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Norosi

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Norosi is a Slavic, priori, caseless metaconlang invented by Reddit user izon514 for the fictional nation of Nordroska. 

Goals of Norosi

1.      To create a distinctive phonology with a versatile, familiar and predictable alphabet that can be typed in a browser, without redundancies, digraphs, ambiguity and unneeded complexity

2.      To create grammar that is intuitive, unambiguous and easy to learn by incorporating no feature that adds more complexity than it does information content.

3.      To create specificity where ambiguity normally prevails. Create a language whose dictionary is both more specific yet more compact by eliminating synonyms, antonyms and homonyms; capable of expressing complex thoughts without an undue amount of words

4.      To create efficiency of understanding and usage of:

a.       Cognition

b.      Semantics

c.       Alphabet

d.      Dictionary


e.       Grammar

TraitsEdit

·         Phonetic – meaning that words are spelled the way they sound and sound the way they are spelled. Consequently this means there are:

·         Autonomous language - also known as a schematic language. An autonomous language has a priori grammar, meaning the grammar is not borrowed from an existing language. Autonomous languages have a posteriori vocabulary, meaning the vocabulary is similar or identical to existing languages; in this case various Slavic languages. So Norosi has a unique grammar but a vocabulary resembling Russian.

·         Synthetic – A synthetic language has a large amount of morphemes per word. A morpheme is the smallest meaningful word in a language. Supernatural has two morphemes, super-, meaning exceeding, and –natural, meaning of nature. Many Norosi words are formed like this. Adjectives and adverbs are frequently joined with the words they describe to form a single word.

·         Caseless – There is no “me” counterpart to “I” nor the “them” counterpart to “they”. In English, when a noun changes according to its function in the sentence that is called case structure. This does not exist in Norosi, so it is correct to say “Give that book to I.” 

·         Gender neutrality – apart from the gendered pronouns he and she, it lacks gendered nouns almost entirely. Waiter and waitress are not two separate words in Norosi, there is only a single gender neutral noun attendant. The same goes for all gender specific nouns like king and queen and butler and maid. There is only monarch and servant.

·         Unified adjectives and adverbs – Adjectives and adverbs are the same part of speech. The words quick and quickly and accidental and accidentally are the same words.

·         No synonyms – Different words for the same concept. There is a word for quick, fast, swift, fleeting, etc., but they all translate to the same word and it has no synonyms.

·         No antonyms – Word for the opposite of something. There exists no word for slow because it is the antonym for fast. To express the word slow is to express the word un-fast. The same goes for good and bad, there is a word for good but no word for bad, only un-good.

·         No degrees - English has words that describe varying degrees of good such as great, excellent, spectacular, and outstanding. Such words do not exist in Norosi. Great is literally very-good, terrible is literally very-un-good.

·         No homographs – words that are spelled the same but pronounced differently, such as bow (of a ship) and bow (and arrow)

·         No homophones – words that are pronounced the same but spelled differently, such as their, they’re and there or to, too and two

·         No heteronyms – words that are spelled the same but pronounced differently and have different meanings, such as tear (to rip) and tear (from crying)

·         No capitonyms – words that have the same spelling but many different meanings or pronunciations depending on capitalization, such as polish (to shine) and Polish (being from Poland) or march (organized walking) and March (the month of).

·         No polysemes – words with the same spelling but distant and related but not identical meanings such as mouth (of a cave) and mouth (of a person).

AlphabetEdit

А а Е е Ι ι О о И и У у
A /ɑ/ A Eтa /ɛ/ E Iйo /ɨ/ I  O /o/ O И /i/ Ē У /u/ Ü
Φ φ В в Ѳ ѳ Ψ ψ Й й Ў ў
Фи /f/ F Be /v/ V Ѳeт /θ/ Th  Ψaи /ð/ Th  И-крaткo /j/ Y У-крaткo /w/ W
П п Б б Т т Д д М м Н н
Пe /p/ P Бe /b/ B Te /t/ T Дe /d/ D Eм /m/ M Eн /n/ N
К к Х х Г г Џ џ Л л Р р
Кa /k/ K Xa /x/ Kh Гe /g/ G Џa /ɣ/ Gh Eл /l/ L Ep /r/ R
С с З з Ш ш Ж ж Ч ч Ь ь
Ec /s/ S Зeт /z/ Z Шa /ʂ/ Sh Жe /ʐ/Zh Чaў /h/ H Усιл

The Norosi alphabet is a modified, thirty-letter Russian alphabet with a few symbols from other alphabets. It contains

·         Six vowels (red)

·         Two semi-vowels (green)

·         Twenty-three consonants (blue)

·         One sign character (orange).

