.g. [ʃt], [ʃp], etc.), [z] when preceded by a voiced consonant (e.g. [dz], [bz]), or when at the end of a word, and [s] almost everywhere else. The digraph "ss" at the end of the word forces [s] instead of [z].

GrammarEdit

PronounsEdit

The pronoun system is as follows:

Singular Plural
Person Nominative Objective Possessive: sing./pl. Person Nominative Objective Possessive: sing./pl.
1 ig met mer 1 vir ås var
2 (familiar) ðu ðeg ður 2 (formal pl.) jäg jär
2 (formal sing.) je jeg jer        
3 Masc. hir han hans 3 þer þem þern
3 Fem. ske hon honner
3 Neut. (Extinct) der dem dern
3 Inanimate/Neuter het het hets
3 Demonst. Familiar den den 3 Demonst. Familiar dîsser dîsser
3 Demonst. Alien dän däss 3 Demonst. Alien dässer dässer
3 Indef. en em ens / 'ems' 3 Indef. enner emmer enners / emmers'

There are four pronouns indicating location, kvar being an unknown location, har being one that is grammatically near, þvar being far, and ðar, which isn't demonstrative to location.

NounsEdit

Norlingish nouns are inflected for number and definiteness and can take a genitive suffix. They exhibit the following morpheme order:

Noun stem (Definite article -en (nom.) or -em (acc.) (or -an/-am)) (Plural -er) (Genitive -s)

In the course of the language's creation, all nouns dropped the neuter ending -et in favor of the masculine/general -en and -em, and only few words are still applicable to the feminine -an and -am; and all of which are words that refer to feminine person (e.g. kvinnan, magdan, vantingan)

Also, the distinction between strong and weak nouns was dropped, every noun is treated as Germanic weak nouns are (e.g. mann, manner; döer, döerer)

There are two definite states in Norling, such that "kvarem'" and "ðä kvar" bear the same meaning.

"place" Singular Plural
Indefinite (en) kvar :: em kvar (enner) kvarer :: (emmer) kvarer
Definite kvaren / ðä kvar :: kvarem / ðä kvar kvarener / ðî kvarer :: kvaremer / ðem kvarer
"woman / queen" Singular Plural
Indefinite (an) kvinn :: am kvinn (anner) kvinner :: (ammer) kvinner
Definite kvinnan / ða kvinn :: kvinnam / ðam kvinn kvinnaner / ðî kvinner :: kvinnamer / ðem kvinner</p>

VerbsEdit

Strong VerbsEdit

There are four classes of strong verbs in Norlingish, requiring the final vowel of a verb root to undergo a change during conjugation into the past tense, as follows:

o → ö (e.g. kommen → köm)

e → ä (e.g. setten → sät)

ä → o (e.g. bären → bor)

i → u (e.g. finden → fund)

Non-finite
Infinitive Present kommen (to come)
Infinitive Future skalkommen
Present / Past Participle köm
Indicativeigðuhir, ske, it, jîvirþer
Presentkomkommestkommeþkommenkommenkommen
Futureskal kommenskal kommenskal kommenskal kommenskal kommenskal kommen
Conditionaligðuhir, ske, it, jîvirþer
Presentvol kommenvol kommenvol kommenvol kommenvol kommenvol kommen
Pastigðuhir, ske, it, jîvirþer
Preteritekömköm(mest)köm(meþ)köm(men)köm(men)köm(men)
Past Participlehaft kömhaft(est) kömhaft(eþ) kömhaft(en) kömhaft(en) kömhaft(en) köm
Imperative ðuvirþer
  komkomkommenkommen kommen

Weak VerbsEdit

All weak verbs are uniformly conjugated.

Non-finite
Infinitive Present hedden (to refer to as)
Infinitive Future skalhedden
Present / Past Participle hedt
Indicativeigðuhir, ske, it, jîvirþer
Presenthedheddestheddeþheddenheddenhedden
Futureskal heddenskal heddenskal heddenskal heddenskal heddenskal hedden
Conditionaligðuhir, ske, it, jîvirþer
Presentvol heddenvol heddenvol heddenvol heddenvol heddenvol hedden
Pastigðuhir, ske, it, jîvirþer
Preteritehedthedt(est)hedt(eþ)hedt(en)hedt(en)hedt(en)
Past Participlehaft hedthaft(est) hedthaft(eþ) hedthaft(en) hedthaft(en) hedthaft(en) hedt
Imperative ðuvirþer
  hedhedheddenhedden hedden

In the imperative tense, the verb is placed before the pronoun, (e.g hedden vir!; kommen jä!)

Grammatical DispositionEdit

Depending on the grammatical disposition of the speaker as authoritative (being certain of a statement, or having proven it) or observant (speaking about something which has not been proven, but observed), the grammatical alignment of a statement will typically fall into the Nominative-Accusative or the Ergative-Absolutive alignment, respectively, as such:

Observant: Hir niker täl åss höteg "ryna ik" kven vir vendt us fre husem.

Authoritative: Hir ås höteg niker täl "ryna ik" kven vir vendt us fre husem.

Also, the observant case is almost always used when the subject of a sentence or phrase is the speaker or the speaker is a representative of the group. Either manner of alignment has equal semantic value, but the certainty of the speaker will differ.

Example TextEdit

"Kva 'n Stor Fäkkert Vast" by Lewis Johnson

Þvar värt nikker
Meðkviþ ik ig vilt liffen.
Ål dîsser lit hygter
Maggen så em knesk sund;
Hedur ök em,
Befor þer usgedden.
Ål dîsser lit hygter,
Þva makt met kver ig ar dendäg.

LexiconEdit

NumeralsEdit

Cardinal numbersEdit

The cardinal numbers from zero to twelve in Norling are:

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
nul en tvy þren fjorå fif seks sev åt nen ten elev tvolv

The number 1 is the same as the indefinite article, (en).

The Norling numbers from 13 to 19 are:

13 14 15 16 17 18 19
þrenten fjoråten fiften seksten sevten åtten nenten

The numbers for multiples of ten from 20 to 1000 are:

20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1000
tvyt þrent fjoråt fift sekst sevt åttet nent (en) hundereð (en) þusend

Higher numbers include:

10 000 ten þusend
100 000 (en) hundereð þusend
1 000 000 en þusendþusend
10 000 000 ten þusendþusender
100 000 000 (en) hundereð þusendþusend
1 000 000 000 en þusendþusendþusend
Written form In components (do not use in written Norling)
21 tvytogen (tvyt-og-en)
147 enhundereðfjoråtensev (en-hundereð-fjoråten-sev)
1 975 enþusend hundereðsevtogfif (en-þusend-hundereð-sevt-og-fif)
10 874 tenþusend åthundereðsevtogåt (ten-þusend-åt-hundereð-sevt-og-åt)
1 378 971 enþusendþusend þrenhundereðsevtogåtþusend nenhundereðsevtogen (en-þusendþusend þren-hundereð-sevt-og-åt-þusend nen-hundered-sevt-og-en)

Rational numbers are read as the cardinal number of the numerator followed by the ordinal number of the denominator; is shown below:

½ en half, one half
en þyrð
tvy þyrðer
¾ þren fjoråþer
en åtþ
þren åtþer
fif åtþer
sev åtþer

Ordinal numbersEdit

First to twelfth:

1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th
1st 2dr 3dh 10þ 11þ 12þ
fyrst ander þyrdh fjoråþ fifþ seksþ sevþ åtþ nenþ tenþ elevþ tvolvþ

Days of The Week Edit

English Norling
Sunday Sondäg
Monday Möndäg
Tuesday Tivsdäg
Wednesday Vodensdäg
Thursday Þorsdäg
Friday Friggursdäg
Saturday Läggendäg

Swadesh List Edit


No. English Norling
1Iig
2you (singular)ðu
3hehir
4wevir
5you (plural)
6theyþer
7thisden
8thatdäss (lat. hoc) / þva (lat. quid)
9herehar
10thereþvar
11whokver
12whatkva
13wherekvar
14whenkven
15howkvernig
16notik
17allål
18manymök
19someenner
20few
21otherander
22oneen
23twotvy
24threeþren
25fourfjorå
26fivefif
27bigstor
28longleng
29widekvið
30thickþik
31heavyheft
32smallsmål
33shortskort
34narrownarå
35thinþin
36womankvinn
37man (adult male)gut
38man (human being)mann
39childbarn
40wifevif
41husbandhösband
42mothermoður
43fatherfaður
44animaldöer
45fishfisk
46birdfugel
47doghund
48louseluss
49snakeäður
50wormvorm
51treebum
52forestskog
53stickstaff
54fruitappel
55seedsät
56leaflef
57rootrut
58barkbark
59flowerblumur
60grassgräss
61roperöp
62skinskin
63meatflesk
64bloodblöt
65bonebyn
66fatfet
67eggeg
68hornkorn
69tailnöss
70featherfeður
71hairhär
72headhäd
73earär
74eyeêg
75nosesnut
76mouthmuþ
77toothtöþ
78tonguetung
79fingernailfingurnegel
80footföt
81legleg
82kneeknag
83handhånd
84wingveng
85bellykvold
86gutsplukk
87necknekk
88backbäkk
89breastbröst
90hearthärt
91liverliffur
92drinkdrinken
93eatetten
94bitebitten
95sucksukken
96spitspitten
97vomitspugen
98blowbloggen
99breathebreþen
100laughlugen
101seesegen
102hearhären
103knowknoffen
104thinkhygen, þinken
105smellsmollen
106fearfraggen
107sleepsvoben
108liveliffen
109diedaggen
110killakvellen
111fightslaggen
112huntjakten
113hitstrakken
114cutskorten
115splitsplitten
116stabstäbben
117scratchskrässen
118digbrugen
119swimsvimmen
120flyflugen
121walkvenden
122comekommen
123lielaggen
124sitsitten
125standständen
126turnkvöllen
127fallfallen
128givegiffen
129holdhelden
130squeezeskvissen
131rubrubben
132washläggen, värsken
133wipevippen
134pullpullen
135pushpusken
136throwþroggen
137tieknotten
138sewsyhen
139countbetallen, räknen
140saysagen
141singsyngen
142playspillen
143floatfluten
144flowfloggen
145freezefryssen
146swellsvollen
147sunson
148moonmön
149starstar
150watervass
151rainvannryn, vassryn
152riverström, å
153lakeskor
154sea
155saltsalt
156stonesten
157sandsänd
158dustdust
159eartherþ
160cloudhafenur
161fogblundur
162skyskag, hafener
163windvind
164snowsnö
165iceîss
166smokerykning
167firealdur
168ashäsk
169burnbrunen
170roadvag
171mountainberg
172redröt
173greengryn
174yellowgelb
175whitekviss
176blacksyt
177nightnät
178daydäg
179yearjyr
180warmvarmt
181coldkald
182fullkvol
183newny
184oldöld
185goodgod, bra
186badill
187rottensör
188dirtydrittisk
189straightrettisk
190roundrund, kvöllisk
191sharpskarp
192dulldul
193smoothslat
194wetvannladen, vassladen
195drytör
196correctret
197nearnär
198fargår
199rightret
200leftlyft
201atont
202ini
203withmeð
204andog
205ifif
206becausefor
207namehedt

Also on Fandom

Random Wiki