The alphabet is both the starting point for the language and the origin of the project as a whole. Development of Norosi started with a mix between the English and Russian alphabets being stripped of all redundancies, digraphs and affricatives. Next, phonemic holes were filled in and letters borrowed from other languages used to represent the new sounds. Finally, a sign letter, originally stripped out of Russian, was added back in as Norosi developed and needed a way to represent stress.

The above alphabet is in order, left to right, top to bottom. The IPA symbol for each letter is indicated in slashes below the character. If you cannot read IPA symbols, the following is a brief lesson on the pronunciation of each letter.

Letters which are almost the sameEdit

·         A a      A (Ah)             Pronounced like the “A” in “father”

·         E e       Eтa (Eta)         Pronounced like the “E” in “bet”

·         I ι        Iйo (Iyo)          Pronounced like the “I” in “bit”

·         O o      O (Oh)             Pronounced like the “O” in “ore”

·         К к      Кa (Kah)         Pronounced like the “K” in “king”

·         M м     Eм (Em)          Pronounced like the “M” in “man”

·         T т      Te (Teh)          Pronounced like the “T” in “tap”

Letters which look the same but sound differentEdit

·         У у      Y (Oo)             Pronounced like the “oo” in “boot”

·         X x      Xa (Kha)         Pronounced like the “ch” sound in “loch” or “Bach

·         P p      Po (Ro)            Pronounced like the trilled “R” in “tree”

·         H н      Eн (En)           Pronounced like the “N” in “no”

·         B в      Be (Veh)         Pronounced like the “V” in “vet”

Letters which look different but sound the sameEdit

·         И и      И (Ee)             Pronounced like the “I” in “taxi

·         П п      Пᴇ (Peh)          Pronounced like the “P” in “pet” without the aspiration

·         Б б      Бe (Beh)          Pronounced like the “B” in “bet” without the aspiration

·         Й' 'й      И-крaткo        Ee-kratko. Pronounced like the “Y” in “yes”

·         Ў' 'ў      У-крaткo         U-kratko. Pronounced like the “W” in “win”

·         Г г       Гe (Geh)          Pronounced like the “G” in “get”, never like the English J.

·         Л л      Eл (El)             Pronounced like the “L” in “lamp”

·         Ф φ     Фи (Fii)           Pronounced like the “F” in “fat”

·         Д д      Дe (Deh)         Pronounced like the “D” in “dad”

·         C c      Ec (Es)                        Pronounced like the “S” in “set” never like З

·         З з        Зeт (Zet)          Pronounced like the “Z” in “zoo”, not to be confused with three

·         Ч ч      Чaў (How)      Pronounced like the “H” in “hat”

Letters which are foreignEdit

·         Џ џ      Џa (Gha)         This is a difficult letter for English speakers to comprehend, so thankfully it is rare. Try pronouncing the “ch” in “loch”, only instead of the “Kh” sound try producing a “Gh” sound. That sound is Џ.

·         'Ѳ' ѳ      Ѳeт (Thet)       Pronounced like the “Th” in “thing”

·         Ψ ψ     Ψaи (Thy)       Pronounced like the “Th” in “that” or “there”

·         Ш ш   Шa (Shah)       Pronounced like the “Sh” in “she”

·         Ж ж    Жe (Zheh)       Pronounced like the “S” in “leisure” or “fusion”

·         Ь ь      Усιл (Ucil)      Marks the end of stressed syllables, morphemes or words.

o   Lexical Stress: When found in word, the preceding syllable is stressed.

o   Morphemic Stress: When found after a morpheme in a sentence, that morpheme in that word is stressed.

o   Prosodic Stress: When found in a sentence, the preceding word is stressed. 

NumbersEdit

Ones, Tens, Hundreds and ThousandsEdit

Norosi numbers are easy; it uses the numbers zero through ten and every multiple of ten as root words for generating all the other numbers. This is similar to how there is no unique English word for “eight hundred”. Likewise, Norosi does not have a unique word similar to “eighty”, and this word translated literally means “eight ten”. There are no –teen words either.

Remember that Norosi is synthetic. It is appropriate to append one word to another in the form of an affix. In the examples below you can see that multiples of ten, hundreds and thousands are simply that many of tens, hundreds or thousands followed by the appropriate suffix.

0          Hoл                 x0        -Дec                 x00      -Cтo                x000    -Tιc

1                            10        Aндec             100      Aнcтo             1000    Aнтιc 2          Двa                 20        Двaдec            200      Двacтo           2000    Двaтιc 3          Tpи                 30        Tpидec           300      Tpиcтo           3000    Tpитιc
4          Квa                 40        Квaдec           400      Квacтo           4000    Квaтιc 5          Пйa                 50        Пйaдec           500      Пйacтo           5000    Пйaтιc 6          Шec                60        Шecдec           600      Шecтo*          6000    Шecтιc 7          Ceм                 70        Ceмдec           700      Ceмcтo           7000    Ceмтιc 8                            80        Oкдec             800      Oкcтo             8000    Oктιc 9          Hy                   90        Hyдec              900      Hycтo             9000    Hyтιc

* In Norosi, as depicted in the word Шecтo above, repeated letters are not allowed. After fusion the word six-hundred would be spelled Шeccтo (Шec+ cтo), it is not, the repeated c is dropped.

Here are some examples of how roots combine to form larger numbers.

27        Двaдeceм                   375      Tpиcтo-ceмдecпйa    56,000             Пйaдecшec-тιc
95        Hyдecпйa                   102      Aнcтo-двa                  11,000             Aндecaн-тιc
81        Oкдecaн                     690      Шecтo-нyдec             100,000           Aнcтo-тιc
12        Aндecдвa                   246      Двacтo-квaдecшec   700,000           Шecтo-тιc

Take Двyc'тo'-'квa'дec'шec' for example.

'Двa  c'тo'-        'квa'дec   'шecTwo hundred  forty        six

Thousands and BeyondEdit

Once numbers become sufficiently large, digit grouping identical comes into effect. This is accomplished by bundling all number words that fall together in a group with dashes, other number groups follow with spaces.

1,929                           Aнтιc нy'cтo-'двa'дec'нy 10,929                         Aндec'-тιc' 'нy'cтo-'двa'дec'нy
20,929                         Двaдecтιc '
н'ycтo-'д'вaдec'нy
250,000                       Двacтo-пйaдec-тιc 144,000                       Aнcтo-квaдecквa-тιc 144,211                       Aнcтo-квaдecквa-тιc двacтo-aндecaн' 744,211                       Ceмcтo-квaдecквa-тιc двacтo-aндecaн

Million             Mιл
Billion                         Бιл
Trillion             Tpιл
Quadrillion                  Кўaдpιл

Alternative Numbering ConventionsEdit

You are free to use alternative conventions to state numbers other than the usual thousands-hundreds-tens grouping. Like in English, it is acceptable to reference values between 1000 and 9999 whose second digit is not zero in units of hundreds (e.g. 3200 = thirty-two hundred) followed by tens separated with dashes. All of these conventions are considered informal to extremely informal and are almost never used in writing.

1450                            Aндecквa-cтo пйaдec                       Fourteen-hundred fifty
                                   
Aндecквa пйaдec'                              Fourteen-fifty 6192                            Шecдecaн-cтo нyдecдвa                  Sixty-one hundred ninety-two
                                   
Шecдecaн нyдecдвa'                         Sixty-one ninety-two
690                             
Шec нyдec'
                                         Six-ninety
756                             
Ceм пйaдec'                                        Seven-fifty-six
1186                           
Aндecaн ocтдecшec                          Eleven-eighty-six
747                             
Ceм-квaдeceм                                   Seven-forty-seven
                                   
Ceм-квa'
-'ceм                         '            Seven-four-seven
101                             
Aнoлaн                                              One-oh-one

OrdinalsEdit

Norosi numbers follow commonly perceived patterns; however it does have one notable departure from the rest of the world. Normally first place is considered to be the highest rank, in every country except Nordroska. Nordroskans organize ordinations not by distance from one, but rather zero, the best prize is zeroth place, the next best is first place (one position from best).

However these translations work cleanly regardless of the base used. Prizes awarded in Nordroska say “zeroth place”, however Nordroskans know that prizes awarded on other continents regard first place as being the best. Despite this complication, Norosi also has a simple system for naming ordinals.

·         If the number ends in a consonant, use the suffix –acaт

·         If the number ends in a vowel, use the suffix –caт.

“Zeroth”          Hoнacaт First                 A'нacaт
'
Second                        Дваcaт Third               Tp'иcaт' Fourth              K'вacaт' Fifth                 Пйacaт Sixth                Шecacaт Seventh           Ceмacaт Eighth              O'кacaт' Nineth             Hycaт Tenth               A'ндecacaт

The same number formulation system holds for compound ordinals, such as

6385th              Шecтιc тpиcтo-oкдecпйacaт

FractionsEdit

Norosi uses the above system to compose fractions of numbers. Fractional amounts are specified by stating first the numerator in ordinal form using the contracted suffix -acaж / -caж. This suffix is an ancient contraction of the ordinal suffix –acaт, mentioned previously, and the word жy, the Norosi word for “part of”. The word three-fifths thus resembles the phrase “third of five”. 


METRICSEdit

Metrics are methods of measurement. Units of things are defined in Norosi the same way that every other language does, by appending the type of unit to the end of a number, and making it plural if necessary. Values of zero or less than one or negative one however are not pluralized (“point seven kilogram”, not kilograms). Common units of measurement such as kilogram or kilometers-per-hour have colloquial names in Norosi, similar to how English sometimes uses the word klik to represent kilometer. Nordroska uses the Metric system (Mетрик система).

Purpose                      English           Symbol           Norosi /Colloquialism            Symbol

Metric PrefixesEdit

10-9                              nano-               n                      нано                                        н
10-6                              micro-              μ                      микро                                     y
10-3                              milli-                m                     мили                                       м
103                               kilo-                 K                     кило                                       К
106                               mega-              M                     мега                                        M
109                               giga                 G                     гига                                        Г

LengthEdit

Standard length           meter               m                     метр                                       M

1000 meters                 kilometer         km                   'километр / 'ки                       КM

Astronomical len.        astronom. unit  AU                  астрономит'шес' един           AE

Interstellar len. Light year        Ly                    свето год                                CГ

Parsec              pc                    парсек                                    ПC

VelocityEdit

Travel                          Kilometer / hr. km/h                килoметр ип т'шас / 'кит     КM/T

Physics                        Meter / sec.      m/s                   метр ип секунд                     M/c

Temperature Edit

Dimension                   Degree             °                       градус                                                Џ, Џрад
International                Celcius                        C                     Cелсийa / градуси                ЏC
Metric/SI                     Kelvin             K                     Kелвин                                  ЏК
Imperial                       Fahrenheit       F                      Фарен'чa'йт                            ЏФ

MassEdit

Standard mass             gram                g                      грам                                       г
1000 grams                  kilogram          kg                    килограм / кило                   Кг

1000 kilograms            metric ton       t                       тона (ж)                                 T

QuantityEdit

Molecular quantity      mole                mol                  мол                                         мол

Volume                       liter                  l, L                   литр                                       л

MagnetismEdit

Strength                       tesla                 T                      тесла                                      тл
Flux                             weber              Wb                  Ўебер                                     Ўб

LightEdit

Intensity                       candela            cd                    кандела                                  Кн

Flux                             lumen              lm                    лумен                                     Лм

Illuminance                  lux                   lx                     лyкс                                        Лк

ElectricityEdit

Current                        ampere             A                     ампер / амп                           A

Charge                         coulomb          C                     кулом                                     К

Voltage                        volt                  V                     волт                                        В

Capacitance                 farad                F                      φарад (ж)                               Ф

Resistance                   ohm                 Ω                     ом                                           Ω

Conductance               siemens            S                      cимен                                     Cм

Inductance                   henry               H                     чeнpи                                     Чн

Energy, Work and PowerEdit

Power                          watt                 W                    Ўат                                         Ў
Energy, Work              joule                J                       джоул                                     Дж

Energy                         electron volt     eV                   eлектрон волт                      EB

Pressure and ForceEdit

Pressure                       pascal              Pa                    паскал                                    Па

Reference pressure      standard atm    atm                  стандарт атмосфер              Caтм

Kg/cm^2 pressure       technical atm   at                     технит'шe атмосфер'                        Taтм
Force                           newton                        N                     нyтон                                      H

RadiationEdit

Radioactivity               becquerel         Bq                   бекўерел                                Бк

Absorbed dose                        gray                 Gy                   'грe'й                                        Гр

Dose equivalent           sievert              Sv                    сиверт                                    Св

Exposure                     röntgen            R                     рентген                                  Pг

MathEdit

Angular measure         degree              °                       џрадyc                                    Џa

radians             rad                   рад'йан'                                   Рад

Frequency                   hertz                Hz                   чертc                                      Чc

TimeEdit

Second                                                            s, sec                секунд                                    c, сек

Minute                                                 m, min             минут                                     м, мин

Hour                                                    h, hr                 т'шас'                                       тш

Day                                                     D                     ден                                          Д

Week                                                   W, Wk             недел'йa'                                  Hд

Month                                                  M, Mo             мес'йaтc'                                  M, Me

Year                                                    Y, Yr               год                                          Г

Decade                                                            -                       aндecгод                                 -

Century                                               -                       aнcтoгод                                -

Millennium                                          -                       aнтιcгод                                 -

Nouns and PronounsEdit

English has thirty four personal, possessive and reflexive pronouns, Norosi has just fifteen. Norosi pronouns do not distinguish between subjects and objects and reflexivity is indicated by a suffix. Possession is indicated by either placing the noun next to the object, indicating direct possession, or by using a preposition. 

Singular PronounsEdit

·         1st person                     Яa       I/me

·         2nd person                            You

·         3rd person male                   He/him

·         3rd person female         Oнa     She/her

·         3rd person neutral         Oнy     Used when the gender is unknown

·         3rd person animate       O'шa'    It, describes animals and things that frequently move*

·         3rd person inanimate    Оно     It, describes inanimate objects

·         4th person generic        Шaн   A generic person unrelated to the subject similar to the word “one” in “One does not simply walk into Mordor.” It references no specific person but rather a person in general.

Plural PronounsEdit

·         1st person inclusive             We/us, includes the person being addressed

·         1st person exclusive     Boйa   We/us, does not include the person being addressed

·         2nd person                            ‘You all’

·         3rd person human         Oн'и'     They, a group of humans

·         3rd person animate       O'шy'    They, a group of animals or things that frequently move*

·         3rd person inanimate    Оно'и'   They, a group of inanimate objects

·         4th person generic        'Шaн'и Similar to the word “they” in “You know what they say…”

AnimacyEdit

Animacy in Norosi has a slightly different connotation. This definition can include but are not limited to vehicles and other manmade objects that accomplish their function by moving, storms, objects in constant motion, celestial objects, water, collective nouns referencing people, etc. All sentient things are animate, but not all animate things are sentient. All animate things move, but not all moving things are animate. Here are some examples:

Animate Objects                                            Inanimate ObjectsEdit

'Cобака           dog                                          Башн'йa         tower                          
Л'уна               Earth’s moon                          Грайа             Earth  
Чyр'ιка           hurricane                                 Oблако           cloud Aто                 car                                           Поклон'ιк       fan

Пул'йa             bullet                                       Pуже               gun

'Mетш             sword                                      O'φιcaстул      office chair

You will notice that Earth is listed as an inanimate object despite being a celestial object, but the moon is not, because relatively speaking it does not normally move. An office chair is inanimate despite having wheels and being able to swivel, because even if it was incapable of doing so, it could still perform its function.

Demonstrative PronounsEdit

English has support for the words this/that and these/those for things and here/there for locations. There is also the archaic word yonder, which is a distant location. Norosi demonstrative pronouns expand support to cover all six classes of nouns (person, place, thing, idea, action and quality) and three locations (near the speaker, near the listener, near neither) and number. The otherwise proximity means that what the noun is near is irrelevant, unknown or far away from both the speaker and listener or the speaker is merely speaking in general terms.

Thirty six demonstrative pronouns may seem like a lot to memorize, but there is a method to it. All Norosi demonstrative pronouns begin with one of six roots that are assumed to be near the speaker. For nouns near the listener, add –o to the pronoun. For distant locations, add –c to that further. Plurals of these three forms are made by adding –'и after ending consonants, and –'й after an ending vowel.

Class               Number          Near Speaker             Near Listener             Otherwise

Person             Singular           Bec                              Beco                            Becoc
                        Plural               Bec'и                            Beco'й                          Becoc'и

Place                Singular           Ec                                Eco                              Ecoc
                       
Plural               Ec'и                             Eco'й                           Ecoc'и'

Thing               Singular'           E'т                               E'тo                             E'тoc Plural               E'ти                             E'тoй                           E'тocи

Persons, places and things might seem easy for English speakers to comprehend, however there are also demonstrative pronouns for abstract things. These include ideas held by a person or people, actions performed, or qualities in someone or something. In this circumstance proximity references who or what possesses the trait, has the idea, or does the action.

Class               Number          Near Speaker             Near Listener             Otherwise

Idea                 Singular           Oct                              Octo                            Octoc Plural               Oct'и                            Octo'й                          Octoc'и'

Action             Singular           Двac                           'Двaco                         'Двacoc Plural               Двac'и                         Двaco'й                       'Двacoc'и

Quality                        Singular           Caв                             Caвo*                         Caвoc            
Plural               Caв'и'                           Caвoй '                        'Caвocи

Remember that English only has translations for seven of these, e'т' (here), e'тo (there), e'тoc (yonder), ec (this), ec'и (these), eco (that), eco'й (those). English adds specificity to words like “these” by adding words like “these people” or “these qualities”, while Norosi combines the referred noun into the word. That being said, the remainder of these words might not have intuitive meanings yet so it may take multiple words to express these concepts, so here are some examples.

This person [near speaker]                  Bec
These people [near speaker]                Bec'и
Those places [over there]                    E'
тocи
This thing [that speaker does]              Дв'ac  
Those traits [that person has]              
Tшycи
These ideas [of listener]                      Octo'
й These people [near speaker]                'Bec'и

Norosi Verb Conjugation
Verb Format: [mood] - [aspect] - [verb root] - [tense]
Order Adjunct Abbrev. Type Affix Function
First Mood Sn Sensory ac- The speaker saw, felt, heard, smelled, or tasted what was referenced
Ev Evidential ec- The speaker has evidence or recorded knowledge for what was referenced
Rn Renarritive yc- The speaker is reporting what someone else said or did
Dr Directive oтc- What should be, permission/prohibition, warnings, requirements, advice, direction, promise or threat
Ep Epistemic ax- What may be, what has a degree of uncertianty, or what is assumed or said without evidence
Nt Interrogative aн- Asks questions and makes propositions
Bn Benedictive oв- Gives blessings
Second Aspect St Stative None Default aspect. General truths, aphorisms or stating inherent properties.
Pf Perfective -лa- Actions which are complete
Ct Continuous -aл- Actions in progress
Hb Habitual -дежн- Actions occuring habitually repeatedly
In Inceptive -eг- Begninning of an action
Tm Terminative -eш- Ending of an action
Pa Pausal -eшa- An act interrupted or with an implied intention to resume
Rs Resumptive -oм- Resumption of an action
Third Verb V - - Verb root
Fourt Tense Pg Past -aл General past tense.
Pr Recent -acт Things that have occurred recently.
R Present -aт Default verb ending is the present tense.
Fi Imment -aй Things that are about to occur.
Fg Future -aйет General future tense.

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